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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814621/endothelial-cell-function-and-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-children
#1
REVIEW
Richard W Pierce, John S Giuliano, Jordan S Pober
Endothelial cells (ECs) line the lumen of the entire vascular system and actively regulate blood flow; maintain blood fluidity; control water, solute, and macromolecular transfer between blood and tissue; and modulate circulating immune cell recruitment and activation. These vital functions, combined with the broad anatomic distribution of ECs, implicate them in all forms of critical illness. The present article discusses how ECs adapt and break down during the course of critical illness. We first review the biology of ECs, highlighting the vascular segmental differences and their specific roles in the maintenance of homeostasis...
June 1, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804833/laboratory-testing-protocols-for-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-hit-testing
#2
Kun Kan Edwin Lau, Soma Mohammed, Leonardo Pasalic, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) represents a significant high morbidity complication of heparin therapy. The clinicopathological diagnosis of HIT remains challenging for many reasons; thus, laboratory testing represents an important component of an accurate diagnosis. Although there are many assays available to assess HIT, these essentially fall into two categories-(a) immunological assays, and (b) functional assays. The current chapter presents protocols for several HIT assays, being those that are most commonly performed in laboratory practice and have the widest geographic distribution...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797978/correlation-of-circulating-t-lymphocytes-and-intracranial-hypertension-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#3
Wanqiang Su, Chuang Gao, Peng Wang, Jinhao Huang, Yu Qian, Linyue Guo, Jianning Zhang, Rongcai Jiang
BACKGROUND: The close correlation between intracerebral pressure (ICP) and immunological responses has been well disclosed but the role of T lymphocytes in this process remains unknown. This study targets to inspect the relationship of circulating T lymphocytes and ICP in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: From 2015.10-2016.06, the patients of 18∼65 years old suffering from ICH were enrolled, according to the conditions we set in the text. ICP values were recorded hourly for 5 days...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796644/magnetic-targeting-to-enhance-microbubble-delivery-in-an-occluded-microarterial-bifurcation
#4
Marie de Saint Victor, Dario Carugo, Lester C Barnsley, Joshua Owen, Constantin C Coussios, Eleanor Stride
Ultrasound and microbubbles have been shown to accelerate the breakdown of blood clots both in vitro and in vivo. Clinical translation of this technology is still limited, however, in part by inefficient microbubble delivery to the thrombus. This study examines the obstacles to delivery posed by fluid dynamic conditions in occluded vasculature and investigates whether magnetic targeting can improve microbubble delivery. A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of a fully occluded Y-shaped microarterial bifurcation was developed to determine: (i) the fluid dynamic field in the vessel with inlet velocities from 1-100mm/s (corresponding to Reynolds numbers 0...
August 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796601/time-dependent-behavior-of-microvascular-blood-flow-and-oxygenation-a-predictor-of-functional-outcomes
#5
Kasia Z Kuliga, Rodney Gush, Geraldine F Clough, Andrew J Chipperfield
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the time-dependent behaviour and algorithmic complexity of low frequency, periodic oscillations in blood flux and oxygenation signals from the microvasculature. METHODS: Microvascular blood flux (BF) and oxygenation (OXY: oxyHb, deoxyHb, totalHb and SO2%) was recorded from 15 healthy young adult males using combined laser Doppler fluximetry and white light spectroscopy with local skin temperature clamped to 33C and during local thermal hyperaemia (LTH) at 43C...
August 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793046/influence-of-the-tilt-angle-of-percutaneous-aortic-prosthesis-on-velocity-and-shear-stress-fields
#6
Bruno Alvares de Azevedo Gomes, Gabriel Cordeiro Camargo, Jorge Roberto Lopes Dos Santos, Luis Fernando Alzuguir Azevedo, Ângela Ourivio Nieckele, Aristarco Gonçalves Siqueira-Filho, Glaucia Maria Moraes de Oliveira
Background: Due to the nature of the percutaneous prosthesis deployment process, a variation in its final position is expected. Prosthetic valve placement will define the spatial location of its effective orifice in relation to the aortic annulus. The blood flow pattern in the ascending aorta is related to the aortic remodeling process, and depends on the spatial location of the effective orifice. The hemodynamic effect of small variations in the angle of inclination of the effective orifice has not been studied in detail...
August 7, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791759/spatial-distribution-of-flow-and-oxygenation-in-the-cerebral-venous-drainage-system
#7
Jill B De Vis, Hanzhang Lu, Harshan Ravi, Jeroen Hendrikse, Peiying Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the venous oxygenation and flow in the brain, and determine how they might change under challenged states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight healthy human subjects (24-37 years) were studied. T2 -relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phase-contrast MRI were performed to measure venous oxygenation and venous blood flow, respectively, in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), the straight sinus (SS), and the internal jugular veins (IJVs)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790534/laboratory-and-genetic-biomarkers-associated-with-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-in-hemoglobin-sc-disease
#8
Rayra Pereira Santiago, Camilo Vieira, Corynne Stephanie Ahouefa Adanho, Sanzio Silva Santana, Caroline Conceição Guarda, Camylla Vilas Boas Figueiredo, Luciana Magalhães Fiuza, Thassila Nogueira Pitanga, Junia Raquel Dutra Ferreira, Milena Magalhães Aleluia, Rodrigo Mota Oliveira, Dalila Luciola Zanette, Isa Menezes Lyra, Marilda Souza Goncalves
Reference values for cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC) have not been established. We aimed to investigate associations between laboratory and genetic biomarkers associated with CBFV in HbSC children. Sixty-eight HbSC children were included; CBFV was analyzed by transcranial Doppler, and the time-averaged maximum mean velocity (TAMMV) was estimated. Hematological, biochemical, immunological, and genetic analyses were performed. TAMMV was negatively correlated with red blood cell count (RBC) count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and direct bilirubin (DB), yet positively correlated with monocytes and ferritin...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782911/simulation-of-aortopulmonary-collateral-flow-in-fontan-patients-for-use-in-prediction-of-interventional-outcomes
#9
Petter Frieberg, Pia Sjöberg, Johan Revstedt, Einar Heiberg, Petru Liuba, Marcus Carlsson
PURPOSE: Patients with complex congenital heart disease may need to be converted to a Fontan circulation with systemic venous return surgically connected to the pulmonary circulation. These patients frequently form aortopulmonary collaterals (APC), that is arterial inflows to the pulmonary artery vascular tree. The aim of this study was to develop a method to calculate the effect of APC on the pulmonary flow distribution based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulations in order to enable prediction of interventional outcomes in Fontan patients...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782872/the-role-of-vascular-resistance-in-bold-responses-to-progressive-hypercapnia
#10
James Duffin, Olivia Sobczyk, Adrian Crawley, Julien Poublanc, Lashmi Venkatraghavan, Kevin Sam, Alan Mutch, David Mikulis, Joseph Fisher
The ability of the cerebral vasculature to regulate vascular diameter, hence resistance and cerebral blood flow (CBF), in response to metabolic demands (neurovascular coupling), and perfusion pressure changes (autoregulation) may be assessed by measuring the CBF response to carbon dioxide (CO2 ). In healthy individuals, the CBF response to a ramp CO2 stimulus from hypocapnia to hypercapnia is assumed sigmoidal or linear. However, other response patterns commonly occur, especially in individuals with cerebrovascular disease, and these remain unexplained...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780414/chitosan-coated-pluronicf127-micelles-for-effective-delivery-of-amphotericin-b-in-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis
#11
Pankaj K Singh, Vivek K Pawar, Anil K Jaiswal, Yuvraj Singh, Cheruvu Hanumanth Srikanth, Mohini Chaurasia, Himangsu K Bora, Kavit Raval, Jaya Gopal Meher, Jiaur R Gayen, Anuradha Dube, Manish K Chourasia
The goal of study was to develop micellar formulation of Amphotericin B (AmB) to improve its antileishmanial efficacy. AmB loaded pluronic F127 (PF 127) micelles were developed and coated with chitosan (Cs-PF-AmB-M) to accord immunoadjuvant and macrophage targeting properties. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that Cs-PF-AmB-M was 7.93 fold (at 20μg/ml AmB concentration) and 9.35 fold less hemolytic and cytotoxic, respectively in comparison to AmB suspension. Flow cytometry studies indicated that Cs-PF-FITC-M was 21...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776772/dynamic-optical-coherence-tomography-of-skin-blood-vessels-proposed-terminology-and-practical-guidelines
#12
M Ulrich, L Themstrup, N de Carvalho, S Ciardo, J Holmes, R Whitehead, J Welzel, G B E Jemec, G Pellacani
BACKGROUND: Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) has recently been introduced in dermatology. In contrast to 'Standard' OCT imaging, which exclusively relies on the morphological analysis of the tissue, D-OCT allows the in-vivo visualisation of blood flow. Preliminary D-OCT data showed differences in the vascularisation of nevus to melanoma transition, suggesting that this technology may help to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. OBJECTIVE: Several factors may influence the quality of D-OCT imaging...
August 4, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776314/a-combined-static-dynamic-single-dose-imaging%C3%A2-protocol-to-compare-quantitative-dynamic-spect-with-static-conventional-spect
#13
Maria Sciammarella, Uttam M Shrestha, Youngho Seo, Grant T Gullberg, Elias H Botvinick
BACKGROUND: SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a clinical mainstay that is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually or semi-quantitatively assessed for perfusion defects based upon the relative intensity of myocardial regions. Dynamic cardiac SPECT presents a new imaging technique based on time-varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits the evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In this work, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted in a small patient sample designed to implement a unique combined static-dynamic single-dose one-day visit imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT for improving the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760406/the-variation-in-frequency-locations-in-doppler-ultrasound-spectra-for-maximum-blood-flow-velocities-in-narrowed-vessels
#14
Yingyun Zhang, Yufeng Zhang, Lian Gao, Li Deng, Xiao Hu, Kexin Zhang, Haiyan Li
This study assessed the variation in the frequency locations in the Doppler ultrasound spectra for the maximum blood flow velocities of in vessels with different degrees of bilaterally axisymmetric stenosis. This was done by comparing the relationship between the velocity distributions and corresponding Doppler power spectra. First, a geometric vessel model with axisymmetric stenosis was established. This made it possible to obtain the blood flow velocity distributions for different degrees of stenosis from the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations...
July 28, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759412/endothelial-cell-function-and-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-children
#15
REVIEW
Richard W Pierce, John S Giuliano, Jordan S Pober
Endothelial cells (ECs) line the lumen of the entire vascular system and actively regulate blood flow; maintain blood fluidity; control water, solute, and macromolecular transfer between blood and tissue; and modulate circulating immune cell recruitment and activation. These vital functions, combined with the broad anatomic distribution of ECs, implicate them in all forms of critical illness. The present article discusses how ECs adapt and break down during the course of critical illness. We first review the biology of ECs, highlighting the vascular segmental differences and their specific roles in the maintenance of homeostasis...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758994/high-dimensional-single-cell-characterization-of-the-brain-s-immune-compartment
#16
Ben Korin, Tamar L Ben-Shaanan, Maya Schiller, Tania Dubovik, Hilla Azulay-Debby, Nadia T Boshnak, Tamar Koren, Asya Rolls
The brain and its borders create a highly dynamic microenvironment populated with immune cells. Yet characterization of immune cells within the naive brain compartment remains limited. In this study, we used CyTOF mass cytometry to characterize the immune populations of the naive mouse brain using 44 cell surface markers. By comparing immune cell composition and cell profiles between the brain compartment and blood, we were able to characterize previously undescribed cell subsets of CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells and dendritic cells in the naive brain...
July 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757538/the-roles-of-hypoxia-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
Hajime Abe, Hiroaki Semba, Norihiko Takeda
The circulatory system distributes blood flow to each tissue and transports oxygen and nutrients. Peripheral circulation is required to maintain the physiological function in each tissue. Disturbance of circulation, therefore, decreases oxygen delivery, leading to tissue hypoxia which takes place in several cardiovascular disorders including atherosclerosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension and heart failure. While tissue hypoxia can be induced because of cardiovascular disorders, hypoxia signaling itself has a potential to modulate tissue remodeling processes or the severity of the cardiovascular disorders...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756914/hematological-and-splenic-doppler-ultrasonographic-changes-in-dogs-sedated-with-acepromazine-or-xylazine
#18
Dienifer V Sutil, Cláudio R S Mattoso, Julieta Volpato, Nádia C Weinert, Ádson Costa, Rozyanne R Antunes, Thiago R Muller, Suzane L Beier, Ronise Tochetto, Felipe Comassetto, Mere E Saito
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the onset and duration of hematological changes and the use of Doppler ultrasound (spleen) in dogs sedated with acepromazine or xylazine. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical study. ANIMALS: A total of 24 mixed breed dogs aged 1-4 years and weighing 15-25 kg. METHODS: Dogs were randomly distributed into two groups: acepromazine group (AG) which were administered acepromazine (0.05 mg kg(-1)) intramuscularly and xylazine group (XG) administered xylazine (0...
March 22, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755084/design-and-evaluation-of-two-multi-pinhole-collimators-for-brain-spect
#19
Ling Chen, Benjamin M W Tsui, Greta S P Mok
OBJECTIVE: SPECT is a powerful tool for diagnosing or staging brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) but is limited by its inferior resolution and sensitivity. At the same time, pinhole SPECT provides superior resolution and detection efficiency trade-off as compared to the conventional parallel-hole collimator for imaging small field-of-view (FOV), which fits for the case of brain imaging. In this study, we propose to develop and evaluate two multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator designs to improve the imaging of cerebral blood flow and striatum...
July 28, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750024/applying-time-frequency-analysis-to-assess-cerebral-autoregulation-during-hypercapnia
#20
Michał M Placek, Paweł Wachel, D Robert Iskander, Peter Smielewski, Agnieszka Uryga, Arkadiusz Mielczarek, Tomasz A Szczepański, Magdalena Kasprowicz
OBJECTIVE: Classic methods for assessing cerebral autoregulation involve a transfer function analysis performed using the Fourier transform to quantify relationship between fluctuations in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). This approach usually assumes the signals and the system to be stationary. Such an presumption is restrictive and may lead to unreliable results. The aim of this study is to present an alternative method that accounts for intrinsic non-stationarity of cerebral autoregulation and the signals used for its assessment...
2017: PloS One
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