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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525602/aloin-a-component-of-the-aloe-vera-plant-leaf-induces-pathological-changes-and-modulates-the-composition-of-microbiota-in-the-large-intestine-of-f344-n-male-rats
#1
Mary D Boudreau, Greg R Olson, Volodymyr P Tryndyak, Matthew S Bryant, Robert P Felton, Frederick A Beland
In a previous study, the oral administration of an Aloe vera whole leaf extract induced dose-related mucosal and goblet cell hyperplasia in the rat colon after 13-weeks and colon cancer after two years. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether or not the administration of aloin, a component of the Aloe vera plant leaf, would replicate the pathophysiological effects that were observed in rats in the previous study with an Aloe vera whole leaf extract. Groups of 10 male F344/N rats were administered aloin at 0, 6...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524086/dietary-green-pea-protects-against-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-challenged-with-high-fat-diet
#2
Shima Bibi, Luís Fernando de Sousa Moraes, Noelle Lebow, Mei-Jun Zhu
Obesity is a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease. Pea is unique with its high content of dietary fiber, polyphenolics, and glycoproteins, all of which are known to be health beneficial. We aimed to investigate the impact of green pea (GP) supplementation on the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Six-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were fed a 45% HFD or HFD supplemented with 10% GP. After 7-week dietary supplementation, colitis was induced by adding 2...
May 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495755/intestinal-microbiota-contributes-to-colonic-epithelial-changes-in-simulated-microgravity-mouse-model
#3
Junxiu Shi, Yifan Wang, Jian He, Pingping Li, Rong Jin, Ke Wang, Xi Xu, Jie Hao, Yan Zhang, Hongju Liu, Xiaoping Chen, Hounan Wu, Qing Ge
Exposure to microgravity leads to alterations in multiple systems, but microgravity-related changes in the gastrointestinal tract and its clinical significance have not been well studied. We used the hindlimb unloading (HU) mouse model to simulate a microgravity condition and investigated the changes in intestinal microbiota and colonic epithelial cells. Compared with ground controls (Ctrls), HU affected fecal microbiota composition with a profile that was characterized by the expansion of Firmicutes and decrease of Bacteroidetes The colon epithelium of HU mice showed decreased goblet cell numbers, reduced epithelial cell turnover, and decreased expression of genes that are involved in defense and inflammatory responses...
May 11, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493993/mechanism-of-down-regulation-of-na-h-exchanger-2-in-experimental-colitis
#4
Amal Ali Soleiman, Farook Thameem, Islam Khan
BACKGROUND: The Na-H exchanger [NHE] performs an electroneutral uptake of NaCl and water from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. There are several distinct NHE isoforms, some of which show an altered expression in the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this study, we examined a role of NHE-2 in experimental colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intra-rectal administration of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). On day 6 post-TNBS, the animals were sacrificed, colonic and ileal segments were taken out, cleaned with phosphate buffered saline and used in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487604/overexpression-of-fibrinogen-like-protein-2-protects-against-t-cell-induced-colitis
#5
Agata Bartczak, Jianhua Zhang, Oyedele Adeyi, Achiya Amir, David Grant, Reginald Gorczynski, Nazia Selzner, Andrzej Chruscinski, Gary A Levy
AIM: To determine the effect of overexpression of fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) on regulatory T cell (Treg) and effector T (Teff) cell function on T cell-induced colitis in Rag1(-/-) mice. METHODS: Treg and Teff cells from fgl2(-/-), fgl2(+/+), and fgl2(Tg) mice were purified by FACS. They were studied in vitro for immunosuppressive activity and cell proliferation and in vivo for their effects on the development and prevention of T cell-induced colitis in Rag1(-/-) mice...
April 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475172/keratins-regulate-colonic-epithelial-cell-differentiation-through-the-notch1-signalling-pathway
#6
Iris A K Lähdeniemi, Julia O Misiorek, Christian J M Antila, Sebastian K-J Landor, Carl-Gustaf A Stenvall, Lina E Fortelius, Linda K Bergström, Cecilia Sahlgren, Diana M Toivola
Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in stress protection and mechanical support of epithelial tissues. K8, K18 and K19 are the main colonic keratins, and K8-knockout (K8(-/-)) mice display a keratin dose-dependent hyperproliferation of colonic crypts and a colitis-phenotype. However, the impact of the loss of K8 on intestinal cell differentiation has so far been unknown. Here we show that K8 regulates Notch1 signalling activity and differentiation in the epithelium of the large intestine...
June 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416688/knockout-of-the-lrrc26-subunit-reveals-a-primary-role-of-lrrc26-containing-bk-channels-in-secretory-epithelial-cells
#7
Chengtao Yang, Vivian Gonzalez-Perez, Taro Mukaibo, James E Melvin, Xiao-Ming Xia, Christopher J Lingle
Leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein 26 (LRRC26) is the regulatory γ1 subunit of Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent BK-type K(+) channels. BK channels that contain LRRC26 subunits are active near normal resting potentials even without Ca(2+), suggesting they play unique physiological roles, likely limited to very specific cell types and cellular functions. By using Lrrc26 KO mice with a β-gal reporter, Lrrc26 promoter activity is found in secretory epithelial cells, especially acinar epithelial cells in lacrimal and salivary glands, and also goblet and Paneth cells in intestine and colon, although absent from neurons...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375676/tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-an-actin-binding-protein-girdin-specifically-marks-tuft-cells-in-human-and-mouse-gut
#8
Daisuke Kuga, Kaori Ushida, Shinji Mii, Atsushi Enomoto, Naoya Asai, Masato Nagino, Masahide Takahashi, Masato Asai
Tuft cells (TCs) are minor components of gastrointestinal epithelia, characterized by apical tufts and spool-shaped somas. The lack of reliable TC-markers has hindered the elucidation of its role. We developed site-specific and phosphorylation-status-specific antibodies against Girdin at tyrosine-1798 (pY1798) and found pY1798 immunostaining of mouse jejunum clearly depicted epithelial cells closely resembling TCs. This study aimed to validate pY1798 as a TC-marker. Double-fluorescence staining of intestines was performed with pY1798 and known TC-markers, for example, hematopoietic-prostaglandin-D-synthase (HPGDS), or doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361356/-pathophysiology-of-atopic-blepharokeratoconjunctivitis
#9
T Lapp, P Maier, T Jakob, T Reinhard
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a systemic inflammatory disease, which is characterized by pronounced eczema and pruritus. In addition to the involvement of the entire integument, the periocular lid skin and the surface of the eye are frequently involved. Ocular involvement may occur solely without dermatitis of facial or body skin. Pathophysiologically, besides a dysregulated immune response, genetic changes can occur in various dermal structural proteins which will lead to a disturbed skin barrier. Furthermore, there is a regular colonization with bacterial pathogens and an increased susceptibility for viral skin infections...
March 30, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359759/a-vesicle-trafficking-protein-%C3%AE-snap-regulates-paneth-cell-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#10
Susana Lechuga, Nayden G Naydenov, Alex Feygin, Antonio J Jimenez, Andrei I Ivanov
A soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein alpha (αSNAP) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking and signaling. In cultured intestinal epithelial cells, αSNAP has been shown to be essential for cell survival, motility, and adhesion; however, its physiologic functions in the intestinal mucosa remain unknown. In the present study, we used a mouse with a spontaneous hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) mutation of αSNAP to examine the roles of this trafficking protein in regulating intestinal epithelial homeostasis in vivo...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342610/intentionally-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-causes-inflammation-affects-metabolism-and-reduces-productivity-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#11
S K Kvidera, M J Dickson, M Abuajamieh, D B Snider, M V Sanz Fernandez, J S Johnson, A F Keating, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, L H Baumgard
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 (5 d) served as the baseline for period 2 (7 d), during which cows received 1 of 2 i.v. treatments twice per day: sterile saline or a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI; 1.5 mg/kg of body weight). Gamma-secretase inhibitors reduce intestinal barrier function by inhibiting crypt cell differentiation into absorptive enterocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314262/the-histogenesis-of-the-third-pathway-of-colonic-carcinogenesis-in-rats
#12
Carlos A Rubio
BACKGROUND/AIM: Conventional (tubular or villous) adenomas, and the more recently described serrated adenomas, are non-invasive neoplasias that precede colon carcinomas in carcinogen-treated rats. In contrast, the histological steps antedating carcinomas in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in rats, i.e. the third pathway of colonic carcinogenesis, remain unidentified. Aim of the study was to investigate the histological changes preceding colonic GALT carcinomas in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299479/l-glutamine-and-l-arginine-protect-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection-via-intestinal-innate-immunity-in-mice
#13
Gang Liu, Wenkai Ren, Jun Fang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guiping Guan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jie Yin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Shuai Chen, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells...
March 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295534/mucin-rich-variant-of-traditional-serrated-adenoma-a-distinct-morphological-variant
#14
Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Stefano Serra, Sara Hafezi-Bakhtiari, Richard Colling, Lai Mun Wang, Runjan Chetty
AIMS: Traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) account for 5% of serrated polyps, and have a villiform architecture, eosinophilic cells with a brush border, and indented, flat-topped luminal serrations. However, some are composed of mucin-filled goblet cells (GCs): mucin-rich TSA (MrTSA). The aim of this study was to determine whether this variant has unique features as compared with classic TSA (cTSA). METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-six TSAs were retrieved from the period 2010-2016...
March 13, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283864/lower-gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-associated-with-hereditary-cancer-syndromes-a-case-series
#15
Trilokesh D Kidambi, Christina Pedley, Amie Blanco, Emily K Bergsland, Jonathan P Terdiman
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the colon and rectum are uncommon and not traditionally associated with hereditary GI cancer syndromes. However, with widespread implementation of colorectal cancer screening programs, lower GI NENs are being identified with increasing frequency. We report the first case series of six patients with lower GI NENs who were diagnosed with hereditary GI cancer syndromes by germline testing. Two patients presented with poorly differentiated rectal neuroendocrine carcinoma (NECs) with colonic polyposis and were found to have Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and MYH-Associated Polyposis, respectively...
March 10, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267403/antibiotics-promote-the-sampling-of-luminal-antigens-and-bacteria-via-colonic-goblet-cell-associated-antigen-passages
#16
Kathryn A Knoop, Jenny K Gustafsson, Keely G McDonald, Devesha H Kulkarni, Rachel Kassel, Rodney D Newberry
Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of live bacteria from the gut lumen to distant sites. Gut commensal bacteria translocation has been attributed to 'leakiness', or 'barrier breach' of the intestinal epithelium, allowing live bacteria to cross an inappropriately permeable barrier and disseminate to distant sites. Alternatively, studies suggest dendritic cells directly capture luminal commensal bacteria and transport them to distant sites in the steady-state by extending dendrites between epithelial cells into the lumen...
March 7, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177354/dietary-supplementation-with-tributyrin-prevented-weaned-pigs-from-growth-retardation-and-lethal-infection-via-modulation-of-inflammatory-cytokines-production-ileal-expression-and-intestinal-acetate-fermentation
#17
Y Gu, Y Song, H Yin, S Lin, X Zhang, L Che, Y Lin, S Xu, B Feng, D Wu, Z Fang
Weanling pigs, with an underdeveloped intestine and immature immune system, are usually subjected to depressed feed intake, growth retardation, and postweaning diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine 1) the growth response of weaned pigs to supplemental tributyrin (TB) and 2) the potential effects and mechanisms of TB in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. A total of 240 piglets (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were weaned at 21 d of age to a control (basal diet), supplemented with antibiotics (AB; +AB), supplemented with TB (+TB), or with supplemental AB and TB (+AB+TB) diets, with 10 replicate pens (6 piglets/pen) per diet...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174748/requirement-of-g%C3%AE-q-g%C3%AE-11-signaling-in-the-preservation-of-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-homeostasis
#18
Noboru Watanabe, Hirosato Mashima, Kouichi Miura, Takashi Goto, Makoto Yoshida, Akiteru Goto, Hirohide Ohnishi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the intestinal epithelium are tightly regulated by a number of molecular pathways. Coordinated action of intestine is achieved by gastrointestinal hormones, most of which exert these actions through G-protein-coupled receptors. We herein investigated the role of Gαq/11-mediated signaling in intestinal homeostasis. METHODS: Intestinal tissues from control (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), Int-Gq knock-out (KO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(+/+) ), G11 KO (Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ), and Int-Gq/G11 double knock-out (DKO) (VilCre(+/-)Gnaq(flox/flox)Gna11(-/-) ) mice were examined by microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147355/improvement-of-a-leaky-intestinal-barrier
#19
REVIEW
Eduard F Stange
In Crohn's disease, the mucus layer appears to be defective in terms of low defensin levels and lack of antibacterial activity. These deficiencies actually explain the Montreal phenotypes and the stable localization of disease in the terminal ileum with low α-defensins from Paneth cells and/or low β-defensins in colonic disease, respectively. Conversely, in ulcerative colitis (UC) the defensin production is normal or even induced, but the mucus layer is thinner and patchy, more in the liquid form and also chemically altered so that antibacterial peptides are not retained and lost into the luminal bacterial bulk...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133074/-a-case-of-goblet-cell-carcinoid-of-the-appendix-invading-directly-into-the-sigmoid-colon
#20
Satoru Matsumoto, Masahiro Takahashi, Shusaku Takahashi, Hideki Yamagami, Hiroyuki Ishizu
A 73-year-old man underwent a screening colonoscopy, and a depressed lesion in the sigmoid colon was detected. Biopsy revealed a Group V lesion, and he was diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer. During surgery, there was dense adhesion of the appendix to the sigmoid colon, and sigmoidectomy combined with appendectomy was performed. However, pathological examination revealed goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix with direct invasion into the sigmoid colon. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in Japan...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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