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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637955/fine-structure-of-human-thoracic-duct-as-revealed-by-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#1
Tomohiro Chiba, Hirokazu Narita, Hiroshi Shimoda
Little information has been available regarding microanatomy of human thoracic duct in spite of the importance for an understanding of pathophysiology in clinical medicine. The present study demonstrated a fine structure of human thoracic duct system by light and scanning electron microscopy. A number of longitudinal or spiral ridges and grooves were formed on luminal surfaces of the lymphangia and lymph sac, it likely facilitating fluent lymph flow. The endothelial cells displayed various cell shapes in compliance with their distributed regions...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636854/cluster-randomized-crossover-trial-of-head-positioning-in-acute-stroke
#2
Craig S Anderson, Hisatomi Arima, Pablo Lavados, Laurent Billot, Maree L Hackett, Verónica V Olavarría, Paula Muñoz Venturelli, Alejandro Brunser, Bin Peng, Liying Cui, Lily Song, Kris Rogers, Sandy Middleton, Joyce Y Lim, Denise Forshaw, C Elizabeth Lightbody, Mark Woodward, Octavio Pontes-Neto, H Asita De Silva, Ruey-Tay Lin, Tsong-Hai Lee, Jeyaraj D Pandian, Gillian E Mead, Thompson Robinson, Caroline Watkins
BACKGROUND: The role of supine positioning after acute stroke in improving cerebral blood flow and the countervailing risk of aspiration pneumonia have led to variation in head positioning in clinical practice. We wanted to determine whether outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke could be improved by positioning the patient to be lying flat (i.e., fully supine with the back horizontal and the face upwards) during treatment to increase cerebral perfusion. METHODS: In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, crossover trial conducted in nine countries, we assigned 11,093 patients with acute stroke (85% of the strokes were ischemic) to receive care in either a lying-flat position or a sitting-up position with the head elevated to at least 30 degrees, according to the randomization assignment of the hospital to which they were admitted; the designated position was initiated soon after hospital admission and was maintained for 24 hours...
June 22, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633994/t-lymphocytes-infiltration-promotes-blood-brain-barrier-injury-after-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#3
Xuan Zhang, Wei Liu, Jichao Yuan, Haitao Zhu, Yang Yang, Zexian Wen, Yaxing Chen, Lan Li, Jiangkai Lin, Hua Feng
T lymphocytes migrate into the brain after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and promote cerebral inflammation, thus exacerbating neuronal injury. However, the relationship between of T lymphocytes infiltration and blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury after ICH has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal distribution of infiltrating T lymphocytes after ICH in C57BL/6 mice by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and the accompanying change rules of BBB permeability were detected by Evans blue dye leakage and tight junction protein expression...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625264/-suppressive-effect-of-corm-2-on-platelet-%C3%AE-granule-exocytosis-in-sepsis-via-snare-munc18b-complex-formation
#4
Mingfeng Zhuang, Bingwei Sun, Dadong Liu, Yuan Shi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the suppressive effect of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule II (CORM-2) on LPS induced platelet α-granule exocytosis in sepsis via soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attached protein receptor/mammalian uncoordinated 18b (SNARE/Munc18b) complex formation. METHODS: Blood was collected from healthy volunteers' cubital vein, then platelets were isolated by differential centrifugation. Platelets were randomly divided into 5 groups. The control group did not undergo any treatment, the LPS group received 10 mg/L LPS simulation, the CORM-2 group and iCORM-2 group underwent LPS simulation and immediate administration of CORM-2 (10 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L) or iCORM-2 (50 μmol/L), respectively...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624811/altered-erythropoiesis-and-decreased-number-of-erythrocytes-in-children-with-neuroblastoma
#5
Fabio Morandi, Sebastiano Barco, Sara Stigliani, Michela Croce, Luca Persico, Corrado Lagazio, Francesca Scuderi, Maria Luisa Belli, Mariapina Montera, Giuliana Cangemi, Sarah Pozzi, Valentina Rigo, Paola Scaruffi, Loredana Amoroso, Giovanni Erminio, Vito Pistoia, Silvano Ferrini, Maria Valeria Corrias
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric tumor presenting at diagnosis either as localized or metastatic disease, which mainly involves the bone marrow (BM). The physical occupancy of BM space by metastatic NB cells has been held responsible for impairment of BM function. Here, we investigated whether localized or metastatic NB may alter hematopoietic lineages' maturation and release of mature cells in the periphery, through gene expression profiling, analysis of BM smears, cell blood count and flow cytometry analysis...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617574/synergistic-suppression-of-tumor-angiogenesis-by-co-delivering-of-vegf-targeted-sirna-and-candesartan-mediated-by-functionalized-carbon-nanovectors
#6
Xuefang Ding, Yujie Su, Cheng Wang, Fangrong Zhang, Kerong Chen, Yu Wang, Min Li, Wei Wang
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with unique physicochemical properties have exhibited promising biomedical applications as drug/gene carrier. In this study, polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified SWNT conjugates linked with candesartan (CD) were developed to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) targeted siRNA (siVEGF) for synergistic and targeted treatment of tumor angiogenesis. The characterization results revealed that SWNT-PEI-CD conjugates were successfully synthesized, and exhibited desirable dispersibility and superior stability...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615072/chemokine-receptor-co-expression-reveals-aberrantly-distributed-th-effector-memory-cells-in-gpa-patients
#7
Lucas L Lintermans, Abraham Rutgers, Coen A Stegeman, Peter Heeringa, Wayel H Abdulahad
BACKGROUND: Persistent expansion of circulating CD4(+) effector memory T cells (TEM) in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) suggests their fundamental role in disease pathogenesis. Recent studies have shown that distinct functional CD4(+) TEM cell subsets can be identified based on expression patterns of chemokine receptors. The current study aimed to determine different CD4(+) TEM cell subsets based on chemokine receptor expression in peripheral blood of GPA patients...
June 14, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615039/interleukin-21-promotes-thymopoiesis-recovery-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Aurélie Tormo, Fatemeh Khodayarian, Yun Cui, Edouard Al-Chami, Reem Kanjarawi, Beatriz Noé, Huijie Wang, Moutih Rafei
BACKGROUND: Impaired T cell reconstitution remains a major deterrent in the field of bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) due to pre-conditioning-induced damages inflicted to the thymi of recipient hosts. Given the previously reported thymo-stimulatory property of interleukin (IL)-21, we reasoned that its use post-BMT could have a profound effect on de novo T cell development. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of IL-21 on de novo T cell development in vivo, BM derived from RAG2p-GFP mice was transplanted into LP/J mice...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608962/image-based-computational-fluid-dynamics-in-the-lung-virtual-reality-or-new-clinical-practice
#9
REVIEW
Kelly S Burrowes, Jan De Backer, Haribalan Kumar
The development and implementation of personalized medicine is paramount to improving the efficiency and efficacy of patient care. In the respiratory system, function is largely dictated by the choreographed movement of air and blood to the gas exchange surface. The passage of air begins in the upper airways, either via the mouth or nose, and terminates at the alveolar interface, while blood flows from the heart to the alveoli and back again. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a well-established tool for predicting fluid flows and pressure distributions within complex systems...
June 13, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607933/optimal-branching-structure-of-fluidic-networks-with-permeable-walls
#10
Vinicius R Pepe, Luiz A O Rocha, Antonio F Miguel
Biological and engineering studies of Hess-Murray's law are focused on assemblies of tubes with impermeable walls. Blood vessels and airways have permeable walls to allow the exchange of fluid and other dissolved substances with tissues. Should Hess-Murray's law hold for bifurcating systems in which the walls of the vessels are permeable to fluid? This paper investigates the fluid flow in a porous-walled T-shaped assembly of vessels. Fluid flow in this branching flow structure is studied numerically to predict the configuration that provides greater access to the flow...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606882/the-effect-of-coronary-bifurcation-and-blood-flow-modelling-in-prediction-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-development-a-serial-computed-tomographic-coronary-angiographic-study
#11
Antonis Sakellarios, Christos V Bourantas, Stella-Lida Papadopoulou, Pieter H Kitslaar, Chrysafios Girasis, Gregg W Stone, Johan H C Reiber, Lampros K Michalis, Patrick W Serruys, Pim J de Feyter, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Dimitrios I Fotiadis
AIMS: Examine the effect of the daughter branches to the haemodynamics and the potential prediction of atherosclerotic plaque development as well as the best flow division model for accurate blood flow modelling. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we analysed computed tomographic coronary angiography retrospective data portraying 17 coronary artery bifurcations in 15 patients recruited in the PROSPECT MSCT study. The baseline and three year follow-up imaging data were used to reconstruct coronary artery anatomy and in the baseline models blood flow simulations was performed using three flow division approaches: stress-free, Murray's law and Doriot's law...
June 13, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604595/emerging-role-of-the-spleen-in-the-pharmacokinetics-of-monoclonal-antibodies-nanoparticles-and-exosomes
#12
REVIEW
Mauro Cataldi, Chiara Vigliotti, Teresa Mosca, MariaRosaria Cammarota, Domenico Capone
After being absorbed, drugs distribute in the body in part to reach target tissues, in part to be disposed in tissues where they do not exert clinically-relevant effects. Therapeutically-relevant effects are usually terminated by drug metabolism and/or elimination. The role that has been traditionally ascribed to the spleen in these fundamental pharmacokinetic processes was definitely marginal. However, due to its high blood flow and to the characteristics of its microcirculation, this organ would be expected to be significantly exposed to large, new generation drugs that can hardly penetrate in other tissues with tight endothelial barriers...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600679/resting-state-bold-oscillation-frequency-predicts-vigilance-task-performance-at-both-normal-and-high-environmental-temperatures
#13
Xiaopeng Song, Shaowen Qian, Kai Liu, Shuqin Zhou, Huaiqiu Zhu, Qihong Zou, Yijun Liu, Gang Sun, Jia-Hong Gao
Hyperthermia may impair vigilance functions and lead to slower reaction times (RTs) in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and possibly disturbing cerebral hemodynamic rhythms. To test these hypotheses, we acquired the resting-state BOLD and cerebral blood flow (CBF) data, as well as PVTRTs from 15 participants in two simulated environmental thermal conditions (50 °C/25 °C). We adopted a data-driven method, frequency component analysis, to quantify the mean frequency of the BOLD series of each voxel. Across-subject correlation analysis was employed to detect the brain areas whose BOLD oscillation frequency was correlated with the RTs...
June 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596913/polyanhydride-micelles-with-diverse-morphologies-for-shape-regulated-cellular-internalization-and-blood-circulation
#14
Guang Yang, Jie Wang, Dan Li, Shaobing Zhou
Biodegradable amphiphilic poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) based ether-anhydride terpolymer, consisting of PEG, 1, 3-bis (p-carboxyphenoxy) propane (CPP) and sebacic acid (SA), namely PEG-CPP-SA terpolymer, was employed to self-assemble into micelles by adding water into a solution of the terpolymer in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The shape of polyanhydride micelles can be regulated by simply adjusting the water addition rate, where spherical, rod-like and comb-like micelles can obtained under water addition rate of 20, 3 and 1 ml/h, respectively...
June 2017: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589972/the-influence-of-tumor-induced-immune-dysfunction-on-the-immune-cell-distribution-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-vivo
#15
Chenxi Wu, Hongmei Chen, Xuan Wu, Xiuxiu Cong, Li Wang, Yucai Wang, Yongguang Yang, Wei Li, Tianmeng Sun
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively explored as a drug carrier and have been widely used to provide advanced biomedical research tools in diagnostic imaging and therapy for cancer. Although the mononuclear phagocyte system and immune system are known to play the main roles in the clearance of AuNPs during the circulation, the particle distribution within the immune cells under the condition of immune dysfunction caused by tumor growth has not been thoroughly studied. Here, the cellular distribution of Cy5 labeled AuNPs with diameters of 5, 30 and 50 nm is characterized within the immune populations of the blood, spleen and bone marrow from tumor free and tumor bearing mice using flow cytometry...
June 7, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579739/quantitative-study-of-thermal-disturbances-due-to-nonuniformly-perfused-tumors-in-peripheral-regions-of-women-s-breast
#16
Akshara Makrariya, Neeru Adlakha
BACKGROUND: Mathematical modeling of biothermal processes is widely used to enhance the quantitative understanding of thermoregulation system of human body organs. This quantitative knowledge of thermal information of various human body organs can be used for developing clinical applications. In the past, investigators have studied thermal distribution in hemisphere-shaped human breast in the presence of sphere-shaped tumor. The shape and size of the breast as well as tumor may also affect thermal distribution which can have serious implications in thermography...
2017: Cancer Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577164/internal-jugular-vein-blood-flow-in-the-upright-position-during-external-compression-and-increased-central-venous-pressure-an-ultrasound-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#17
Tze Yeng Yeoh, Lashmi Venkatraghavan, Joseph A Fisher, Massimiliano Meineri
BACKGROUND: External compression of the jugular veins is an effective method to increase intracranial blood volume and brain stiffness in rats and healthy volunteers. It has been reported that, on assuming an upright posture, cerebral venous drainage is distributed away from the internal jugular veins (IJVs) to the cervical venous plexus, causing complete collapse of the IJV. If so, it is not clear why external IJV compression would increase intracranial blood volume, but the latter is frequently observed in neurosurgery in the sitting position...
June 2, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577102/dihydroquercetin-improves-microvascularization-and-microcirculation-in-the-brain-cortex-of-shr-rats-during-the-development-of-arterial-hypertension
#18
M B Plotnikov, O I Aliev, A V Sidekhmenova, A Yu Shamanaev, A M Anishchenko, T I Fomina, G A Chernysheva, V I Smol'yakova, A M Arkhipov
The effects of dihydroquercetin (50 mg/kg intragastrically daily for 6 weeks) on the density of capillary network (mean number of capillaries per mm(2)), mean capillary diameter, structure of capillary network, capillary diameter distribution (<3, 3-5, 5-7, and 7-9 μ), and local cerebral blood flow (by laser Doppler) in the visual cortex were studied in SHR rats during the development of arterial hypertension (from the 6th to the 12th week of life). Normally, the systolic and diastolic BP progressively increased in SHR rats during this period...
June 3, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576642/the-pathway-of-subarachnoid-csf-moving-into-the-spinal-parenchyma-and-the-role-of-astrocytic-aquaporin-4-in-this-process
#19
Fang Wei, Cui Zhang, Rong Xue, Lidong Shan, Shan Gong, Guoqing Wang, Jin Tao, Guangyin Xu, Guoxing Zhang, Linhui Wang
AIMS: It has been proved that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space could reenter the brain parenchyma via the perivascular space. The present study was designed to explore the pathway of subarachnoid CSF flux into the spinal cord and the potential role of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in this process. MAIN METHODS: Fluorescently tagged cadaverine, for the first time, was used to study CSF movement in mice. Following intracisternal infusion of CSF tracers, the cervical spinal cord was sliced and prepared for fluorescence imaging...
May 30, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576640/tumor-progression-effects-on-drug-vector-access-to-tumor-associated-capillary-bed
#20
Vaidotas Kiseliovas, Miljan Milosevic, Milos Kojic, Linas Mazutis, Megumi Kai, Yan Ting Liu, Kenji Yokoi, Mauro Ferrari, Arturas Ziemys
Over the last decade, the benefits of drug vectors to treat cancer have been well recognized. However, drug delivery and vector distribution differences in tumor-associated capillary bed at different stages of disease progression are not well understood. To obtain further insights into drug vector distribution changes in vasculature during tumor progression, we combined intra-vital imaging of metastatic tumors in mice, microfluidics-based artificial tumor capillary models, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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