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Brainstem glioma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261348/mri-features-and-idh-mutational-status-of-grade-ii-diffuse-gliomas-impact-on-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#1
Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Matthew D Wood, Byung Se Choi, Marc C Mabray, Nicholas A Butowski, Tarik Tihan, Soonmee Cha
OBJECTIVE: Grade II diffuse gliomas (DGs) with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are associated with better prognosis than their IDH wild-type counterparts. We sought to determine the MRI characteristics associated with IDH mutational status and ascertain whether MRI considered in combination with IDH mutational status can better predict the clinical outcomes of grade II DGs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative MRI examinations were retrospectively studied for qualitative tumor characteristics, including location, extent, cortical involvement, margin sharpness, cystic component, mineralization or hemorrhage, and contrast enhancement...
December 20, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241178/role-of-biopsies-in-the-management-of-intracranial-gliomas
#2
Kunal S Patel, Bob S Carter, Clark C Chen
Gliomas encompass a wide spectrum of various histopathological entities with different management strategies and associated prognoses. In many cases, initial biopsy of the brain lesion is required, since definitive diagnosis forms the foundation for treatment decision-making. Tissue sampling can be attained during stereotactic, open, or endoscopic procedures and, overall, provides >90% diagnostic yield, while it may be significantly lower (60-70%) in small (<1 cm3) and/or heterogeneous lesions. In the majority of the modern series, the morbidity rates do not exceed 2...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241176/surgery-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#3
James A Balogun, James T Rutka
Gliomas are the most common type of brain cancer in the pediatric patients, constituting about 50% of all childhood intracranial tumors. This is a highly heterogeneous group, varying from the benign WHO histopathological grades I and II to malignant WHO grades III and IV. The histology and location are significant prognostic factors, which influence the decision for surgical intervention, as well as the extent of possible tumor removal. In low-grade gliomas, surgery remains the initial option and should be directed at gross total resection in favorable locations, such as the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241175/surgery-of-critically-located-intracranial-gliomas
#4
Tomokatsu Hori, Atsushi Ishida, Yasuo Aihara, Seigo Matsuo, Haruko Yoshimoto, Hideki Shiramizu
Management of deep-seated and midline gliomas originating from thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and brainstem presents significant challenges. Aggressive resection of such tumors is frequently impossible due to excessive morbidity and mortality rates; thus, combinations of both surgical and non-surgical treatment options should be always considered. In each individual case, there should be reasonable clinical judgment with regard to the optimal outcome providing the best possible prognosis for the patient, with high quality of life and minimal risk of complications...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241172/neurophysiological-monitoring-and-awake-craniotomy-for-resection-of-intracranial-gliomas
#5
Taiichi Saito, Manabu Tamura, Mikhail F Chernov, Soko Ikuta, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama
Aggressive resection of intracranial gliomas has a positive impact on patients' prognosis, but is associated with a risk of neurological complications. For preservation of brain functions and avoidance of major postoperative morbidity various methods of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring have been introduced into clinical practice. At present, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are used routinely during neurosurgical procedures...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203315/long-term-remission-of-recurrent-brainstem-pilocytic-astrocytoma-with-neuraxis-dissemination-using-recombinant-human-endostatin-after-failure-of-vincristine-and-carboplatin-a-case-report
#6
Jing-Jing Ge, Cheng Li, Jun-Ping Zhang
BACKGROUND: There is no standard salvage treatment for recurrent and/or unresectable brainstem low-grade gliomas after failure from carboplatin and vincristine chemotherapy. Recombinant human endostatin (rh-ES), a mild inhibitor of angiogenesis, has been used for treating lung cancer. But so far as we know, there is no experience for brainstem gliomas. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors present a pediatric case of recurrent brainstem pilocytic astrocytoma with neuraxis dissemination experienced tumor progression with carboplatin and vincristine chemotherapy, but got a dramatic and long-term remission for at least 29 months after combined treatment of rh-ES with carboplatin and vincristine...
December 1, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198324/developing-chemotherapy-for-diffuse-pontine-intrinsic-gliomas-dipg
#7
REVIEW
Ho-Shin Gwak, Hyeon Jin Park
Prognosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is poor, with a median survival of 10 months after radiation. At present, chemotherapy has failed to show benefits over radiation. Advances in biotechnology have enabled the use of autopsy specimens for genomic analyses and molecular profiling of DIPG, which are quite different from those of supratentorial high grade glioma. Recently, combined treatments of cytotoxic agents with target inhibitors, based on biopsied tissue, are being examined in on-going trials...
December 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189105/characterization-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-radiosensitivity-using-synchrotron-microbeam-radiotherapy-and-conventional-radiation-therapy-in-vitro
#8
L M Smyth, P A W Rogers, J C Crosbie, J F Donoghue
Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy is a promising preclinical radiotherapy modality that has been proposed as an alternative to conventional radiation therapy for diseases such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), a devastating pediatric tumor of the brainstem. The primary goal of this study was to characterize and compare the radiosensitivity of two DIPG cell lines (SF7761 and JHH-DIPG-1) to microbeam and conventional radiation. We hypothesized that these DIPG cell lines would exhibit differential responses to each radiation modality...
November 30, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187219/re-irradiation-for-recurrent-glioma-the-nci-experience-in-tumor-control-oar-toxicity-and-proposal-of-a-novel-prognostic-scoring-system
#9
Andra Valentina Krauze, Cord Peters, Jason Cheng, Holly Ning, Megan Mackey, Lindsay Rowe, Theresa Cooley-Zgela, Dee Dee Smart, Kevin Camphausen
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Despite mounting evidence for the use of re-irradiation (re-RT) in recurrent high grade glioma, optimal patient selection criteria for re-RT remain unknown. We present a novel scoring system based on radiobiology principles including target independent factors, the likelihood of target control, and the anticipated organ at risk (OAR) toxicity to allow for proper patient selection in the setting of recurrent glioma. MATERIALS/METHODS: Thirty one patients with recurrent glioma who received re-RT (2008-2016) at NCI - NIH were included in the analysis...
November 29, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170909/new-therapeutic-approaches-for-brainstem-tumors-a-comparison-of-delivery-routes-using-nanoliposomal-irinotecan-in-an-animal-model
#10
Nundia Louis, Sharon Liu, Xingyao He, Daryl C Drummond, Charles O Noble, Stewart Goldman, Sabine Mueller, Krystof Bankiewicz, Nalin Gupta, Rintaro Hashizume
Despite the advances in imaging, surgery and radiotherapy, the majority of patients with brainstem gliomas die within 2 years after initial diagnosis. Factors that contribute to the dismal prognosis of these patients include the infiltrative nature and anatomic location in an eloquent area of the brain, which prevents total surgical resection and the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which reduces the distribution of systemically administered agents. The development of new therapeutic approaches which can circumvent the BBB is a potential path to improve outcomes for these children...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148317/brainstem-glioma-prediction-of-histopathologic-grade-based-on-conventional-mr-imaging
#11
Yashar Moharamzad, Morteza Sanei Taheri, Farhad Niaghi, Elham Shobeiri
Objective The objective of this article is to investigate the association between specific MR imaging findings and histopathologic grading (low-grade vs. high-grade) of brainstem gliomas (BSGs). Methods Sixty-two males and 34 females (mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 24.61 (17.20) years, range = 3 to 70 years) with histologically diagnosed BSG underwent conventional 1.5 T MR imaging, which included T1-weighted (T1W), T2W, and post-contrast T1W sequences. There were 39 children (mean age of 9.38 years) and 57 adults (mean age of 35 years)...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137285/genetic-and-immune-features-of-resectable-malignant-brainstem-gliomas
#12
Yang Zhang, Changcun Pan, Junmei Wang, Jingli Cao, Yuhan Liu, Yajie Wang, Liwei Zhang
We surveyed common genetic mutations (IDH1, H3F3A, PPM1D, and TP53) and immune features (PD-L1 expression and CD8(+) T cell tumor infiltration) in a series of 62 malignant brainstem gliomas that were resected via microsurgery. IDH1 mutations were mutually exclusive with H3F3A mutations. IDH1 mutations appeared only in adults and occurred more frequently in tumors larger than 10cm(3) (8/29 vs 1/32, Fisher's exact test, p=0.010). H3F3A mutations occurred more frequently in children and adolescent patients (19/24 vs 18/38, chi-square test, p=0...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118968/combination-of-ezh2-inhibitor-and-bet-inhibitor-for-treatment-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#13
Yaqin Zhang, Weijie Dong, Junying Zhu, Lizhu Wang, Xinjian Wu, Hong Shan
Background: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is an infiltrative, often high-grade glioma of the brainstem that is not amenable to surgical resection. The current treatment of DIPG by radiation therapy showed dramatically improvement of patient's condition, however, the tumor recurs rapidly. More and more studies are focused on the genetic and epigenetic drivers of DIPGs, which may provide more and more novel therapy target for DIPG. EZH2 has been proved to be a potential therapeutic target for H3K27M-mutant pediatric gliomas recently...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100338/patient-derived-dipg-cells-preserve-stem-like-characteristics-and-generate-orthotopic-tumors
#14
Cheng Xu, Xiaoqing Liu, Yibo Geng, Qingran Bai, Changcun Pan, Yu Sun, Xin Chen, Hai Yu, Yuliang Wu, Peng Zhang, Wenhao Wu, Yu Wang, Zhen Wu, Junting Zhang, Zhaohui Wang, Rui Yang, Jenna Lewis, Darell Bigner, Fangping Zhao, Yiping He, Hai Yan, Qin Shen, Liwei Zhang
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a devastating brain tumor, with a median survival of less than one year. Due to enormous difficulties in the acquisition of DIPG specimens and the sophisticated technique required to perform brainstem orthotopic injection, only a handful of DIPG pre-clinical models are available. In this study, we successfully established eight patient-derived DIPG cell lines, mostly derived from treatment-naïve surgery or biopsy specimens. These patient-derived cell lines can be stably passaged in serum-free neural stem cell media and displayed distinct morphologies, growth rates and chromosome abnormalities...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050897/a-retrospective-study-of-bevacizumab-for-treatment-of-brainstem-glioma-with-malignant-features
#15
Shigeta Moriya, Shigeo Ohba, Kazuhide Adachi, Yuya Nishiyama, Takuro Hayashi, Shinya Nagahisa, Takafumi Kaito, Shunsuke Nakae, Yuichi Hirose
Brainstem glioma is impossible to resect completely, and patients with this type of glioma show a poor prognosis. Therefore, a more effective adjuvant therapy is required to prolong survival. Bevacizumab is an endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody with strong anti-vascular effects, which may suppress tumor progression. We performed a retrospective study of data from 6 patients with brainstem glioma showing malignant features who were treated with bevacizumab. Tumor-associated lesions, as evaluated by T2 weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging, were reduced in all patients, although the timing of the start of bevacizumab administration and pretreatment were not uniform...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046514/protein-phosphatase-magnesium-dependent-1%C3%AE-ppm1d-expression-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-adult-supratentorial-diffuse-astrocytic-and-oligodenroglial-tumors
#16
Hui Jeong Jeong, Chang Gok Woo, Bora Lee, Shin Kwang Khang, Soo Jeong Nam, Jene Choi
Background: Protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1δ (PPM1D) is a p53-induced serine/threonine phosphatase, which is overexpressed in various human cancers. A recent study reported that the mutation in the PPM1D gene is associated with poor prognosis in brainstem gliomas. In this study, we evaluate the utility of PPM1D as a prognostic biomarker of adult supratentorial diffuse astrocytic and oligodenroglial tumors. Materials and Methods: To investigate PPM1D protein expression, mRNA expression, and copy number changes, immunohistochemistry, RNAscope in situ hybridization, and fluorescence in situ hybridization in 84 adult supratentorial diffuse gliomas were performed, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044454/the-role-of-telovelar-approach-in-fourth-ventricular-surgery-a-new-perspective
#17
Ehab Eissa
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation the efficiency of the telovelar approach for 4th ventricular lesions through identifying and preserving neurovascular structures. METHODS: Forty cases of fourth ventricular tumours using the telovelar approach Results: It provides adequate exposure in all cases. The brainstem and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were early identified and preserved in all cases. Potential tumour attachment was observed at the floor of the fourth ventricle in twenty two (55%) cases, 5 of them were brain stem glioma...
August 31, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989289/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-optimal-management-of-glioma-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#18
REVIEW
Tejan P Diwanji, Alexander Engelman, James W Snider, Pranshu Mohindra
Neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) are the most frequently encountered solid tumors of childhood, but are less common in adolescents and young adults (AYA), aged 15-39 years. Gliomas account for 29%-35% of the CNS tumors in AYA, with approximately two-thirds being low-grade glioma (LGG) and the remaining being high-grade glioma (HGG). We review the epidemiology, work-up, and management of LGG and HGG, focusing on the particular issues faced by the AYA population relative to pediatric and adult populations...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986151/braf-v600e-mutation-is-a-significant-prognosticator-of-the-tumour-regrowth-rate-in-brainstem-gangliogliomas
#19
Xin Chen, Changcun Pan, Peng Zhang, Cheng Xu, Yu Sun, Hai Yu, Yuliang Wu, Yibo Geng, Pengcheng Zuo, Zhen Wu, Junting Zhang, Liwei Zhang
BRAF V600E mutations are progression factors in paediatric low-grade gliomas. Furthermore, a high percentage of paediatric brainstem gangliogliomas have BRAF V600E mutations. However, their clinical significance, including possible connections between the biomarkers and ganglioglioma's clinical features, especially a brainstem counterpart, is unclear. To identify potential molecular features predictive of brainstem ganglioglioma's clinical outcomes, a retrospective cohort of 28 World Health Organization (WHO) grade I brainstem gangliogliomas was analysed for BRAF V600E, IDH1 R132H, and IDH2 R172K mutations, TERT C228T/C250T promoter mutation, H3F3A K27M mutation and MGMT methylation...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978723/a-murine-model-for-quantitative-real-time-evaluation-of-convection-enhanced-delivery-rt-ced-using-an-18-f-positron-emitting-fluorescent-derivative-of-dasatinib
#20
Melinda Wang, Harikrishna Kommidi, Umberto Tosi, Hua Guo, Zhiping Zhou, Melanie E Schweitzer, Linda Y Wu, Ranjodh Singh, Shengqi Hou, Benedict Law, Richard Ting, Mark M Souweidane
The blood brain barrier can limit the efficacy of systemically delivered drugs in treating neurological malignancies; therefore, alternate routes of drug administration must be considered. The Abl-kinase inhibitor, dasatinib, is modified to give compound 1 ([18F]-1) so that 18F-positron emission tomography (PET) and fluorescent imaging can both be used to observe drug delivery to murine orthotopic glioma. In vitro western blotting, binding studies (IC50 = 22 ± 5 nM), and cell viability assays (IC50 = 46 ± 30 nM) confirm nanomolar, in vitro effectiveness of [18F]-1, a dasatinib derivative that is visible by 18F-PET and fluorescence...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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