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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116460/potential-usefulness-of-methyl-gallate-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-colitis
#1
María Laura Anzoise, Angeles Rodríguez Basso, Julieta Sofía Del Mauro, Andrea Carranza, Graciela López Ordieres, Susana Gorzalczany
Methyl gallate is a gallotannin widely distributed in nature. Previous studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, the activity of methyl gallate on experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease has been investigated. Experimental colitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats through the intracolonic instillation of an acetic acid solution (2 mL, 4% v/v). Methyl gallate (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drug mesalazine (100 mg/kg, p...
November 7, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114386/suppression-of-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-by-a-hookworm-recombinant-protein-in-experimental-colitis
#2
Ivana B Ferreira, Darren A Pickering, Sally Troy, John Croese, Alex Loukas, Severine Navarro
Gastrointestinal parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts when present in small numbers, allowing them to establish chronic infections for decades. They do so by creating an immunoregulatory environment that promotes their own survival, but paradoxically also benefits the host by protecting against the onset of many inflammatory diseases. To harness the therapeutic value of hookworms without using live parasites, we have examined the protective properties of the recombinant protein anti-inflammatory protein (AIP)-1, secreted in abundance by hookworms within the intestinal mucosa, in experimental colitis...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107964/obesogenic-diet-induced-gut-barrier-dysfunction-and-pathobiont-expansion-aggravate-experimental-colitis
#3
June-Chul Lee, Hae-Youn Lee, Tae Kang Kim, Min-Soo Kim, Young Mi Park, Jinyoung Kim, Kihyoun Park, Mi-Na Kweon, Seok-Hyung Kim, Jin-Woo Bae, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung-Shik Lee
Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084077/accumulation-of-hla-dr4-in-colonic-epithelial-cells-causes-severe-colitis-in-homozygous-hla-dr4-transgenic-mice
#4
Atsushi Irie, Takahisa Imamura, Yayoi Michibata, Ttatsuko Kubo, Naoki Takeda, Isao Shibuya, Shinji Sogo, Kimi Araki, Yasuharu Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Homozygous HLA-DR4/I-E transgenic mice (tgm) spontaneously developed colitis similar to human ulcerative colitis. We explored whether endoplasmic reticulum stress in colonic epithelial cells due to overexpression of HLA-DR4/I-E was involved in the pathogenesis of colitis. METHODS: Major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator-knockout (CIITAKO) background tgm were established to test the involvement of HLA-DR4/I-E expression in the pathogenesis of colitis...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049008/exogenous-murine-antimicrobial-peptide-cramp-significantly-exacerbates-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-but-ameliorates-oxazolone-induced-intestinal-colitis-in-balb-c-mice
#5
Yang Li, Xiaojie Chu, Cunbao Liu, Weiwei Huang, Yufeng Yao, Ye Xia, Pengyan Sun, Qiong Long, Xuejun Feng, Kui Li, Xu Yang, Hongmei Bai, Wenjia Sun, Yanbing Ma
Cathelicidin has been reported to be multifunctional. The current study aimed to investigate the influences of exogenous cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on inflammatory responses in different disease models. In OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, CRAMP significantly enhanced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accumulation of proinflammatory Th2 cytokine IL-13 and IL-33 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), exacerbated lung tissue inflammation and airway goblet cell hyperplasia, and elevated OVA-specific IgE level in serum...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047150/rebamipide-alleviates-radiation-induced-colitis-through-improvement-of-goblet-cell-differentiation-in-mice
#6
Hyosun Jang, Sunhoo Park, Janet Lee, Jae Kyung Myung, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Hyunwook Myung, Changsun Lee, Hyewon Kim, Seung-Sook Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Sehwan Shim
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Radiation-induced colitis is a common clinical problem associated with radiotherapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Goblet cells play a pivotal role in the intestinal barrier against pathogenic bacteria. Rebamipide, anti-gastric ulcer drug, has the effects to promote goblet cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced colonic injury could be alleviated by rebamipide. METHODS: We orally administered rebamipide for 6 days to mice, which were subjected to 13 Gy abdominal irradiation, to evaluate the therapeutic effects of rebamipide against radiation-induced colitis...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042502/lipopolysaccharide-from-crypt-specific-core-microbiota-modulates-the-colonic-epithelial-proliferation-to-differentiation-balance
#7
Tomoaki Naito, Céline Mulet, Cristina De Castro, Antonio Molinaro, Azadeh Saffarian, Giulia Nigro, Marion Bérard, Mélanie Clerc, Amy B Pedersen, Philippe J Sansonetti, Thierry Pédron
We identified a crypt-specific core microbiota (CSCM) dominated by strictly aerobic, nonfermentative bacteria in murine cecal and proximal colonic (PC) crypts and hypothesized that, among its possible functions, it may affect epithelial regeneration. In the present work, we isolated representative CSCM strains using selective media based upon our initial 16S rRNA-based molecular identification (i.e., Acinetobacter, Delftia, and Stenotrophomonas). Their tropism for the crypt was confirmed, and their influence on epithelial regeneration was demonstrated in vivo by monocolonization of germfree mice...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985874/bioscaffold-mediated-mucosal-remodeling-following-short-segment-colonic-mucosal-resection
#8
Jenna L Dziki, Timothy J Keane, Shahab Shaffiey, Dan Cognetti, Neill Turner, Deborah Nagle, David Hackam, Stephen Badylak
Precancerous or cancerous lesions of the gastrointestinal tract often require surgical resection via endomucosal resection. Although excision of the colonic mucosa is an effective cancer treatment, removal of large lesions is associated with high morbidity and complications including bleeding, perforation, fistula formation, and/or stricture, contributing to high clinical and economic costs and negatively impacting patient quality of life. The present study investigates the use of a biologic scaffold derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) to promote restoration of the colonic mucosa following short segment mucosal resection...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974617/entamoeba-histolytica-induced-mucin-exocytosis-is-mediated-by-vamp8-and-is-critical-in-mucosal-innate-host-defense
#9
Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Herbert Y Gaisano, Kris Chadee
Intestinal mucus secretion is critical in maintaining mucosal host defense against a myriad of pathogens by preventing direct association with the epithelium. Entamoeba histolytica specifically binds colonic MUC2 mucin and also induces potent hypersecretion from goblet cells; however, characterization of the nature of the mechanisms controlling mucus release remains elusive. In this report, we identify vesicle SNARE vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) present on mucin granules as orchestrating regulated exocytosis in human goblet cells in response to the presence of E...
October 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935684/rack1-function-in-intestinal-epithelia-regulating-crypt-cell-proliferation-and-regeneration-and-promoting-differentiation-and-apoptosis
#10
Zhuan-Fen Cheng, Reetesh K Pai, Christine A Cartwright
Previously we showed that Rack1 (Receptor for Activated C Kinase) regulates growth of colon cells in vitro, partly by suppressing Src kinase activity at key cell cycle checkpoints, in apoptotic and cell survival pathways and at cell-cell adhesions. Here, we generated mouse models of Rack1 deficiency to assess Rack1's function in intestinal epithelia in vivo Intestinal Rack1 deficiency resulted in proliferation of crypt cells, diminished differentiation of crypt cells into enterocyte, goblet and enteroendocrine cell lineages and expansion of Paneth cell populations...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918138/characterizing-effects-of-feed-restriction-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-administration-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-intestinal-morphology
#11
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M V Sanz Fernandez, M Abuajamieh, S Ganesan, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, W E Trout, A F Keating, L H Baumgard
Inadequate feed consumption reduces intestinal barrier function in both ruminants and monogastrics. Objectives were to characterize how progressive feed restriction (FR) affects inflammation, metabolism, and intestinal morphology, and to investigate if glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) administration influences the aforementioned responses. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (157 ± 9 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 [5 d of ad libitum (AL) feed intake] served as baseline for period 2 (5 d), during which cows received 1 of 6 treatments: (1) 100% of AL feed intake (AL100; n = 3), (2) 80% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (3) 60% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (4) 40% of AL feed intake (AL40; n = 5), (5) 40% of AL feed intake + GLP2 administration (AL40G; 75 µg/kg of BW s...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915390/navy-and-black-bean-supplementation-primes-the-colonic-mucosal-microenvironment-to-improve-gut-health
#12
Jennifer M Monk, Dion Lepp, Wenqing Wu, K Peter Pauls, Lindsay E Robinson, Krista A Power
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks...
November 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887507/carnosic-acid-prevents-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis-associated-with-the-regulation-of-the-keap1-nrf2-pathway
#13
Neng Yang, Zongling Xia, Naiyuan Shao, Bowen Li, Lian Xue, Ya Peng, Feng Zhi, Yilin Yang
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) with high prevalence in humans. Carnosic acid (CA) has been reported to possess antioxidative properties; however, its role in IBDs has not been determined. In the present study, we found that CA significantly prevented the loss of body weight and shortening of colon length in acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Pronounced infiltration of immune cells and a loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells were ameliorated by CA...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885303/validation-of-probe-based-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-pcle-criteria-for-diagnosing-colon-polyp-histology
#14
Sreekar Vennelaganti, Prashanth Vennalaganti, Sharad Mathur, Satish Singh, Mazen Jamal, Vijay Kanakadandi, Tarun Rai, Matthew Hall, Neil Gupta, Venkat Nutalapati, Benjamin Alsop, Benjamin Hornung, Prateek Sharma
BACKGROUND: Validated probe-based confocal endomicroscopy (pCLE) criteria for distinguishing hyperplastic polyps (HPs) and tubular adenomas (TA) have not yet been developed. AIM: To develop pCLE criteria for distinguishing HP from TA and evaluate its performance characteristics among experts. METHODS: pCLE criteria for colon polyp histology were developed and tested in 2 phases prospectively. Phase I: 8 preliminary criteria were developed and tested internally...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875556/melatonin-alleviates-weanling-stress-in-mice-involvement-of-intestinal-microbiota
#15
Wenkai Ren, Peng Wang, Jiameng Yan, Gang Liu, Benhua Zeng, Tarique Hussain, Can Peng, Jie Yin, Bie Tan, Tiejun Li, Hong Wei, Guoqiang Zhu, Russel J Reiter, Yulong Yin
Melatonin influences intestinal microbiota, and the pathogenesis of various diseases. This study was conducted to explore whether melatonin alleviates weanling stress through intestinal microbiota in a weanling mouse model. Melatonin supplementation in weanling mice (provided in the drinking water at a dosage of 0.2mg/ml for 2 weeks) significantly improved body weight gain (1.4±0.03 g/day in melatonin group vs. 1.2±0.06 g/day in control group) and intestinal morphology [i.e., villus length (258.1±12.2 um in melatonin group vs...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830068/cytokine-production-in-vitro-and-in-rat-model-of-colitis-in-response-to-lactobacillus-plantarum-ls-07
#16
Jana Štofilová, Tomaž Langerholc, Cristian Botta, Primož Treven, Lidija Gradišnik, Rastislav Salaj, Alena Šoltésová, Izabela Bertková, Zdenka Hertelyová, Alojz Bomba
Over the past decade, it has become clear that specific probiotic lactobacilli are valuable in the prevention and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases of gastrointestinal tract but their successful application would benefit greatly from a better understanding of the mechanisms of individual strains. Hence, each probiotic strain should be characterized for their immune activity before being proposed for clinical applications. The aim of the study was to characterize the immunomodulatory activity of the strain Lactobacillus (L...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801754/expression-profiling-of-tas2r-genes-reveals-a-complex-pattern-along-the-mouse-gi-tract-and-the-presence-of-tas2r131-in-a-subset-of-intestinal-paneth-cells
#17
Simone Prandi, Anja Voigt, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens
The chemical variability of the intestinal lumen requires the presence of molecular receptors detecting the various substances naturally occurring in the diet and as a result of the activity of the microbiota. Despite their early discovery, intestinal bitter taste receptors (Tas2r) have not yet been assigned an unambiguous physiological function. Recently, using a CRE-recombinant approach we showed that the Tas2r131 gene is expressed in a subset of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon of mice. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the expression of the Tas2r131 locus is not restricted to this region...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761642/frequency-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-appendicular-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-cross-sectional-study-from-an-academic%C3%A2-tertiary-care-hospital
#18
Abdelrahman Abdelaal, Walid El Ansari, Issam Al-Bozom, Mahwish Khawar, Fakhar Shahid, Ammar Aleter, Mohammed Rasoul Abunuwar, Ayman El-Menyar
BACKGROUND: Appendicular neuroendocrine tumors (NET, Carcinoid tumors) of the appendix are rare and mostly diagnosed incidentally on the post-operative histopathological examination. NET are usually associated with good 5-year survival rates. We aimed to assess our experience for the diagnosis and management of NET over 11 years. METHOD: It is a retrospective chart review of all clinically suspected patients with acute appendicitis who underwent emergent appendectomy with intention to treat between January 2004-December 2014, and were clinically followed up until 2016...
September 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751521/the-third-pathway-of-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Carlos A Rubio, Giacomo Puppa, Giovanni de Petris, Lorand Kis, Peter T Schmidt
AIMS: The majority of the colorectal carcinomas (CRC) arise in a vast mucosal area built with columnar cells and mucus-producing goblet cells. These carcinomas evolve via the conventional (tubular/villous) adenoma-carcinoma pathway, or the serrated adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Much less frequently CRC arise in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mucosal domain via the third pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: All publications on human colorectal GALT carcinomas in the literature were reviewed...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726765/oleic-acid-uptake-reveals-the-rescued-enterocyte-phenotype-of-colon-cancer-caco-2-by-ht29-mtx-cells-in-co-culture-mode
#20
Emmanuelle Berger, Merian Nassra, Claude Atgié, Pascale Plaisancié, Alain Géloën
Gastrointestinal epithelium is the unique route for nutrients and for many pharmaceuticals to enter the body. The present study aimed to analyze precisely whether co-culture of two colon cancer cell lines, mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier model and the signaling pathways involved. Differentiated Caco-2 cells gene datasets were compared first to intestinal or cancer phenotypes and second to signaling pathway gene datasets...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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