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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881419/oral-administration-of-a-select-mixture-of-bacillus-probiotics-affects-the-gut-microbiota-and-goblet-cell-function-in-newly-weaned-muc4-resistant-pigs-following-escherichia-coli-challenge
#1
Wei Zhang, Yao-Hong Zhu, Dong Zhou, Qiong Wu, Dan Song, Johan Dicksved, Jiu-Feng Wang
: Structural disruption of the gut microbiota and impaired goblet cell function are collateral etiologic factors in enteric diseases. Low, moderate, or high doses of a Bacillus licheniformis-B. subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to MUC4 resistant piglets for 1 week before the F4-expressing ETEC strain (F4(+) ETEC) challenge. The luminal contents were collected from the mucosa of colon on day 8 after F4(+) ETEC challenge. BLS-mix attenuated E. coli-induced expansion of Bacteroides uniformis, Eubacterium eligens, Acetanaerobacterium and Sporobacter populations...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862316/cdx2-expression-induced-by-leukocytapheresis-might-be-associated-with-mucosal-healing-in-ulcerative-colitis
#2
Kiichiro Tsuchiya, Ryohei Hayashi, Keita Fukushima, Shuji Hibiya, Nobukatsu Horita, Mariko Negi, Eisaku Itoh, Takumi Akashi, Yoshinobu Eishi, Satoshi Motoya, Yoshiaki Takeuchi, Reiko Kunisaki, Ken Fukunaga, Shiro Nakamura, Naoki Yoshimura, Masakazu Takazoe, Bunei Iizuka, Yasuo Suzuki, Masakazu Nagahori, Mamoru Watanabe
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with an intractable, recurrent course. Although the goal of UC therapy has recently been to target mucosal healing, the molecular mechanism of mucosal healing remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular dynamics related to the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) during cytapheresis therapy in a short duration. METHODS: Endoscopy was performed in 26 patients with UC in multicentre hospitals, and biopsy specimens were collected from the rectum before and within two weeks after leukocytapheresis (LCAP)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836362/intestinal-epithelial-injury-induced-by-maternal-separation-is-protected-by-hydrogen-sulfide
#3
Bo Li, Carol Lee, Zechariah Martin, Xinpei Li, Yuhki Koike, Alison Hock, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Augusto Zani, Agostino Pierro
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neonatal diseases involving the intestine. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to protect against oxidative stress. We hypothesized that administration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, to neonatal mice can decrease the intestinal epithelial injury associated with maternal separation (MS). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received either intraperitoneal phosphate buffered saline (PBS; n=10) or NaHS (1mg/kg/day; n=10), followed by MS for 3h daily between postnatal day P5 and P9...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811936/transglutaminase-2-is-dispensable-but-required-for-the-survival-of-mice-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis
#4
Eui Man Jeong, Young Hoon Son, Yewon Choi, Jin-Hee Kim, Jin-Haeng Lee, Sung-Yup Cho, In-Gyu Kim
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes crosslinking, polyamination or deamidation of glutamine residues in proteins. It has been reported that TG2 is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases including celiac disease, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis and sepsis. Recently, using a mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, we showed that TG2 is required to trigger inflammation via the induction of T helper type 17 (Th17) cell differentiation in response to tissue damage...
November 4, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793051/alteration-of-colonic-epithelial-cell-differentiation-in-mice-deficient-for-glucosaminyl-n-deacetylase-n-sulfotransferase-4
#5
Tzu-Ming Jao, Ya-Lin Li, Shu-Wha Lin, Sheng-Tai Tzeng, I-Shing Yu, Sou-Jhy Yen, Ming-Hong Tsai, Ya-Chien Yang
Glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases (NDSTs) are the first enzymes that mediate the initiation of heparan sulfate sulfation. We previously identified NDST4 as a putative tumor suppressor in human colorectal cancer. In the study, we generated an Ndst4 knockout (Ndst4-/-) mouse strain and explored its phenotypic characteristics, particularly in the development of colonic epithelial homeostasis. The Ndst4-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and their life spans were similar to those of wild-type littermates...
October 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755216/altered-prostasin-cap1-prss8-expression-favors-inflammation-and-tissue-remodeling-in-dss-induced-colitis
#6
Anna Keppner, Sumedha Malsure, Antoine Nobile, Muriel Auberson, Olivier Bonny, Edith Hummler
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are diseases with impaired epithelial barrier function. We aimed to investigate whether mutated prostasin and thus, reduced colonic epithelial sodium channel activity predisposes to develop an experimentally dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Wildtype, heterozygous (fr/+), and homozygous (fr/fr) prostasin-mutant rats were treated 7 days with DSS followed by 7 days of recovery and analyzed with respect to histology, clinicopathological parameters, inflammatory marker mRNA transcript expression, and sodium transporter protein expression...
October 12, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745813/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-treatment-improves-intestinal-permeability-and-modulates-inflammatory-response-and-homeostasis-of-spleen-and-colon-in-experimental-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#7
Ludmila Khailova, Christine H Baird, Aubri A Rush, Christopher Barnes, Paul E Wischmeyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent clinical trials and in vivo models demonstrate probiotic administration can reduce occurrence and improve outcome of pneumonia and sepsis, both major clinical challenges worldwide. Potential probiotic benefits include maintenance of gut epithelial barrier homeostasis and prevention of downstream organ dysfunction due to systemic inflammation. However, mechanism(s) of probiotic-mediated protection against pneumonia remain poorly understood. This study evaluated potential mechanistic targets in the maintenance of gut barrier homeostasis following Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treatment in a mouse model of pneumonia...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729552/impaired-coordination-between-signaling-pathways-is-revealed-in-human-colorectal-cancer-using-single-cell-mass-cytometry-of-archival-tissue-blocks
#8
Alan J Simmons, Cherié R Scurrah, Eliot T McKinley, Charles A Herring, Jonathan M Irish, M Kay Washington, Robert J Coffey, Ken S Lau
Cellular heterogeneity poses a substantial challenge to understanding tissue-level phenotypes and confounds conventional bulk analyses. To analyze signaling at the single-cell level in human tissues, we applied mass cytometry using cytometry time of flight to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) normal and diseased intestinal specimens. This technique, called FFPE-DISSECT (disaggregation for intracellular signaling in single epithelial cells from tissue), is a single-cell approach to characterizing signaling states in embedded tissue samples...
October 11, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705923/mucins-and-associated-o-glycans-based-immunoprofile-for-stratification-of-colorectal-polyps-clinical-implication-for-improved-colon-surveillance
#9
Shiv Ram Krishn, Sukhwinder Kaur, Yuri M Sheinin, Lynette M Smith, Shailendra K Gautam, Asish Patel, Maneesh Jain, Vasthala Juvvigunta, Priya Pai, Audrey J Lazenby, Hemant K Roy, Surinder K Batra
Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/P) are premalignant lesions of colorectal cancer that are difficult to distinguish histologically from hyperplastic polyps (HP) of minimal to no malignant potential. Specific markers for differentiating SSA/P from HP can aid clinicians for optimizing colon surveillance intervals. The present study investigates the potential of mucins and associated O-glycans to distinguish SSA/P from HP. Expression of colonic mucins (MUC1, MUC4, MUC17, MUC2, and MUC5AC) and O-glycans [Sialyl LewisA (CA19-9) and Tn/Sialyl-Tn on MUC1] were analyzed in HP (n=33), SSA/P (n=39), and tubular adenoma (TA) (n=36) samples by immunohistochemistry...
September 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670374/inhibition-of-raf1-kinase-activity-restores-apicobasal-polarity-and-impairs-tumour-growth-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#10
Tijana Borovski, Thomas T Vellinga, Jamila Laoukili, Evan E Santo, Szabolcs Fatrai, Susanne van Schelven, Andre Verheem, Dieuwke L Marvin, Inge Ubink, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, Onno Kranenburg
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Novel therapeutics are urgently needed, especially for tumours with activating mutations in KRAS (∼40%). Here we investigated the role of RAF1 in CRC, as a potential, novel target. METHODS: Colonosphere cultures were established from human tumour specimens obtained from patients who underwent colon or liver resection for primary or metastatic adenocarcinoma. The role of RAF1 was tested by generating knockdowns (KDs) using three independent shRNA constructs or by using RAF1-kinase inhibitor GW5074...
September 26, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630168/reduction-in-circulating-bile-acid-and-restricted-diffusion-across-the-intestinal-epithelium-are-associated-with-a-decrease-in-blood-cholesterol-in-the-presence-of-oat-%C3%AE-glucan
#11
Purnima Gunness, Joris Michiels, Lynn Vanhaecke, Stefaan De Smet, Olena Kravchuk, Allison Van de Meene, Michael J Gidley
Although oat (1,3:1,4)-β-glucan (BG) has been shown to decrease blood cholesterol in intervention trials, the detailed mechanism is not yet defined, but restricted reabsorption of bile acids (BAs) has been hypothesized. Using pigs as a model for humans we demonstrated that, compared to the control, BG added to the diet for 26 d caused decreases of 24% in blood total BAs (TBAs), 34% in total cholesterol (TC), and 57% in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (P < 0.01); decreases of 20% TBA in the midjejunum and terminal ileum (P < 0...
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618438/gallotannin-enriched-extract-isolated-from-galla-rhois-may-be-a-functional-candidate-with-laxative-effects-for-treatment-of-loperamide-induced-constipation-of-sd-rats
#12
Ji Eun Kim, Jun Go, Eun Kyoung Koh, Sung Hwa Song, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Young Hee Lee, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
Several natural products containing tannins are used as traditional medicines for treatment of constipation; however, their pharmacological mechanism is not well understood. The laxative effects of gallotannin-enriched extract isolated from Galla Rhois (GEGR) were investigated using a constipation model induced by loperamide (Lop) injection. After analysis for antioxidant activity of GEGR, alterations in the excretion parameters, histological structure, mucin secretion, and related protein levels were measured in the transverse colon of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with Lop-induced constipation following treatment with 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/ml of GEGR...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598436/a-chronic-rhinosinusitis-derived-isolate-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induces-acute-and-pervasive-effects-on-the-murine-upper-airway-microbiome-and-host-immune-response
#13
Emily K Cope, Andrew N Goldberg, Steven D Pletcher, Susan V Lynch
BACKGROUND: Diverse microbial communities colonize healthy sinus mucosa and specific species within these communities are capable of protecting the host from pathogenic infection. However, little is known of the dynamics of upper airway infection and the role of the sinus mucosal microbiome in short- and longer-term outcomes using clinical isolates from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. METHODS: We examine microbiome and immune dynamics after murine sinus infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa EC1, isolated previously from a chronic rhinosinusitis patient...
December 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595862/elevated-risk-of-subsequent-malignancies-in-patients-with-appendiceal-cancer-a-population-based-analysis
#14
Adil Ayub, Om Parkash, Norberto Santana-Rodríguez, Wissam Raad, Faiz Y Bhora
BACKGROUND: Appendiceal cancer is extremely rare with excellent survival after curative resection. There is a concern for the development of additional cancers in survivors of appendiceal cancer. However, existing data is limited to small anecdotal reports on appendiceal carcinoid only. We aim to investigate the risk of subsequent malignancies in patients with appendiceal carcinoma and correlate the risk according to patient and clinical characteristics. METHODS: We identified 3788 patients with appendiceal cancer from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 1992 and 2011...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581376/label-free-raman-spectroscopic-imaging-to-extract-morphological-and-chemical-information-from-a-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-rat-colon-tissue-section
#15
Riana Gaifulina, Andrew Thomas Maher, Catherine Kendall, James Nelson, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Katherine Lau, Geraint Mark Thomas
Animal models and archived human biobank tissues are useful resources for research in disease development, diagnostics and therapeutics. For the preservation of microscopic anatomical features and to facilitate long-term storage, a majority of tissue samples are denatured by the chemical treatments required for fixation, paraffin embedding and subsequent deparaffinization. These aggressive chemical processes are thought to modify the biochemical composition of the sample and potentially compromise reliable spectroscopic examination useful for the diagnosis or biomarking...
August 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553076/glp-1-nanomedicine-alleviates-gut-inflammation
#16
Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Mentor Thaqi, Shubha Priyamvada, Dulari Jayawardena, Anoop Kumar, Tarunmeet Gujral, Ishita Chatterjee, Edurne Mugarza, Seema Saksena, Hayat Onyuksel, Pradeep K Dudeja
The gut hormone, Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its short half-life. Previously, we have shown that GLP-1 as a nanomedicine (GLP-1 in sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles, GLP-1-SSM) has increased in vivo stability. The current study was aimed at testing the efficacy of this GLP-1 nanomedicine in alleviating colonic inflammation and associated diarrhea in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced mouse colitis model. Our results show that GLP-1-SSM treatment markedly alleviated the colitis phenotype by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increasing goblet cells and preserving intestinal epithelial architecture in colitis model...
August 20, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492329/preterm-infant-gut-microbiota-affects-intestinal-epithelial-development-in-a-humanized-microbiome-gnotobiotic-mouse-model
#17
Yueyue Yu, Lei Lu, Jun Sun, Elaine O Petrof, Erika C Claud
Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452656/zhikang-capsule-ameliorates-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-by-inhibition-of-inflammation-apoptosis-oxidative-stress-and-myd88-dependent-tlr4-signaling-pathway
#18
Liang Fei, Keshu Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zhikang Capsule (ZKC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) modified from classic formulas Qi-Li-San (an ancient formula dating to Qing Dynasty) and Fu-Jin-Sheng-Ji-San (written into The Golden Mirror of Medicine). ZKC contains 14 kinds of materials and has been widely used for the clinical therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) for a long time. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of ZKC are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the protective effect of ZKC on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and explore the underlying mechanisms...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433012/the-effect-of-intra-amniotic-and-posthatch-dietary-synbiotic-administration-on-the-performance-intestinal-histomorphology-cecal-microbial-population-and-short-chain-fatty-acid-composition-of-broiler-chickens
#19
Ali Calik, Ahmet Ceylan, Burcu Ekim, Shahram Golzar Adabi, Furkan Dilber, Alev Gurol Bayraktaroglu, Turgay Tekinay, Doğukan Özen, Pinar Sacakli
This study evaluated the effect of intra-amniotic synbiotic inclusion and continued synbiotic supplementation in the diet on the performance, intestinal epithelium integrity, and cecal microflora of broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, 510 eggs containing viable embryos were divided into 3 groups of 170 eggs each. The first group was not injected and served as a negative control ( NC: ). The next group was injected with 0.9% NaCl and was the positive control ( PC: ). The synbiotic-injected group ( S: ) was injected with a 0...
July 18, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397737/pathological-type-2-immune-response-enhanced-tumor-growth-and-glucose-intolerance-in-retnl%C3%AE-relm%C3%AE-null-mice-a-model-of-intestinal-immune-system-dysfunction-in-disease-susceptibility
#20
Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm, Ja Young Kim-Muller, Joseph M Rutkowski, Clair Crewe, Caroline Tao, Philipp E Scherer
Resistin, and its closely related homologs, the resistin-like molecules (RELMs) have been implicated in metabolic dysregulation, inflammation, and cancer. Specifically, RELMβ, expressed predominantly in the goblet cells in the colon, is released both apically and basolaterally, and is hence found in both the intestinal lumen in the mucosal layer as well as in the circulation. RELMβ has been linked to both the pathogenesis of colon cancer and type 2 diabetes. RELMβ plays a complex role in immune system regulation, and the impact of loss of function of RELMβ on colon cancer and metabolic regulation has not been fully elucidated...
September 2016: American Journal of Pathology
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