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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756575/effects-of-stress-on-the-mucus-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut
#1
Jianwen He, Huiduo Guo, Weijiang Zheng, Wen Yao
Stress shows both direct- and indirect-effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular on the mucus physiology and the composition of microbiota. Mucus mainly consists of heavily glycosylated proteins called mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells. The gut mucus layer is a pivotal part of the intestinal protection and colonized by commensal microbes, essential for the development and health of the host. There is a symbiotic interaction between intestinal microbiota and the host cells...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720977/-enterococcus-faecalis-ahg0090-is-a-genetically-tractable-bacterium-and-produces-a-secreted-peptidic-bioactive-that-suppresses-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-activation-in-human-gut-epithelial-cells
#2
Páraic Ó Cuív, Rabina Giri, Emily C Hoedt, Michael A McGuckin, Jakob Begun, Mark Morrison
Enterococcus faecalis is an early coloniser of the human infant gut and contributes to the development of intestinal immunity. To better understand the functional capacity of E. faecalis , we constructed a broad host range RP4 mobilizable vector, pEHR513112, that confers chloramphenicol resistance and used a metaparental mating approach to isolate E. faecalis AHG0090 from a fecal sample collected from a healthy human infant. We demonstrated that E. faecalis AHG0090 is genetically tractable and could be manipulated using traditional molecular microbiology approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702174/beneficial-effects-of-extracellular-polysaccharide-from-rhizopus-nigricans-on-the-intestinal-immunity-of-colorectal-cancer-mice
#3
Zhidan Yu, Ge Song, Jing Liu, Jiayue Wang, Pengying Zhang, Kaoshan Chen
An extracellular polysaccharide (EPS1-1) extracted from the fermentation broth of Rhizopus nigricans has been proved to enhance the immunity of immunosuppressed mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of EPS1-1 on the intestinal immunity of mice with colorectal cancer induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The results showed that EPS1-1 could resist hydrolysis in an artificial stomach. Oral EPS1-1 modulated gut microbiota and increased the concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the feces of colorectal cancer mice compared with the AOM/DSS only-treated mice...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685982/-entamoeba-histolytica-alters-ileal-paneth-cell-functions-in-intact-and-muc2-mucin-deficiency
#4
Eduardo R Cobo, Ravi Holani, France Moreau, Kiminori Nakamura, Tokiyoshi Ayabe, Jennifer R Mastroianni, Andre Ouellette, Kris Chadee
Enteric α-defensins, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, and lysozymes secreted by Paneth cells contribute to innate host defense in the ileum. Antimicrobial factors including lysozymes and β-defensins are often embedded in luminal glycosylated colonic Muc2 mucin secreted by goblet cells that form the protective mucus layer critical in gut homeostasis and pathogen invasion. In this study we investigated ileal innate immunity against Entamoeba histolytica (Eh ), the causative agent of intestinal amebiasis, by inoculating parasites in closed ileal loops in Muc2+/+ and Muc2-/- littermates and quantifying Paneth cell localization (lysozyme expression) and function (Crps secretion)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678224/evaluation-of-the-mucosal-inflammatory-responses-to-equine-cyathostomins-in-response-to-anthelmintic-treatment
#5
A E Steuer, A T Loynachan, M K Nielsen
Members of Cyathostominae are pervasive parasites of equids that can cause larval cyathostominosis, a potentially life-threatening disease that occurs when a multitude of encysted larvae synchronously excyst from the wall of the large intestine. Moxidectin and fenbendazole are the two current labeled drugs that target the encysted larval stages; however, there is limited knowledge of the local inflammatory response to the larvae and to the two treatments in clinically healthy horses. This study is the first to evaluate the local inflammatory response to cyathostomin larvae and to larvicidal treatment at 2 and 5 weeks post treatment...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660095/effect-of-dietary-bacillus-coagulans-supplementation-on-growth-performance-and-immune-responses-of-broiler-chickens-challenged-by-salmonella-enteritidis
#6
Wenrui Zhen, Yujing Shao, Xiuyan Gong, Yuanyuan Wu, Yanqiang Geng, Zhong Wang, Yuming Guo
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective efficacy of dietary Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) supplementation in birds receiving Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments with 2 levels of dietary B. coagulans (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 levels of SE challenge (0 or 1 × 109 SE between d 9 to 11). Results showed that SE infection did not affect growth performance, but caused intestinal inflammation and barrier function impairment by reducing intestinal goblet cells and beneficial bacteria numbers, increasing cecal Salmonella colonization and liver Salmonella invasion, downregulating jejunal mucin-2 (at 7 and 17 d post-infection, DPI), TLR2 (at 7 and 17 DPI), TLR4 (at 17 DPI), TNFSF15 (at 7 and 17 DPI) gene mRNA levels, and upregulating jejunal IFN-γ mRNA levels (at 17 DPI) compared to uninfected birds...
April 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624892/antibiotic-mediated-bacteriome-depletion-in-apc-min-mice-is-associated-with-reduction-in-mucus-producing-goblet-cells-and-increased-colorectal-cancer-progression
#7
Kamaljeet Kaur, Arpit Saxena, Irina Debnath, Jacqueline L O'Brien, Nadim J Ajami, Thomas A Auchtung, Joseph F Petrosino, Alexander-Jacques Sougiannis, Sarah Depaep, Alexander Chumanevich, Phani M Gummadidala, Mayomi H Omebeyinje, Sourav Banerjee, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Paramita Chakraborty, Raja Fayad, Franklin G Berger, James A Carson, Anindya Chanda
Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to antibiotics in early-to-middle adulthood is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. However, mechanistic studies in established preclinical cancer to examine these claims are extremely limited. Therefore, we investigated the effect of long-term exposure of an antibiotic cocktail composed of Vancomycin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin, on tumor development and progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse, an established genetic model for familial adenomatous polyposis...
April 6, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617460/loss-of-hai-2-in-mice-with-decreased-prostasin-activity-leads-to-an-early-onset-intestinal-failure-resembling-congenital-tufting-enteropathy
#8
Roman Szabo, Thomas H Bugge
Prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease that is essential for epithelial development and overall survival in mice. Prostasin is regulated primarily by the transmembrane serine protease inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-2, and loss of HAI-2 function leads to early embryonic lethality in mice due to an unregulated prostasin activity. We have recently reported that critical in vivo functions of prostasin can be performed by proteolytically-inactive or zymogen-locked variants of the protease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617295/the-effects-of-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-on-the-pig-large-intestine-a-light-and-electron-microscopy-study
#9
Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz, Bogdan Lewczuk, Magdalena Prusik, Maria Hanuszewska, Marcela Petrusewicz-Kosińska, Magdalena Gajęcka, Łukasz Zielonka, Maciej Gajęcki
The contamination of feed with mycotoxins results in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are among the most important mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of low doses of these mycotoxins on the histological structure and ultrastructure of the large intestine in the pig. The study was performed on 36 immature gilts of mixed breed (White Polish Big × Polish White Earhanging), which were divided into four groups administrated per os with ZEN at 40 µg/kg BW, DON at 12 µg/kg BW, a mixture of ZEN (40 µg/kg BW) and DON (12 µg/kg BW) or a placebo...
April 4, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579011/histologic-and-outcome-study-supports-reclassifying-appendiceal-goblet-cell-carcinoids-as-goblet-cell-adenocarcinomas-and-grading-and-staging-similarly-to-colonic-adenocarcinomas
#10
Masato Yozu, Melanie E Johncilla, Amitabh Srivastava, David P Ryan, James C Cusack, Leona Doyle, Namrata Setia, Michelle Yang, Gregory Y Lauwers, Robert D Odze, Joseph Misdraji
Goblet cell carcinoid tumors are amphicrine tumors whose biological behavior ranges from indolent to highly aggressive, depending on tumor grade. Current grading systems for these tumors are based on identifying an adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of a goblet cell carcinoid tumor, which distinguishes this tumor from other gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas. Because goblet cell tumors are predominantly tumors of mucin secreting cells, we propose that they be classified as goblet cell adenocarcinomas, and graded using a methodology that has parallels in colorectal adenocarcinoma grading...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569874/comparison-of-different-histological-protocols-for-the-preservation-and-quantification-of-the-intestinal-mucus-layer-in-pigs
#11
Ilen Röhe, Friedrich Joseph Hüttner, Johanna Plendl, Barbara Drewes, Jürgen Zentek
The histological characterization of the intestinal mucus layer is important for many scientific experiments investigating the interaction between intestinal microbiota, mucosal immune response and intestinal mucus production. The aim of this study was to examine and compare different fixation protocols for displaying and quantifying the intestinal mucus layer in piglets and to test which histomorphological parameters may correlate with the determined mucus layer thickness. Jejunal and colonal tissue samples of weaned piglets (n=10) were either frozen in liquid nitrogen or chemically fixed using methacarn solution...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536591/prenatal-development-and-histochemical-characteristics-of-gastrointestinal-mucins-in-sheep-fetuses
#12
Mehmet Özbek, Emel Ergün, Feyzullah Beyaz, Levent Ergün, Nuh Y Ld R M, Özge Özgenç, Füsun Erhan
The object of this study was to describe the prenatal development and histochemical properties of mucins in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. To determine changes in the mucin profile, the sections were stained with specific histochemical stains for carbohydrates. While neutral and mixed mucins were observed in the superficial epithelial cells of the abomasal pyloric region, acidic mucins were detected in the secretory ducts and corpus of the glands. Acidic mucins consisted predominantly of sialomucins. In the duodenal villi, the number of goblet cells containing neutral mucins increased toward the end of gestation, whereas Brunner's glands contained acidic mucins until the 95th day of gestation and both acidic and neutral mucins thereafter...
March 14, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535183/insl5-activates-multiple-signalling-pathways-and-regulates-glp-1-secretion-in-nci-h716-cells
#13
Sheng Y Ang, Bronwyn A Evans, Daniel P Poole, Romke Bron, Jesse J DiCello, Ross A D Bathgate, Martina Kocan, Dana S Hutchinson, Roger J Summers
Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a newly discovered gut hormone expressed in colonic enteroendocrine L-cells but little is known about its biological function. Here, we show using RT-qPCR and in situ hybridisation that Insl5 mRNA is highly expressed in the mouse colonic mucosa, colocalised with proglucagon immunoreactivity. In comparison, mRNA for RXFP4 (the cognate receptor for INSL5) is expressed in various mouse tissues, including the intestinal tract. We show that the human enteroendocrine L-cell model NCI-H716 cell line, and goblet-like colorectal cell lines SW1463 and LS513 endogenously express RXFP4...
April 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471018/rotenone-induces-gastrointestinal-pathology-and-microbiota-alterations-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Michaela E Johnson, Andrea Stringer, Larisa Bobrovskaya
While people are often aware of the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), few know of the many non-motor symptoms, which patients report have a greater impact on their quality of life. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor symptoms, which can occur at any stage of PD, even years prior to diagnosis, and can affect all sections along the GI tract causing a range of symptoms including drooling, gastroparesis and constipation. We have investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD induced by rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, is capable of reproducing the GI dysfunction seen clinically...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445136/goblet-cell-associated-antigen-passages-are-inhibited-during-salmonella-typhimur-cium-infection-to-prevent-pathogen-dissemination-and-limit-responses-to-dietary-antigens
#15
Devesha H Kulkarni, Keely G McDonald, Kathryn A Knoop, Jenny K Gustafsson, Konrad M Kozlowski, David A Hunstad, Mark J Miller, Rodney D Newberry
Dietary antigen acquisition by lamina propria (LP) dendritic cells (DCs) is crucial to induce oral tolerance and maintain homeostasis. However, encountering innocuous antigens during infection can lead to inflammatory responses, suggesting processes may limit steady-state luminal antigen capture during infection. We observed that goblet cell (GC) associated antigen passages (GAPs), a steady-state pathway delivering luminal antigens to LP-DCs, are inhibited during Salmonella infection. GAP inhibition was mediated by IL-1β...
February 14, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436668/kynurenine-promotes-the-goblet-cell-differentiation-of-ht-29-colon-carcinoma-cells-by-modulating-wnt-notch-and-ahr-signals
#16
Joo-Hung Park, Jeong-Min Lee, Eun-Jin Lee, Da-Jeong Kim, Won-Bhin Hwang
Various amino acids regulate cell growth and differentiation. In the present study, we examined the ability of HT-29 cells to differentiate into goblet cells in RPMI and DMEM which are largely different in the amounts of numerous amino acids. Most of the HT-29 cells differentiated into goblet cells downregulating the stem cell marker Lgr5 when cultured in DMEM, but remained undifferentiated in RPMI. The goblet cell differentiation in DMEM was inhibited by 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 which is the initial enzyme in tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine (KN) pathway, whereas tryptophan and KN induced goblet cell differentiation in RPMI...
April 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416634/loss-of-epithelium-specific-gpx2-results-in-aberrant-cell-fate-decisions-during-intestinal-differentiation
#17
Claudia Lennicke, Jette Rahn, Claudia Wickenhauser, Rudolf Lichtenfels, Andreas S Müller, Ludger A Wessjohann, Anna P Kipp, Barbara Seliger
The selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) is expressed in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, where it is thought to be involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis. To gain novel insights into the role of GPx2, proteomic profiles of colonic tissues either derived from wild type (WT) or GPx2 knockout (KO) mice, maintained under selenium (Se) deficiency or adequate Se supplementation conditions were established and analyzed. Amongst the panel of differentially expressed proteins, the calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) was significantly down-regulated in GPx2 KO versus WT mice regardless of the given Se status...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415989/sphingolipid-de-novo-biosynthesis-is-essential-for-intestine-cell-survival-and-barrier-function
#18
Zhiqiang Li, Inamul Kabir, Gladys Tietelman, Chongmin Huan, Jianglin Fan, Tilla Worgall, Xian-Cheng Jiang
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme for sphingolipid biosynthesis. SPT has two major subunits, SPTLC1 and SPTLC2. We previously found that liver Sptlc2 deficiency in early life impairs the development of adherens junctions. Here, we investigated the role of Sptlc2 deficiency in intestine. We treated Sptlc2-Flox/villin-Cre-ERT2 mice with tamoxifen (days 1, 2, and 3) to ablate Sptlc2 specifically in the intestine. At day 6 after tamoxifen treatment, Sptlc2-deficient mice had significantly decreased body weight with concurrent diarrhea and rectal bleeding...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413485/perinatal-supplementation-of-4-phenylbutyrate-and-glutamine-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-improves-colonic-epithelial-barrier-function-in-rats-born-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#19
Axel Désir-Vigné, Vianney Haure-Mirande, Pierre de Coppet, Dominique Darmaun, Gwenola Le Dréan, Jean-Pierre Segain
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can affect the structure and function of the intestinal barrier and increase digestive disease risk in adulthood. Using the rat model of maternal dietary protein restriction (8% vs. 20%), we found that the colon of IUGR offspring displayed decreased mRNA expression of epithelial barrier proteins MUC2 and occludin during development. This was associated with increased mRNA expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker XBP1s and increased colonic permeability measured in Ussing chambers...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412173/three-lysophosphatidic-acids-with-a-distinct-long-chain-moiety-differently-affect-cell-differentiation-of-human-colon-epithelial-cells-to-goblet-cells
#20
Mayumi Hidaka, Mai Nishihara, Akira Tokumura
AIM: The intestinal mucus layer helps maintain intestinal homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the effects of lysophosphatidic acids (LPA) on differentiation of human colon carcinoma cell line, HT-29, to goblet cells with and without sodium butyrate, a known differentiation factor for intestinal cells. MAIN METHODS: Number and average size of cells with goblet-like morphology in five photographs per dish were measured for assessment of differentiation of HT-29 cells to goblet cells as well as their relative portion of surface of to whole surface area of the photograph...
March 15, 2018: Life Sciences
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