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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416688/knockout-of-the-lrrc26-subunit-reveals-a-primary-role-of-lrrc26-containing-bk-channels-in-secretory-epithelial-cells
#1
Chengtao Yang, Vivian Gonzalez-Perez, Taro Mukaibo, James E Melvin, Xiao-Ming Xia, Christopher J Lingle
Leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein 26 (LRRC26) is the regulatory γ1 subunit of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent BK-type K(+) channels. BK channels that contain LRRC26 subunits are active near normal resting potentials even without Ca(2+), suggesting they play unique physiological roles, likely limited to very specific cell types and cellular functions. By using Lrrc26 KO mice with a β-gal reporter, Lrrc26 promoter activity is found in secretory epithelial cells, especially acinar epithelial cells in lacrimal and salivary glands, and also goblet and Paneth cells in intestine and colon, although absent from neurons...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375676/tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-an-actin-binding-protein-girdin-specifically-marks-tuft-cells-in-human-and-mouse-gut
#2
Daisuke Kuga, Kaori Ushida, Shinji Mii, Atsushi Enomoto, Naoya Asai, Masato Nagino, Masahide Takahashi, Masato Asai
Tuft cells (TCs) are minor components of gastrointestinal epithelia, characterized by apical tufts and spool-shaped somas. The lack of reliable TC-markers has hindered the elucidation of its role. We developed site-specific and phosphorylation-status-specific antibodies against Girdin at tyrosine-1798 (pY1798) and found pY1798 immunostaining of mouse jejunum clearly depicted epithelial cells closely resembling TCs. This study aimed to validate pY1798 as a TC-marker. Double-fluorescence staining of intestines was performed with pY1798 and known TC-markers, for example, hematopoietic-prostaglandin-D-synthase (HPGDS), or doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361356/-pathophysiology-of-atopic-blepharokeratoconjunctivitis
#3
T Lapp, P Maier, T Jakob, T Reinhard
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a systemic inflammatory disease, which is characterized by pronounced eczema and pruritus. In addition to the involvement of the entire integument, the periocular lid skin and the surface of the eye are frequently involved. Ocular involvement may occur solely without dermatitis of facial or body skin. Pathophysiologically, besides a dysregulated immune response, genetic changes can occur in various dermal structural proteins which will lead to a disturbed skin barrier. Furthermore, there is a regular colonization with bacterial pathogens and an increased susceptibility for viral skin infections...
March 30, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359759/a-vesicle-trafficking-protein-%C3%AE-snap-regulates-paneth-cell-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#4
Susana Lechuga, Nayden G Naydenov, Alex Feygin, Antonio J Jimenez, Andrei I Ivanov
A soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein alpha (αSNAP) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking and signaling. In cultured intestinal epithelial cells, αSNAP has been shown to be essential for cell survival, motility, and adhesion; however, its physiologic functions in the intestinal mucosa remain unknown. In the present study, we used a mouse with a spontaneous hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) mutation of αSNAP to examine the roles of this trafficking protein in regulating intestinal epithelial homeostasis in vivo...
March 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342610/intentionally-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-causes-inflammation-affects-metabolism-and-reduces-productivity-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#5
S K Kvidera, M J Dickson, M Abuajamieh, D B Snider, M V Sanz Fernandez, J S Johnson, A F Keating, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, L H Baumgard
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 (5 d) served as the baseline for period 2 (7 d), during which cows received 1 of 2 i.v. treatments twice per day: sterile saline or a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI; 1.5 mg/kg of body weight). Gamma-secretase inhibitors reduce intestinal barrier function by inhibiting crypt cell differentiation into absorptive enterocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314262/the-histogenesis-of-the-third-pathway-of-colonic-carcinogenesis-in-rats
#6
Carlos A Rubio
BACKGROUND/AIM: Conventional (tubular or villous) adenomas, and the more recently described serrated adenomas, are non-invasive neoplasias that precede colon carcinomas in carcinogen-treated rats. In contrast, the histological steps antedating carcinomas in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in rats, i.e. the third pathway of colonic carcinogenesis, remain unidentified. Aim of the study was to investigate the histological changes preceding colonic GALT carcinomas in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299479/l-glutamine-and-l-arginine-protect-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection-via-intestinal-innate-immunity-in-mice
#7
Gang Liu, Wenkai Ren, Jun Fang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guiping Guan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jie Yin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Shuai Chen, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells...
March 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295534/mucin-rich-variant-of-traditional-serrated-adenoma-mrtsa-a-distinct-morphological-variant
#8
Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Stefano Serra, Sara Hafezi-Bakhtiari, Richard Colling, Lai Mun Wang, Runjan Chetty
Traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) account for 5% of serrated polyps, have villiform architecture, eosinophilic cells with a brush border and indented, flat-topped luminal serrations. However, some are composed of mucin-filled goblet cells (GC): a mucin-rich variant (MrTSA). The aim of this study was to determine if this variant has unique features compared to classic TSA (cTSA). 156 TSAs were retrieved from 2010-2016. Patient demographics, site of polyps, and 16 microscopic variables, were evaluated. TSAs containing 50% or more GCs were classified as MrTSAs...
March 13, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283864/lower-gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-associated-with-hereditary-cancer-syndromes-a-case-series
#9
Trilokesh D Kidambi, Christina Pedley, Amie Blanco, Emily K Bergsland, Jonathan P Terdiman
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the colon and rectum are uncommon and not traditionally associated with hereditary GI cancer syndromes. However, with widespread implementation of colorectal cancer screening programs, lower GI NENs are being identified with increasing frequency. We report the first case series of six patients with lower GI NENs who were diagnosed with hereditary GI cancer syndromes by germline testing. Two patients presented with poorly differentiated rectal neuroendocrine carcinoma (NECs) with colonic polyposis and were found to have Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and MYH-Associated Polyposis, respectively...
March 10, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267403/antibiotics-promote-the-sampling-of-luminal-antigens-and-bacteria-via-colonic-goblet-cell-associated-antigen-passages
#10
Kathryn A Knoop, Jenny K Gustafsson, Keely G McDonald, Devesha H Kulkarni, Rachel Kassel, Rodney D Newberry
Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of live bacteria from the gut lumen to distant sites. Gut commensal bacteria translocation has been attributed to 'leakiness', or 'barrier breach' of the intestinal epithelium, allowing live bacteria to cross an inappropriately permeable barrier and disseminate to distant sites. Alternatively, studies suggest dendritic cells directly capture luminal commensal bacteria and transport them to distant sites in the steady-state by extending dendrites between epithelial cells into the lumen...
March 7, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177354/dietary-supplementation-with-tributyrin-prevented-weaned-pigs-from-growth-retardation-and-lethal-infection-via-modulation-of-inflammatory-cytokines-production-ileal-expression-and-intestinal-acetate-fermentation
#11
Y Gu, Y Song, H Yin, S Lin, X Zhang, L Che, Y Lin, S Xu, B Feng, D Wu, Z Fang
Weanling pigs, with an underdeveloped intestine and immature immune system, are usually subjected to depressed feed intake, growth retardation, and postweaning diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine 1) the growth response of weaned pigs to supplemental tributyrin (TB) and 2) the potential effects and mechanisms of TB in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. A total of 240 piglets (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were weaned at 21 d of age to a control (basal diet), supplemented with antibiotics (AB; +AB), supplemented with TB (+TB), or with supplemental AB and TB (+AB+TB) diets, with 10 replicate pens (6 piglets/pen) per diet...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174748/requirement-of-g%C3%AE-q-g%C3%AE-11-signaling-in-the-preservation-of-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-homeostasis
#12
Noboru Watanabe, Hirosato Mashima, Kouichi Miura, Takashi Goto, Makoto Yoshida, Akiteru Goto, Hirohide Ohnishi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the intestinal epithelium are tightly regulated by a number of molecular pathways. Coordinated action of intestine is achieved by gastrointestinal hormones, most of which exert these actions through G-protein-coupled receptors. We herein investigated the role of Gαq/11-mediated signaling in intestinal homeostasis. METHODS: Intestinal tissues from control (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), Int-Gq knock-out (KO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), G11 KO (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ), and Int-Gq/G11 double knock-out (DKO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ) mice were examined by microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147355/improvement-of-a-leaky-intestinal-barrier
#13
REVIEW
Eduard F Stange
In Crohn's disease, the mucus layer appears to be defective in terms of low defensin levels and lack of antibacterial activity. These deficiencies actually explain the Montreal phenotypes and the stable localization of disease in the terminal ileum with low α-defensins from Paneth cells and/or low β-defensins in colonic disease, respectively. Conversely, in ulcerative colitis (UC) the defensin production is normal or even induced, but the mucus layer is thinner and patchy, more in the liquid form and also chemically altered so that antibacterial peptides are not retained and lost into the luminal bacterial bulk...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133074/-a-case-of-goblet-cell-carcinoid-of-the-appendix-invading-directly-into-the-sigmoid-colon
#14
Satoru Matsumoto, Masahiro Takahashi, Shusaku Takahashi, Hideki Yamagami, Hiroyuki Ishizu
A 73-year-old man underwent a screening colonoscopy, and a depressed lesion in the sigmoid colon was detected. Biopsy revealed a Group V lesion, and he was diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer. During surgery, there was dense adhesion of the appendix to the sigmoid colon, and sigmoidectomy combined with appendectomy was performed. However, pathological examination revealed goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix with direct invasion into the sigmoid colon. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in Japan...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122499/uridine-stimulate-laxative-effect-in-the-loperamide-induced-constipation-of-sd-rats-through-regulation-of-the-machrs-signaling-pathway-and-mucin-secretion
#15
Ji Eun Kim, Jun Go, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Woo Bin Yun, Jin Tae Hong, Dae Youn Hwang
BACKGROUND: Uridine (Urd), which has been reported as a major component of RNA, plays an important role in various biological process including neuroprotection, biochemical modulation and glycolysis, although its role in constipation has yet to be established. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the laxative effects of Urd on chronic constipation. METHODS: The constipation phenotypes and their related mechanisms were investigated in the transverse colons of SD rats with loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation after treatment with 100 mg/kg of Urd...
January 26, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120846/cortactin-deficiency-causes-increased-rhoa-rock1-dependent-actomyosin-contractility-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-and-disproportionately-severe-dss-induced-colitis
#16
A F Citalán-Madrid, H Vargas-Robles, A García-Ponce, M Shibayama, A Betanzos, P Nava, C Salinas-Lara, K Rottner, R Mennigen, M Schnoor
The intestinal epithelium constitutes a first line of defense of the innate immune system. Epithelial dysfunction is a hallmark of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The actin cytoskeleton controls epithelial barrier integrity but the function of actin regulators such as cortactin is poorly understood. Given that cortactin controls endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that cortactin is also important for epithelial barrier regulation. We found increased permeability in the colon of cortactin-KO mice that was accompanied by reduced levels of ZO-1, claudin-1, and E-cadherin...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115029/maternal-short-chain-fructo-oligosaccharide-supplementation-increases-intestinal-cytokine-secretion-goblet-cell-number-butyrate-concentration-and-lawsonia-intracellularis-humoral-vaccine-response-in-weaned-pigs
#17
Cindy Le Bourgot, Laurence Le Normand, Michèle Formal, Frédérique Respondek, Sophie Blat, Emmanuelle Apper, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron
Prebiotic supplementation modulates immune system development and function. However, less is known about the effects of maternal prebiotic consumption on offspring intestinal defences and immune system responsiveness. We investigated the effects of maternal short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS) supplementation on mucin-secreting cells, ileal secretory IgA and cytokine secretion of weaned offspring and their humoral response to an oral vaccine against obligate intracellular Lawsonia intracellularis. Sows were fed a control diet (CTRL) or scFOS-supplemented diet during the last third of gestation and throughout lactation...
January 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069814/muc2-mucin-and-butyrate-contribute-to-the-synthesis-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-in-response-to-entamoeba-histolytica-and-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#18
Eduardo R Cobo, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, France Moreau, Ravi Holani, Kris Chadee
Embedded in the colonic mucus are cathelicidins, small cationic peptides secreted by colonic epithelial cells. Humans and mice have one cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) each, LL-37/hCAP-18 and Cramp, respectively, with related structure and functions. Altered production of MUC2 mucin and antimicrobial peptides is characteristic of intestinal amebiasis. The interactions between MUC2 mucin and cathelicidins in conferring innate immunity against Entamoeba histolytica are not well characterized...
March 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062699/cathelicidin-wa-improves-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-and-enhances-host-defense-against-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infection
#19
Hongbo Yi, Wangyang Hu, Shan Chen, Zeqing Lu, Yizhen Wang
Impaired epithelial barrier function disrupts immune homeostasis and increases inflammation in intestines, leading to many intestinal diseases. Cathelicidin peptides suppress intestinal inflammation and improve intestinal epithelial barrier function independently of their antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Cathelicidin-WA (CWA) on intestinal epithelial barrier function, as well as the underlying mechanism, by using enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-infected mice and intestinal epithelial cells...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053617/characterization-the-response-of-korl-icr-mice-to-loperamide-induced-constipation
#20
Ji Eun Kim, Woo Bin Yun, Ji Eun Sung, Hyun Ah Lee, Jun Young Choi, Yeon Shik Choi, Young Suk Jung, Kil Soo Kim, Dae Youn Hwang
Animal models of constipation induced with drugs and diet have been widely employed to investigate therapeutic effects and the action mechanism of drugs against this disease. ICR mice were selected to produce this disease model through oral administration of loperamide (Lop), even though SD rats are commonly utilized in studies of constipation. To compare the responses of ICR mice obtained from three different sources to constipation inducers, alterations in stool number, histopathological structure, mucin secretion and opioid-receptor downstream signaling pathway were measured in Korl:ICR (Korea FDA source), A:ICR (USA source) and B:ICR (Japan source) injected with low and high concentrations of Lop (LoLop and HiLop)...
December 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
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