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Daryoush Shiri, Amit Verma, Reza Nekovei, Andreas Isacsson, C R Selvakumar, M P Anantram
Gunn (or Gunn-Hilsum) Effect and its associated negative differential resistivity (NDR) emanates from transfer of electrons between two different energy subbands. This effect was observed in semiconductors like GaAs which has a direct bandgap of very low effective mass and an indirect subband of high effective mass which lies ~300 meV above the former. In contrast to GaAs, bulk silicon has a very high energy spacing (~1 eV) which renders the initiation of transfer-induced NDR unobservable. Using Density Functional Theory (DFT), semi-empirical 10 orbital (sp3 d5 s* ) Tight Binding and Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) methods we show for the first time that (a) Gunn Effect can be induced in silicon nanowires (SiNW) with diameters of 3...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
L C Beer, L R Bielke, J R Barta, O B Faulkner, J D Latorre, W N Briggs, K M Wilson, M F A Baxter, G Tellez, B M Hargis
Aging, poor oxygenation, or improper storage temperature can lead to variable Eimeria oocyst viability, which is not readily assessed microscopically. Under fluorescent microscopy, some aged Eimeria maxima (EM) oocysts were strongly autofluorescent (AF) within the oocystoplasm and sporocysts, whereas others were distinctly non-fluorescent, leading to the hypothesis that non-viable oocysts may be detectible using this simple approach. Using accelerated aging conditions at 45°C, two experiments were conducted to evaluate variable percentages of autofluorescent EM oocysts on body weight gain (BWG), lesion scores (LS), and total oocyst shedding (OS) per bird...
April 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Hua Yang, Feng Wang, Fengzhe Li, Caifang Ren, Jing Pang, Yongjie Wan, Ziyu Wang, Xu Feng, Yanli Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been identified as important regulators of testis development, however, their expression patterns and roles in sheep are not yet clear. Thus, we used stranded specific RNA-seq to profile the testis transcriptome (lncRNAs and mRNAs) in premature and mature sheep. Hormone levels and the testis index were examined, and histological analyses were performed at five stages of testis development, 5-day-old (D5), 3-month-old (3M), 6-month-old (6M), 9-month-old (9M) and 2-year-old (2Y), the results of which indicate a significant difference in hormone levels and testis morphometries between the 3M and 9M stages (P < 0...
April 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Dan Cheng, Wensheng Cai, Xueguang Shao
Investigating the interaction between oligopeptide and water is essential for understanding the structure, dynamics and function of proteins. Temperature-dependent near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and independent component analysis (ICA) were employed to study the interaction between oligopeptide and water in aqueous solution. The NIR spectra of two homo-oligopeptides, penta-aspartic acid (D5 ) and penta-lysine (K5 ), in aqueous solution of different concentration were measured at different temperature (30-90 ℃)...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Matthew M Coggon, Brian McDonald, Alexander Vlasenko, Patrick Veres, Francois Bernard, Abigail R Koss, Bin Yuan, Jessica B Gilman, Jeff Peischl, Kenneth C Aikin, Justin DuRant, Carsten Warneke, Shao-Meng Li, Joost A de Gouw
Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5 ) is a cyclic volatile methyl siloxane (cVMS) that is widely used in consumer products and commonly observed in urban air. This study quantifies the ambient mixing ratios of D5 from ground sites in two North American cities (Boulder, CO, USA and Toronto, ON, CA). From these data, we estimate the diurnal emission profile of D5 in Boulder, CO. Ambient mixing ratios were consistent with those measured at other urban locations; however, the diurnal pattern exhibited similarities with those of traffic-related compounds such as benzene...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Chiara Del Prete, Francesca Ciani, Simona Tafuri, Maria Pia Pasolini, Giovanni Della Valle, Veronica Palumbo, Lucia Abbondante, Antonio Calamo, Vincenza Barbato, Roberto Gualtieri, Riccardo Talevi, Natascia Cocchia
This study investigated the correlation between oxidative stress status and main canine sperm parameters and the effect of addition of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) combination in egg yolk tris-citrate glucose (EYT-G) extender on semen during 10 days of storage at 4° C. Ten Boxer dogs were included in this study and divided in two groups, fertile (F) and hypofertile (H), depending on pregnancy and live birth rates in the previous year. The semen evaluation was performed at the day of collection (D0) and after 5 (D5) and 10 (D10) days of cooled storage at 5° C...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Paweł Szpot, Grzegorz Buszewicz, Tomasz Jurek, Grzegorz Teresiński
This paper presents a rapid, sensitive and precise method for the determination of metaldehyde in human blood, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Separation was performed with a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column; 2.7 μm atrazine‑d5 (IS) and 200 mg NaCl were added to the blood sample. Proteins in human blood were precipitated using acetonitrile; the supernatant was then analyzed with the UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS or HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS system...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Maria Katselou, Sotiris Athanaselis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Samir Qammaz, Artemisia Dona, Chara Spiliopoulou, Ioannis Papoutsis
Antihistamines are excreted into breast milk in small amounts; however, there are no adequate published studies or data concerning their effects on newborns and safety during breastfeeding. Thus, the development of sensitive and specific methodologies for the determination of antihistamines in breast milk is critical. A simple and sensitive GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of eleven antihistamines (diphenhydramine, orphenadrine, chlorpheniramine, dimethindene, meclozine, hydroxyzine, loratadine, desloratadine, cetirizine, rupatadine and ebastine) in breast milk was developed and validated...
April 12, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Jie Yan, Lei Chen, Zhuang Liu, Yonglin Chen, Ying Sun, Jia Han, Lijun Feng
Intelectin is a recently characterized soluble galactofuranose-binding lectin that exists in species ranging from amphioxus to human. Interestingly, intelectin does not contain a canonical carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). Therefore, we designed serial deletions of intelectin in the Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense, AmphiITLN71469) in order to identify functional regions required for carbohydrate binding. Our results revealed that Domain 5 (aa 203-302) was able to bind lipopolysaccarides (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN) and agglutinate bacteria as efficiently as the full-length protein...
April 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Carolina Prado, Michela Gaiazzi, Hugo González, Valentina Ugalde, Alicia Figueroa, Francisco J Osorio-Barrios, Ernesto López, Alvaro Lladser, Emanuela Rasini, Franca Marino, Mauro Zaffaroni, Marco Cosentino, Rodrigo Pacheco
The dual potential to promote tolerance or inflammation to self-antigens makes dendritic cells (DCs) fundamental players in autoimmunity. Previous results have shown that stimulation of dopamine receptor D5 (DRD5) in DCs potentiates their inflammatory behaviour, favouring the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we aimed to decipher the underlying mechanism and to test its relevance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Our data shows that DRD5-deficiency confined to DCs in EAE mice resulted in reduced frequencies of CD4+ T-cell subsets with inflammatory potential in the central nervous system, including not only Th1 and Th17 cells but also granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor producers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Valerio Paolini, Francesco Petracchini, Monica Carnevale, Francesco Gallucci, Mattia Perilli, Giulio Esposito, Marco Segreto, Leandro Galanti Occulti, Davide Scaglione, Antonietta Ianniello, Massimiliano Frattoni
This study investigates the conversion of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) into biomethane for automotive fuel or grid injection. A prototype plant was monitored in Northern Italy, based on vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) on synthetic zeolite 13×: this biogas upgrading method is similar to pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and commonly used for other kinds of biomass. Measurements of biogas inlet, biomethane outlet and off-gas were performed including CH4 , CO2 , CO, H2 , O2 , N2 , HCl, HF, NH3 , H2 S and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Rui Shi, Hajime Tanaka
The microscopic structure of liquid water has been believed to be the key to the understanding of the unique properties of this extremely important substance. Many structural descriptors have been developed for revealing local structural order in water, but their properties are still not well understood. The essential difficulty comes from structural fluctuations due to thermal noise, which are intrinsic to the liquid state. The most popular and widely used descriptors are the local structure index (LSI) and d5 ...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Shuizhen He, Mengyuan Chen, Wenhui Wu, Qiang Yan, Zhihao Zhuo, Xiaosong Su, Shiyin Zhang, Shengxiang Ge, Ningshao Xia
Enterovirus (EV)-A71 and Coxsackievirus (CV)-A16 have historically been the major pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HMFD) in China; however, CV-A6, which had previously received little attention, became the predominant pathogen in 2013, and has remained one of the common pathogens since then. In this work, we conducted a molecular epidemiology study of CV-A6-associated HFMD in Xiamen from 2009 to 2015. The data showed CV-A6 pandemics had a certain periodicity rather than occurring randomly. Evolution analysis based on near-complete VP1 nucleotide sequences showed subgenotype D5 lineage 4 strains account for the persistent outbreak of CV-A6-associated HFMD in China since 2013...
March 24, 2018: Virology
Liyuan Wang, Huixian Xing, Yanchao Yuan, Xianlin Wang, Muhammad Saeed, Jincai Tao, Wei Feng, Guihua Zhang, Xianliang Song, Xuezhen Sun
Codon usage bias (CUB) is an important evolutionary feature in a genome which provides important information for studying organism evolution, gene function and exogenous gene expression. The CUB and its shaping factors in the nuclear genomes of four sequenced cotton species, G. arboreum (A2), G. raimondii (D5), G. hirsutum (AD1) and G. barbadense (AD2) were analyzed in the present study. The effective number of codons (ENC) analysis showed the CUB was weak in these four species and the four subgenomes of the two tetraploids...
2018: PloS One
Luis Enrique Arroyo-García, Rubén Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Alfonso Díaz, Samuel Treviño, Fidel De La Cruz, Gonzalo Flores, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno
Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor agonist that activates D1 -D5 dopamine receptors and that is used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effect of apomorphine on non-motor activity has been poorly studied, and likewise, the effects of dopaminergic activation in brain areas that do not fulfill motor functions are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine how dopamine receptor activation affects behavior, as well as plasticity, morphology, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Adult mice were chronically administered apomorphine (1 mg/kg for 15 days), and the effects on memory and learning, synaptic plasticity, dendritic length, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress were evaluated...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Anne E Barden, Sujata Shinde, Valerie Burke, Ian B Puddey, Lawrence J Beilin, Ashley B Irish, Gerald F Watts, Trevor A Mori
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils release leukotriene (LT)B4 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) that may be important mediators of chronic inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have the potential to attenuate inflammation through production of LTB5 and the Specialized Proresolving Lipid Mediators (SPM) that promote the resolution of inflammation. In animal models, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) also attenuates inflammation by reducing MPO and LTB4 ...
March 22, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Kai-Chun Chang, Yu-Ting Chang, Chin-En Tsai
A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of two β-agonists (ractopamine and salbutamol) in pig hair samples. An isotope of ractopamine-d5 or salbutamol-d6 as an internal standard was used to carry out quantitative analysis. Concentrated sodium hydroxide was used to pretreat hair samples and then purified by the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extracted solution was evaporated and reconstituted for injection in the instrument with electrospray ionization (ESI) operating in a positive multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Smadar Valérie Tourjman, Robert-Paul Juster, Scot Purdon, Emmanuel Stip, Edouard Kouassi, Stéphane Potvin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP) score and illness severity, subjective cognition and functioning in a cohort of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 40) diagnosed with MDD (DSM-IV-TR) completed the SCIP, a brief neuropsychological test, and a battery of self-administered questionnaires evaluating functioning (GAF, SDS, WHODAS 2.0, EDEC, PDQ-D5). Disease severity was evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI)...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
S Chevolleau, M-H Noguer-Meireles, I Jouanin, N Naud, F Pierre, F Gueraud, L Debrauwer
Red or processed meat rich diets have been shown to be associated with an elevated risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). One major hypothesis involves dietary heme iron which induces lipid peroxidation. The quantification of the resulting reactive aldehydes (e.g. HNE and HHE) in the colon lumen is therefore of great concern since these compounds are known for their cytotoxic and genotoxic properties. UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for HNE and HHE quantification in rat faeces. Samples were derivatised using a brominated reagent (BBHA) in presence of pre-synthesized deuterated internal standards (HNE-d11/HHE-d5), extracted by solid phase extraction, and then analysed by LC-positive ESI-MS/MS (MRM) on a TSQ Vantage mass spectrometer...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Cassandra Rauert, Mahiba Shoieb, Jasmin K Schuster, Anita Eng, Tom Harner
Poly- and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) were monitored at 21 sites in the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network. Atmospheric concentrations previously reported from 2009 were compared to concentrations measured at these sites in 2013 and 2015, to assess trends over 7 years of monitoring. Concentrations of the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and fluorinated sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs and FOSEs) were stable at these sites from 2009 to 2015 with no significant difference (p > 0...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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