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Brainstem glioma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052119/pre-clinical-study-of-panobinostat-in-xenograft-and-genetically-engineered-murine-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-models
#1
Tammy Hennika, Guo Hu, Nagore G Olaciregui, Kelly L Barton, Anahid Ehteda, Arjanna Chitranjan, Cecilia Chang, Andrew J Gifford, Maria Tsoli, David S Ziegler, Angel M Carcaboso, Oren J Becher
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), or high-grade brainstem glioma (BSG), is one of the major causes of brain tumor-related deaths in children. Its prognosis has remained poor despite numerous efforts to improve survival. Panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is a targeted agent that has recently shown pre-clinical efficacy and entered a phase I clinical trial for the treatment of children with recurrent or progressive DIPG. METHODS: A collaborative pre-clinical study was conducted using both a genetic BSG mouse model driven by PDGF-B signaling, p53 loss, and ectopic H3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048352/th-ef-brb-01-best-in-physics-therapy-dosimetric-comparison-of-4%C3%AF-and-clinical-imrt-for-cortex-sparing-high-grade-glioma-treatment
#2
K Woods, R Karunamuni, A Tran, V Yu, D Nguyen, J Hattangadi-Gluth, K Sheng
PURPOSE: Thinning of the cerebral cortex has been observed in patients treated with fractionated partial brain radiation therapy and may contribute to cognitive decline following treatment. The extent of this thinning is dose-dependent, and was shown comparable to that of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease at one year post-therapy. This study investigates whether 4π radiotherapy can enable better sparing of the cortex and other critical structures when compared to conventional clinical IMRT plans...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039366/the-use-of-o-2-18f-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine-pet-in-the-diagnosis-of-gliomas-located-in-the-brainstem-and-spinal-cord
#3
Caroline Tscherpel, Veronika Dunkl, Garry Ceccon, Gabriele Stoffels, Natalie Judov, Marion Rapp, Philipp T Meyer, Elena Rota Kops, Johannes Ermert, Gereon R Fink, Nadim J Shah, Karl-Josef Langen, Norbert Galldiks
BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing number of O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET studies in supratentorial gliomas, studies regarding the usefulness of (18)F-FET PET in brainstem and spinal cord gliomas to date remain scarce. METHODS: Thirty-six (18)F-FET PET scans were performed in 29 patients with brainstem (n = 29 scans) or spinal cord glioma (n = 7 scans). In 32 of 36 PET scans, a dynamic acquisition was performed. Fifteen scans in 15 patients were performed to assess newly diagnosed lesions, and 21 scans were obtained during follow-up: for diagnosing tumor progression (n = 15 scans in 14 patients) as well as for treatment monitoring (n = 6 scans in 3 patients)...
December 29, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032389/bithalamic-gliomas-may-be-molecularly-distinct-from-their-unilateral-high-grade-counterparts
#4
Alberto Broniscer, Scott N Hwang, Omar Chamdine, Tong Lin, Stanley Pounds, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Lei Chi, Sheila Shurtleff, Sariah Allen, Amar Gajjar, Paul Northcott, Brent A Orr
Bithalamic gliomas are rare cancers diagnosed based on poorly defined radiologic criteria. Infiltrative astrocytomas account for most cases. While some previous studies reported dismal outcomes for patients with bithalamic gliomas irrespective of therapy and histologic grade, others described better prognoses even without anticancer therapy. Little is known about their molecular characteristics. We reviewed clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of patients with bithalamic gliomas treated at our institution over 15 years...
December 28, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987035/distant-recurrences-limit-the-survival-of-patients-with-thalamic-high-grade-gliomas-after-successful-resection
#5
Ryuta Saito, Toshihiro Kumabe, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Teiji Tominaga
The indications of surgery for thalamic high-grade gliomas are not well established. The present study investigated the outcome of 21 patients treated by surgery and reports the high incidence of distant recurrences including disseminations after successful removal. Twenty-one patients with thalamic high-grade gliomas not invading the pyramidal tract or midbrain underwent cytoreductive surgery at our institute from June 1997 to August 2015. Surgery was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation system, electrophysiological monitoring, and fluorescence navigation...
December 17, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889018/posterior-fossa-tumors
#6
REVIEW
Lara A Brandão, Tina Young Poussaint
Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810966/brainstem-low-grade-gliomas-in-children-excellent-outcomes-with-multimodality-therapy
#7
Santhosh A Upadhyaya, Carl Koschmann, Karin Muraszko, Sriram Venneti, Hugh J Garton, Daniel A Hamstra, Cormac O Maher, Bryan L Betz, Noah A Brown, Daniel Wahl, Helmut C Weigelin, Kathleen E DuRoss, Annette S Leonard, Patricia L Robertson
Safe maximal surgical resection is the initial treatment of choice for pediatric brainstem low-grade gliomas. Optimal therapy for incompletely resected tumors or that progress after surgery is uncertain. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, therapy, and outcomes of all children with nontectal brainstem low-grade gliomas treated at the University of Michigan between 1993 and 2013. Median age at diagnosis was 6 years; histology was confirmed in 23 of 25 tumors, 64% were pilocytic astrocytoma. Nineteen patients underwent initial tumor resection; 14/19 received no upfront adjuvant therapy...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659914/acute-brainstem-haemorrhage-as-a-presenting-feature-of-high-grade-glioma
#8
Yasmin Aghajan, Michael L Levy, Jun Qin Mo, John Ross Crawford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593809/adult-brainstem-gliomas-retrospective-analysis-of-51-patients
#9
Goran Tasic, Nikola Repac, Igor Nikolic, Vojislav Bogosavljevic, Vul Scepanovic, Aleksandar Janicijevic, Aleksandra Eric-Nikolic, Lukas Rasulic
AIM: Brain stem gliomas constitute less than 2% of brain tumors in adults. Therapeutic options are limited and brainstem gliomas are associated with a high morbidity and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 51 patients with brainstem gliomas treated at the Institute of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade between 1998 and 2012. We recorded demographic and clinical variables as well as radiological findings and survival. RESULTS: Of the 51 patients 62...
April 13, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582545/characterizing-and-targeting-pdgfra-alterations-in-pediatric-high-grade-glioma
#10
Carl Koschmann, Daniel Zamler, Alan MacKay, Dan Robinson, Yi-Mi Wu, Robert Doherty, Bernard Marini, Dustin Tran, Hugh Garton, Karin Muraszko, Patricia Robertson, Marcia Leonard, Lili Zhao, Dale Bixby, Luke Peterson, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Chris Jones, Rajen Mody, Pedro R Lowenstein, Maria G Castro
Pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG, WHO Grade III and IV) is a devastating brain tumor with a median survival of less than two years. PDGFRA is frequently mutated/ amplified in pediatric HGG, but the significance of this finding has not been fully characterized. We hypothesize that alterations of PDGFRA will promote distinct prognostic and treatment implications in pediatric HGG. In order to characterize the impact of PDGFR pathway alterations, we integrated genomic data from pediatric HGG patients (n=290) from multiple pediatric datasets and sequencing platforms...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564076/extensive-postradiation-ocular-and-diffuse-cranial-neuromyotonia-mimicking-myasthenia-gravis
#11
Todd A Hardy, Andrew W Lee, Con Yiannikas, Celia S Chen, Stephen W Reddel
BACKGROUND: Ocular neuromyotonia is a rare, but well-recognized, complication of cranial irradiation. CASE REPORT: Using figures and videos, we report a 52-year-old man with extensive ocular, brainstem, and lower cranial nerve neuromyotonia postradiation therapy for a fourth ventricle glioma who, in the context of an apparently positive edrophonium test, was initially misdiagnosed with myasthenia gravis. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of postirradiation neuromyotonia to be reported with such extensive cranial nerve and brainstem involvement...
September 2016: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556016/brainstem-glioma-in-adults
#12
REVIEW
Jethro Hu, Stephen Western, Santosh Kesari
Brainstem gliomas are not nearly as common in adults as they are in children. They are likely the final common consequence not of a single disease process but of several. They can be difficult to diagnose, and are challenging to treat. Clinical studies of this diagnosis are few and generally small. Because of these factors, our understanding of the biology of adult brainstem glioma is incomplete. However, the knowledge base is growing and progress is being made. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge for brainstem glioma in adults and identify key areas for which additional information is required...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538997/polo-like-kinase%C3%A2-1-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#13
Vladimir Amani, Eric W Prince, Irina Alimova, Ilango Balakrishnan, Diane Birks, Andrew M Donson, Peter Harris, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Michael Handler, Nicholas K Foreman, Sujatha Venkataraman, Rajeev Vibhakar
BACKGROUND: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are highly aggressive, fatal, childhood tumors that arise in the brainstem. DIPGs have no effective treatment, and their location and diffuse nature render them inoperable. Radiation therapy remains the only standard of care for this devastating disease. New therapeutic targets are needed to develop novel therapy for DIPG. METHODS: We examined the expression of PLK1 mRNA in DIPG tumor samples through microarray analysis and found it to be up regulated versus normal pons...
2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438806/discrepant-longitudinal-volumetric-and-metabolic-evolution-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas-during-treatment-implications-for-current-response-assessment-strategies
#14
U Löbel, S Hwang, A Edwards, Y Li, X Li, A Broniscer, Z Patay
INTRODUCTION: Based on clinical observations, we hypothesized that in infiltrative high-grade brainstem neoplasms, such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), longitudinal metabolic evaluation of the tumor by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be more accurate than volumetric data for monitoring the tumor's biological evolution during standard treatment. METHODS: We evaluated longitudinal MRS data and corresponding tumor volumes of 31 children with DIPG...
October 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413338/racemose-variant-of-neurocysticercosis-a-case-report
#15
Rani Bansal, Mamta Gupta, Vinay Bharat, Neha Sood, Moneet Agarwal
Neurocysticercosis is an important parasitic disease of the central nervous system and constitutes a public health challenge for most of the developing world. Radiological findings may be quite variable. A 50 year old man presented with recent onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures. CT scan revealed a lobulated cystic lesion in the right fronto-temporal lobe compressing the lateral and third ventricle and upper brainstem. Clinico-radiological diagnosis of right fronto-temporal space occupying lesion with possibility of cystic glioma was made...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378212/radiotherapy-for-diffuse-brainstem-glioma-in-children-and-young-adults
#16
REVIEW
Xin Hu, Yuan Fang, Xuhui Hui, Yan Jv, Chao You
BACKGROUND: Diffuse brainstem glioma is a devastating disease with very poor prognosis. The most commonly used radiological treatment is conventional fractionated radiation. So far, there is no meta-analysis or systematic review available that assesses the benefits or harms of radiation in people with diffuse brainstem glioma. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of conventional fractionated radiotherapy (with or without chemotherapy) versus other therapies (including different radiotherapy techniques) for newly diagnosed diffuse brainstem gliomas in children and young adults aged 0 to 21 years...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334276/intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-and-3d%C3%A2-conformal-radiotherapy-in-anaplastic-astrocytoma-and-glioblastoma-a-dosimetric-comparison
#17
S Adeberg, S B Harrabi, N Bougatf, D Bernhardt, J Rieber, S A Koerber, M Syed, T Sprave, A Mohr, A Abdollahi, T Haberer, S E Combs, K Herfarth, J Debus, S Rieken
PURPOSE: The prognosis for high-grade glioma (HGG) patients is poor; thus, treatment-related side effects need to be minimized to conserve quality of life and functionality. Advanced techniques such as proton radiation therapy (PRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may potentially further reduce the frequency and severity of radiogenic impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 12 HGG patients who had undergone postoperative intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT)...
June 22, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27332770/outcome-of-young-children-with-high-grade-glioma-treated-with-irradiation-avoiding-intensive-chemotherapy-regimens-final-report-of-the-head-start-ii-and-iii-trials
#18
Juan C Espinoza, Kelley Haley, Neha Patel, Girish Dhall, Sharon Gardner, Jeffrey Allen, Joseph Torkildson, Albert Cornelius, Rod Rassekh, Antranik Bedros, Morris Etzl, James Garvin, Kamnesh Pradhan, Robin Corbett, Michael Sullivan, Geoffrey McGowage, Dagmar Stein, Rama Jasty, Stephen A Sands, Lingyun Ji, Richard Sposto, Jonathan L Finlay
PURPOSE: To report the final analysis of survival outcomes for children with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma (HGG) treated on the "Head Start" (HS) II and III protocols with chemotherapy and intent to avoid irradiation in children <6 years old. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1997 and 2009, 32 eligible children were enrolled in HS II and III with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, n = 19), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, n = 11), or other HGG (n = 2). Central pathology review was completed on 78% of patients...
October 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27327773/adult-brainstem-gliomas
#19
REVIEW
Sylvia C Eisele, David A Reardon
Brainstem gliomas in adults are a rare and heterogeneous group of brain tumors that vary with regard to underlying pathology, radiographic appearance, clinical course and prognosis. Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas represent the most common subtype. Although still considered aggressive and most often lethal, these brain tumors are associated with a more insidious clinical course and more favorable prognosis compared to the highly aggressive form in children. Treatment options for patients with brainstem gliomas still are limited and insufficiently studied...
September 15, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311729/cognitive-outcomes-among-survivors-of-focal-low-grade-brainstem-tumors-diagnosed-in-childhood
#20
Kellie N Clark, Jason M Ashford, Atmaram S Pai Panandiker, Paul Klimo, Thomas E Merchant, Catherine A Billups, Heather M Conklin
Pediatric focal low-grade brainstem tumors are associated with excellent prognosis. Surgical resection and conformal radiation therapy are front-line treatment options; radiation therapy (RT) serves as an excellent treatment for disease progression. Given high survival rates and limited research regarding functional outcomes, the current study examined neurocognitive outcomes in a group of low-grade brainstem glioma survivors. Forty-three survivors of focal low-grade brainstem gliomas underwent neurocognitive assessment (58 % male; median = 6...
September 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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