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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727155/mucosal-associated-invariant-mait-cells-are-deficient-in-systemic-sclerosis
#1
Arsène Mekinian, Thibaut Mahevas, Mohamad Mohty, Vincent Jachiet, Sébastien Rivière, Olivier Fain, Béatrice Gaugler
OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by fibrosis of the skin and other organs, vascular impairment and deficient immune responses. Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT) cells have been involved in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of MAIT cells in the blood of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to compare their distribution in the different types of SSc. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples from SSc patients and healthy controls were examined by flow cytometer to analyze the frequencies of MAIT and γδ T cells...
July 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726984/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-alterations-in-uteroplacental-hemodynamics-during-melatonin-supplementation-in-sheep-and-cattle
#2
C O Lemley, K A Vonnahme
Compromised placental function can result in fetal growth restriction which is associated with greater risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Large increases in transplacental nutrient and waste exchange, which support the exponential increase in fetal growth during the last half of gestation, are dependent primarily on the rapid growth and vascularization of the uteroplacenta. The amplitude of melatonin secretion has been associated with improved oxidative status and altered cardiovascular function in several mammalian species; however, melatonin mediated alterations of uteroplacental capacity in sheep and cattle are lacking...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722138/a-red-blood-cell-model-to-estimate-the-hemolysis-fingerprint-of-cardiovascular-devices
#3
Riccardo Toninato, Giuseppe Fadda, Francesca Maria Susin
One of the most relevant and open issues within cardiovascular prosthetic hemodynamic performance is a realistic quantification of the damage sustained by red blood cells (RBCs). Specifically, the optimal design of bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) requires both low shear stresses along the leaflets and short particle resident times. This study approaches RBC damage estimation by developing a numerical model of RBCs and computing the damage sustained by a set of passive RBCs immersed within in vitro flows...
July 19, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716304/three-dimensional-computational-model-of-a-blood-oxygenator-reconstructed-from-micro-ct-scans
#4
C D'Onofrio, R van Loon, S Rolland, R Johnston, L North, S Brown, R Phillips, J Sienz
Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures are one of the most common operations and blood oxygenators are the centre piece for the heart-lung machines. Blood oxygenators have been tested as entire devices but intricate details on the flow field inside the oxygenators remain unknown. In this study, a novel method is presented to analyse the flow field inside oxygenators based on micro Computed Tomography (μCT) scans. Two Hollow Fibre Membrane (HFM) oxygenator prototypes were scanned and three-dimensional full scale models that capture the device-specific fibre distributions are set up for computational fluid dynamics analysis...
July 14, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714519/circulating-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-predict-overall-survival-of-patients-with-unresectable-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Chen Liu, He Cheng, Guopei Luo, Yu Lu, Kaizhou Jin, Meng Guo, Quanxing Ni, Xianjun Yu
Most patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have unresectable cancers with a dismal prognosis, in which cohort chemotherapy is the primary treatment. T cell immune adaption is critical for tumor immune escape and prognosis of this disease. The present study aimed to determine the correlation between peripheral T cell subset distribution in patients with unresectable PDAC and their response to chemotherapy. Two hundred and twelve patients with unresectable PDAC were included whose blood samples were collected for analysis of T cell subsets, including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD8+CD28+ and CD4+CD25+CD127 T cells by flow cytometry before and after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy...
August 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710401/capture-of-microparticles-by-bolus-flow-of-red-blood-cells-in-capillaries
#6
Naoki Takeishi, Yohsuke Imai
Previous studies have concluded that microparticles (MPs) can more effectively approach the microvessel wall than nanoparticles because of margination. In this study, however, we show that MPs are not marginated in capillaries where the vessel diameter is comparable to that of red blood cells (RBCs). We numerically investigated the behavior of MPs with a diameter of 1 μm in various microvessel sizes, including capillaries. In capillaries, the flow mode of RBCs shifted from multi-file flow to bolus (single-file) flow, and MPs were captured by the bolus flow of the RBCs instead of being marginated...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700720/altered-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-features-in-fibromyalgia-patients-in-resting-state-conditions
#7
Alejandro Rodríguez, José Tembl, Patricia Mesa-Gresa, Miguel Ángel Muñoz, Pedro Montoya, Beatriz Rey
The aim of this study is to characterize in resting-state conditions the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) signals of fibromyalgia patients. The anterior and middle cerebral arteries of both hemispheres from 15 women with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy women were monitored using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) during a 5-minute eyes-closed resting period. Several signal processing methods based on time, information theory, frequency and time-frequency analyses were used in order to extract different features to characterize the CBFV signals in the different vessels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696666/amplified-micromagnetic-field-gradients-enable-high-resolution-profiling-of-rare-cell-subpopulations
#8
Mahla Poudineh, Edward H Sargent, Shana O Kelley
Analyzing small collections of cells is challenging because of the need for extremely high levels of sensitivity. We recently reported a new approach, termed magnetic ranking cytometry (MagRC), to profile nanoparticle-labeled cells. Using antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, we label cells so that each cell's magnetization is proportional to its surface expression of a selected biomarker. Using a microfluidic device that sorts the cells into 100 different zones based on that magnetism, we generate profiles that report on the level and distribution of surface expression in small collections of cells...
July 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694558/impact-of-vaccination-on-distribution-of-t-cell-subsets-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-infected-children
#9
Premrutai Thitilertdecha, Ladawan Khowawisetsut, Palanee Ammaranond, Poonsin Poungpairoj, Varangkana Tantithavorn, Nattawat Onlamoon
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is generally prescribed to patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with vaccination introduced to prevent disease complications. However, little is known about the influence of immunization on T cell subsets' distribution during the course of infection. This study aims to identify the impact of viral replication and immunization on naïve, effector, effector memory, and central memory T cell subpopulations in ART-treated HIV-infected children. Fifty patients were recruited and injected intramuscularly with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine on the day of enrollment (day 0) and day 28...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693692/the-characteristics-of-blood-supply-and-tissue-hypoxia-in-pathological-scars
#10
Li Zifei, Liu Qingliang, Wang Xiaojun, Luan Jie
Blood supply is believed to be an important aspect in the development of pathological scars. However, there are controversies about vascular distribution, vascular structure and blood flow in pathological scars. Additionally, hypoxic microenvironment plays an important role in the vascularization of pathological scar tissues, and hypoxic conditions can be reflected by metabolic indexes and some cytokines. Furthermore, the correlation between blood supply and tissue hypoxia is controversial. The aim of this article is to review the literature on the characteristics of blood supply and tissue hypoxia in pathological scars, from which we can see pathological scars have unique characteristics of blood supply that are closely associated with tissue hypoxia...
June 10, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689963/development-of-expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-cardiovascular-graft-platform-based-on-immobilization-of-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoparticles-using-a-wet-chemical-modification-technique
#11
Bassam M Al Meslmani, Gihan F Mahmoud, Udo Bakowsky
Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ePTFE grafts are mostly employed to replace damaged blood vessels and to restore normal blood flow. However, the dilemma of early thrombosis, inflammation, and development of biofilms after implantation limit ePTFE long-term patency and restrict the patient's life quality. In this study, poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were covalently immobilized on ePTFE surface for local therapeutic purposes. First, the ePTFE surface was primarily oxidized by H2O2/H2SO4 solution to create hydroxyl groups...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681554/black-scorpionfish-scorpaena-porcus-hemopoiesis-analysis-by-flow-cytometry-and-light-microscopy
#12
Aleksandra Y Andreyeva, Aleksander A Soldatov, Tatiana A Kukhareva
Cell suspensions of head kidney and spleen of black scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus L.) have been studied using flow cytometry and light microscopy. On the basis of forward scatter (FS) and side scatter (SS) distribution and light microscopy two main types of cells in the hemopoietic organs were identified: "small cells" (5,1-8,9 µm) and "large cells" (10,8-15,3 µm). Subpopulation of small cells was formed by thrombocytes, lymphocytes and elements with functionally inactive nuclei. Euchromatin level in their nuclei was low and acidophilic cytoplasm corresponded to negligible nucleic acids content...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674847/a-new-integrated-dual-time-point-amyloid-pet-mri-data-analysis-method
#13
Diego Cecchin, Henryk Barthel, Davide Poggiali, Annachiara Cagnin, Solveig Tiepolt, Pietro Zucchetta, Paolo Turco, Paolo Gallo, Anna Chiara Frigo, Osama Sabri, Franco Bui
PURPOSE: In the initial evaluation of patients with suspected dementia and Alzheimer's disease, there is no consensus on how to perform semiquantification of amyloid in such a way that it: (1) facilitates visual qualitative interpretation, (2) takes the kinetic behaviour of the tracer into consideration particularly with regard to at least partially correcting for blood flow dependence, (3) analyses the amyloid load based on accurate parcellation of cortical and subcortical areas, (4) includes partial volume effect correction (PVEC), (5) includes MRI-derived topographical indexes, (6) enables application to PET/MRI images and PET/CT images with separately acquired MR images, and (7) allows automation...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669910/vascular-density-and-distribution-in-neocortex
#14
REVIEW
Franca Schmid, Matthew J P Barrett, Patrick Jenny, Bruno Weber
An amazingly wide range of complex behavior emerges from the cerebral cortex. Much of the information processing that leads to these behaviors is performed in neocortical circuits that span throughout the six layers of the cortex. Maintaining this circuit activity requires substantial quantities of oxygen and energy substrates, which are delivered by the complex yet well-organized and tightly-regulated vascular system. In this review, we provide a detailed characterization of the most relevant anatomical and functional features of the cortical vasculature...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665712/left-ventricular-end-diastole-hemodynamics-is-strongly-associated-with-spontaneous-cardiac-baroreflex-in-humans
#15
Karol Makowski, Elżbieta Kramarz, Grzegorz Kamiński, Monika Grzęda, Paulina Kramarz, Grzegorz Kade
BACKGROUND: In animals, hemodynamic conditions during left ventricular (LV) end-diastole are crucial for the excitation of autonomic afferents distributed throughout cardiac chambers and large thoracic vessels. The objective of the study was to select the echocardiographic indices of LV diastolic function that are the most potent predictors of the heart's spontaneous baroreflex in humans. METHODS: In 47 untreated hypertensive patients (26 with normal and 21 with increased left atrium diameter) and 24 healthy controls, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed in the low (αLF; 0...
June 30, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662952/vaccination-against-histomonosis-limits-pronounced-changes-of-b-cells-and-t-cell-subsets-in-turkeys-and-chickens
#16
Taniya Mitra, Wilhelm Gerner, Fana Alem Kidane, Patricia Wernsdorf, Michael Hess, Armin Saalmüller, Dieter Liebhart
The protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis is the causative agent of histomonosis in gallinaceous birds. In turkeys, the disease can result in high mortality due to severe inflammation and necrosis in caecum and liver, whereas in chickens the disease is less severe. Recently, experimental vaccination was shown to protect chickens and turkeys against histomonosis but dynamics in the cellular immune response are not yet demonstrated. In the present work, different groups of birds of both species were vaccinated with attenuated, and/or infected with virulent histomonads...
June 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658585/transport-and-flow-characteristics-of-an-oscillating-cylindrical-fiber-for-total-artificial-lung-application
#17
Adnan Qamar, Joseph L Bull
Mass transport and fluid dynamics characteristics in the vicinity of an oscillating cylindrical fiber with an imposed pulsatile inflow condition are computationally investigated in the present study. The work is motivated by a recently proposed design modification to the Total Artificial Lung (TAL) device, which is expected to provide better gas exchange. Navier-Stokes computations, coupled with convection-diffusion equation are performed to assess flow dynamics and mass transport behavior around the oscillating fiber...
June 28, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654324/conceptual-and-experimental-tools-to-understand-spatial-effects-and-transport-phenomena-in-nonlinear-biochemical-networks-illustrated-with-patchy-switching
#18
REVIEW
Rebecca R Pompano, Andrew H Chiang, Christian J Kastrup, Rustem F Ismagilov
Many biochemical systems are spatially heterogeneous and exhibit nonlinear behaviors, such as state switching in response to small changes in the local concentration of diffusible molecules. Systems as varied as blood clotting, intracellular calcium signaling, and tissue inflammation are all heavily influenced by the balance of rates of reaction and mass transport phenomena including flow and diffusion. Transport of signaling molecules is also affected by geometry and chemoselective confinement via matrix binding...
June 20, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650807/simultaneous-ultrasound-therapy-and-monitoring-of-microbubble-seeded-acoustic-cavitation-using-a-single-element-transducer
#19
Sophie V Heymans, Christine F Martindale, Andrej Suler, Antonios N Pouliopoulos, Robert J Dickinson, James J Choi
Ultrasound-driven microbubble activity is used in therapeutic applications such as blood clot dissolution and targeted drug delivery. The safety and performance of these technologies are linked to the type and distribution of microbubble activities produced within the targeted area, but controlling and monitoring these activities in vivo and in real-time has proven to be difficult. As therapeutic pulses are often ms-long, microbubble monitoring currently requires a separate transducer used in a passive reception mode...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649147/multiblock-high-order-large-eddy-simulation-of-powered-fontan-hemodynamics-towards-computational-surgery
#20
Yann T Delorme, Mark D Rodefeld, Steven H Frankel
Children born with only one functional ventricle must typically undergo a series of three surgeries to obtain the so-called Fontan circulation in which the blood coming from the body passively flows from the Vena Cavae (VCs) to the Pulmonary Arteries (PAs) through the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC). The circulation is inherently inefficient due to the lack of a subpulmonary ventricle. Survivors face the risk of circulatory sequelae and eventual failure for the duration of their lives. Current efforts are focused on improving the outcomes of Fontan palliation, either passively by optimizing the TCPC, or actively by using mechanical support...
January 17, 2017: Computers & Fluids
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