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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346345/the-cytosolic-sensor-sting-is-required-for-intestinal-homeostasis-and-control-of-inflammation
#1
M C C Canesso, L Lemos, T C Neves, F M Marim, T B R Castro, É S Veloso, C P Queiroz, J Ahn, H C Santiago, F S Martins, J Alves-Silva, E Ferreira, D C Cara, A T Vieira, G N Barber, S C Oliveira, A M C Faria
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a cytosolic sensor for cyclic dinucleotides and also an adaptor molecule for intracellular DNA receptors. Although STING has important functions in the host defense against pathogens and in autoimmune diseases, its physiological relevance in intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. In this study, we show that STING-/- mice presented defective protective mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, including decreased number of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of secretory IgA, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343879/ccn3-expression-marks-a-sulfomucin-nonproducing-unique-subset-of-colonic-goblet-cells-in-mice
#2
Shintaro Akiyama, Wakana Mochizuki, Yoichi Nibe, Yuka Matsumoto, Kei Sakamoto, Shigeru Oshima, Mamoru Watanabe, Tetsuya Nakamura
Intestinal goblet cells are characterized by their unique morphology and specialized function to secrete mucins. Although it is known that they are a heterogeneous population of cells, there have been few studies that relate the expression of a particular gene with functionally distinct subpopulations of intestinal goblet cells. Here we show that CCN3, a gene encoding a member of the CCN family proteins, is induced by inhibition of Notch signaling in colonic epithelial cells and expressed in goblet cells in mice...
December 26, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335251/goblet-cell-carcinomas-of-the-appendix-rare-but-aggressive-neoplasms-with-challenging-management
#3
Ashley Kieran Clift, Oskar Kornasiewicz, Panagiotis Drymousis, Omar Faiz, Harpreet Wasan, James Kinross, Thomas Cecil, Andrea Frilling
Goblet cell carcinomas (GCC) are a rare, aggressive sub-type of appendiceal tumours with neuroendocrine features, and controversy exists with regards to therapeutic strategy. We undertook a retrospective review of GCC patients surgically treated at two tertiary referral centres. Clinical and histopathological data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. Survival analyses utilised Kaplan-Meier methodology. Twenty-one patients were identified (9 females). Median age at diagnosis was 55years (range 32-77)...
January 15, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331497/dietary-antioxidant-micronutrients-alter-mucosal-inflammatory-risk-in-a-murine-model-of-genetic-and-microbial-susceptibility
#4
Joseph F Pierre, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Romain Bouziat, Nathan A Hubert, Vanessa Leone, Jun Miyoshi, Bana Jabri, Eugene B Chang
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by the convergence of microbial, environmental, and genetic factors. Diet significantly alters these interactions by affecting both the host and microbiome. Using a mucosal inflammatory model that resembles the human condition of ileal pouchitis, we investigated the effects of Control (CONT) or Antioxidant (AOX) diet, containing pharmacologically relevant levels of 4 micronutrients, on disease risk in wild-type and IL-10-/- animals following surgical self-filling (SF) ileal blind loop placement...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314441/alterations-in-the-gut-barrier-and-involvement-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-murine-postoperative-ileus
#5
S-S Lin, R-Q Zhang, L Shen, X-J Xu, K Li, A-V Bazhin, J Fichna, Y-Y Li
BACKGROUND: The changes in the gut barrier (GB) and associated mechanisms in postoperative ileus (POI) are still unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in inflammation, which may cause GB dysfunction and POI. Here, the roles of the GB in POI in relation to TLR4-dependent signaling pathways were explored. METHODS: POI was induced by small bowel manipulation in wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (TLR4-/-) mice. Twenty-four hours after manipulation, indices of gastrointestinal (GI) transit, GB structure and function, inflammation, and related signaling pathways were analyzed...
January 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285080/orally-administered-sodium-4-phenylbutyrate-suppresses-the-development-of-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice
#6
Kazuhiko Ono, Satoshi Nimura, Yuko Hideshima, Kazuki Nabeshima, Manabu Nakashima
Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) exerts therapeutic effects in a wide range of pathologies. A previous study by the present authors revealed that intraperitoneal administration of PBA suppresses the onset of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In the present study, the effects of orally administered PBA are investigated, as this route of administration is more clinically relevant. The therapeutic efficacy of PBA (10 mg/12 h) in mice with experimental colitis was assessed based on the disease activity index, production of inflammatory cytokines, colon length and histopathological investigations...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277971/intake-of-fish-oil-specifically-modulates-colonic-muc2-expression-in-middle-aged-rats-by-suppressing-the-glycosylation-process
#7
Yafang Ma, Guanghong Zhou, Yingqiu Li, Yingying Zhu, Xiaobo Yu, Fan Zhao, He Li, Xinglian Xu, Chunbao Li
SCOPE: Dietary fats have been shown to affect gut microbiota composition and aging gene expression of middle-aged rats at a normal dose, but little is known about such an effect on gut barrier. In this study, the changes in colonic Muc2 expression were investigated and the underlying mechanism was also proposed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-six middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of diets containing soybean oil, lard or fish oil (4%). The rats were fed for 5 weeks and then goblet cells, Muc2 expression and inflammatory cytokines in the colon were measured...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234672/vamp8-mucin-exocytosis-attenuates-intestinal-pathogenesis-by-entamoeba-histolytica
#8
COMMENT
Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Herbert Y Gaisano, Kris Chadee
The intestinal mucosa encounters a barrage of ingested insults within the host yet under homeostasis elegantly facilitates nutrient absorption and sustenance of the commensal microbiota. An essential defence mechanism employed by the host is limiting the spatial niche various microbes may occupy as executed by the fluid mucus layer. Pathogens that violate their restricted niche within the intestinal mucosa are first expelled by robust mucus secretion from goblet cells thus by-passing the need for an immune response...
November 27, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228651/dietary-feeding-of-freeze-dried-whole-cranberry-inhibits-intestinal-tumor-development-in-apcmin-mice
#9
Duochen Jin, Tianyu Liu, Wenxiao Dong, Yujie Zhang, Sinan Wang, Runxiang Xie, Bangmao Wang, Hailong Cao
It is increasingly perceived that dietary components have been linked with the prevention of intestinal cancer. Cranberry is a rich source of phenolic constituents and non-digestible fermentable dietary fiber, which shows anti-proliferation effect in colorectal cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the efficacy of long-term cranberry diet on intestinal adenoma formation in Apcmin/+ mice. Apcmin/+ mice were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 20% (w/w) freeze-dried whole cranberry powder for 12 weeks, and the number and size of tumors were recorded after sacrifice...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218037/wuji-wan-formula-ameliorates-diarrhea-and-disordered-colonic-motility-in-post-inflammation-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota
#10
Ying Chen, Shuiming Xiao, Zipeng Gong, Xiaoxin Zhu, Qing Yang, Yujie Li, Shuangrong Gao, Yu Dong, Zhe Shi, Yajie Wang, Xiaogang Weng, Qi Li, Weiyan Cai, Weijie Qiang
Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the treatment of post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Our previous studies have demonstrated that a Chinese formula, Wuji Wan, has the ability to mitigate abdominal pain and diarrhea in PI-IBS rats. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism and whether the gut microbiota mediate the effect of Wuji Wan on PI-IBS. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether Wuji Wan mitigated PI-IBS by modifying the gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116460/potential-usefulness-of-methyl-gallate-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-colitis
#11
María Laura Anzoise, Angeles Rodríguez Basso, Julieta Sofía Del Mauro, Andrea Carranza, Graciela López Ordieres, Susana Gorzalczany
Methyl gallate is a gallotannin widely distributed in nature. Previous studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, the activity of methyl gallate on experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease has been investigated. Experimental colitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats through the intracolonic instillation of an acetic acid solution (2 mL, 4% v/v). Methyl gallate (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drug mesalazine (100 mg/kg, p...
November 7, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114386/suppression-of-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-by-a-hookworm-recombinant-protein-in-experimental-colitis
#12
Ivana B Ferreira, Darren A Pickering, Sally Troy, John Croese, Alex Loukas, Severine Navarro
Gastrointestinal parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts when present in small numbers, allowing them to establish chronic infections for decades. They do so by creating an immunoregulatory environment that promotes their own survival, but paradoxically also benefits the host by protecting against the onset of many inflammatory diseases. To harness the therapeutic value of hookworms without using live parasites, we have examined the protective properties of the recombinant protein anti-inflammatory protein (AIP)-1, secreted in abundance by hookworms within the intestinal mucosa, in experimental colitis...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107964/obesogenic-diet-induced-gut-barrier-dysfunction-and-pathobiont-expansion-aggravate-experimental-colitis
#13
June-Chul Lee, Hae-Youn Lee, Tae Kang Kim, Min-Soo Kim, Young Mi Park, Jinyoung Kim, Kihyoun Park, Mi-Na Kweon, Seok-Hyung Kim, Jin-Woo Bae, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung-Shik Lee
Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084077/accumulation-of-hla-dr4-in-colonic-epithelial-cells-causes-severe-colitis-in-homozygous-hla-dr4-transgenic-mice
#14
Atsushi Irie, Takahisa Imamura, Yayoi Michibata, Ttatsuko Kubo, Naoki Takeda, Isao Shibuya, Shinji Sogo, Kimi Araki, Yasuharu Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Homozygous HLA-DR4/I-E transgenic mice (tgm) spontaneously developed colitis similar to human ulcerative colitis. We explored whether endoplasmic reticulum stress in colonic epithelial cells due to overexpression of HLA-DR4/I-E was involved in the pathogenesis of colitis. METHODS: Major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator-knockout (CIITAKO) background tgm were established to test the involvement of HLA-DR4/I-E expression in the pathogenesis of colitis...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049008/exogenous-murine-antimicrobial-peptide-cramp-significantly-exacerbates-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-but-ameliorates-oxazolone-induced-intestinal-colitis-in-balb-c-mice
#15
Yang Li, Xiaojie Chu, Cunbao Liu, Weiwei Huang, Yufeng Yao, Ye Xia, Pengyan Sun, Qiong Long, Xuejun Feng, Kui Li, Xu Yang, Hongmei Bai, Wenjia Sun, Yanbing Ma
Cathelicidin has been reported to be multifunctional. The current study aimed to investigate the influences of exogenous cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on inflammatory responses in different disease models. In OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, CRAMP significantly enhanced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accumulation of proinflammatory Th2 cytokine IL-13 and IL-33 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), exacerbated lung tissue inflammation and airway goblet cell hyperplasia, and elevated OVA-specific IgE level in serum...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047150/rebamipide-alleviates-radiation-induced-colitis-through-improvement-of-goblet-cell-differentiation-in-mice
#16
Hyosun Jang, Sunhoo Park, Janet Lee, Jae Kyung Myung, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Hyunwook Myung, Changsun Lee, Hyewon Kim, Seung-Sook Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Sehwan Shim
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Radiation-induced colitis is a common clinical problem associated with radiotherapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Goblet cells play a pivotal role in the intestinal barrier against pathogenic bacteria. Rebamipide, anti-gastric ulcer drug, has the effects to promote goblet cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced colonic injury could be alleviated by rebamipide. METHODS: We orally administered rebamipide for 6 days to mice, which were subjected to 13 Gy abdominal irradiation, to evaluate the therapeutic effects of rebamipide against radiation-induced colitis...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042502/lipopolysaccharide-from-crypt-specific-core-microbiota-modulates-the-colonic-epithelial-proliferation-to-differentiation-balance
#17
Tomoaki Naito, Céline Mulet, Cristina De Castro, Antonio Molinaro, Azadeh Saffarian, Giulia Nigro, Marion Bérard, Mélanie Clerc, Amy B Pedersen, Philippe J Sansonetti, Thierry Pédron
We identified a crypt-specific core microbiota (CSCM) dominated by strictly aerobic, nonfermentative bacteria in murine cecal and proximal colonic (PC) crypts and hypothesized that, among its possible functions, it may affect epithelial regeneration. In the present work, we isolated representative CSCM strains using selective media based upon our initial 16S rRNA-based molecular identification (i.e., Acinetobacter, Delftia, and Stenotrophomonas). Their tropism for the crypt was confirmed, and their influence on epithelial regeneration was demonstrated in vivo by monocolonization of germfree mice...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985874/bioscaffold-mediated-mucosal-remodeling-following-short-segment-colonic-mucosal-resection
#18
Jenna L Dziki, Timothy J Keane, Shahab Shaffiey, Dan Cognetti, Neill Turner, Deborah Nagle, David Hackam, Stephen Badylak
Precancerous or cancerous lesions of the gastrointestinal tract often require surgical resection via endomucosal resection. Although excision of the colonic mucosa is an effective cancer treatment, removal of large lesions is associated with high morbidity and complications including bleeding, perforation, fistula formation, and/or stricture, contributing to high clinical and economic costs and negatively impacting patient quality of life. The present study investigates the use of a biologic scaffold derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) to promote restoration of the colonic mucosa following short segment mucosal resection...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974617/entamoeba-histolytica-induced-mucin-exocytosis-is-mediated-by-vamp8-and-is-critical-in-mucosal-innate-host-defense
#19
Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Herbert Y Gaisano, Kris Chadee
Intestinal mucus secretion is critical in maintaining mucosal host defense against a myriad of pathogens by preventing direct association with the epithelium. Entamoeba histolytica specifically binds colonic MUC2 mucin and also induces potent hypersecretion from goblet cells; however, characterization of the nature of the mechanisms controlling mucus release remains elusive. In this report, we identify vesicle SNARE vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) present on mucin granules as orchestrating regulated exocytosis in human goblet cells in response to the presence of E...
October 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935684/rack1-function-in-intestinal-epithelia-regulating-crypt-cell-proliferation-and-regeneration-and-promoting-differentiation-and-apoptosis
#20
Zhuan-Fen Cheng, Reetesh K Pai, Christine A Cartwright
Previously we showed that Rack1 (Receptor for Activated C Kinase) regulates growth of colon cells in vitro, partly by suppressing Src kinase activity at key cell cycle checkpoints, in apoptotic and cell survival pathways and at cell-cell adhesions. Here, we generated mouse models of Rack1 deficiency to assess Rack1's function in intestinal epithelia in vivo Intestinal Rack1 deficiency resulted in proliferation of crypt cells, diminished differentiation of crypt cells into enterocyte, goblet and enteroendocrine cell lineages and expansion of Paneth cell populations...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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