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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337244/rat-liver-enzyme-release-depends-on-blood-flow-bearing-physical-forces-acting-in-endothelium-glycocalyx-rather-than-on-liver-damage
#1
Julieta A Díaz-Juárez, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH), apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver "pool...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336779/validation-of-the-semi-quantitative-static-suvr-method-for-18-f-av45-pet-by-pharmacokinetic-modeling-with-an-arterial-input-function
#2
Julie Ottoy, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Leonie Wyffels, Charisse Somers, Ellen De Roeck, Hanne Struyfs, Femke Soetewey, Steven Deleye, Tobi Van den Bossche, Sara Van Mossevelde, Sarah Ceyssens, Jan Versijpt, Sigrid Stroobants, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Steven Staelens
Increased brain uptake of [(18)F]-AV45 visualized by PET is a key biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) is widely used for quantification, but is subject to variability based on choice of reference region and changes in cerebral blood flow. Here we validate the SUVR method against the gold standard volume of distribution (VT) to assess cross-sectional differences in plaque load. Methods: Dynamic 60-min [(18)F]-AV45 (291 ± 67 MBq) and 1-min [(15)O]-H2O (370 MBq) scans were obtained in 35 age-matched elderly subjects, including 10 probable AD dementia, 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 10 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336539/the-influence-of-gravity-on-regional-lung-blood-flow-in-humans-spect-in-the-upright-and-head-down-posture
#3
Malin Ax, Alejandro Sanchez-Crespo, Sten G E Lindahl, Margareta Mure, Johan Petersson
Previous studies in humans have shown that gravity has little influence on the distribution of lung blood flow while changing posture from supine to prone. This study aimed to evaluate the maximal influence of posture by comparison of regional lung blood flow in the upright and head-down posture in 8 healthy volunteers, using a tilt table. Regional lung blood flow was marked by i.v. injection of macroaggregates of human albumin labeled with (99m)Tc or (113m)In, in the upright and head-down posture respectively, during tidal breathing...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336538/effects-of-dobutamine-on-intestinal-microvascular-blood-flow-heterogeneity-and-oxygen-extraction-during-septic-shock
#4
Gustavo Adolfo Ospina-Tascón, Alberto Federico García Marín, Gabriel J Echeverri, William Fernando Bermúdez, Humberto José Madriñán Navia, Juan David Valencia, Edgardo Quiñones, Fernando Rodríguez, Angela Marulanda, César Augusto Arango Davila, Alejandro Bruhn, Glenn Hernández, Daniel De Backer
Derangements of microvascular blood flow distribution might contribute to disturbing oxygen extraction by peripheral tissues. We evaluated the dynamic relationships between the mesenteric oxygen extraction ratio (mes-ERO2) and the heterogeneity of microvascular blood flow at the gut and sublingual mucosa, during the development and resuscitation of septic shock in a swine model of fecal peritonitis. Jejunal-villi and sublingual microcirculation were evaluated using a portable intravital-microscopy technique...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335271/distribution-of-iron-oxide-core-titanium-dioxide-shell-nanoparticles-in-vx2-tumor-bearing-rabbits-introduced-by-two-different-delivery-modalities
#5
Tamer Refaat, Derek West, Samar El Achy, Vamsi Parimi, Jasmine May, Lun Xin, Kathleen R Harris, William Liu, Michael Beau Wanzer, Lydia Finney, Evan Maxey, Stefan Vogt, Reed A Omary, Daniele Procissi, Andrew C Larson, Tatjana Paunesku, Gayle E Woloschak
This work compares intravenous (IV) versus fluoroscopy-guided transarterial intra-catheter (IC) delivery of iron oxide core-titanium dioxide shell nanoparticles (NPs) in vivo in VX2 model of liver cancer in rabbits. NPs coated with glucose and decorated with a peptide sequence from cortactin were administered to animals with developed VX2 liver cancer. Two hours after NPs delivery tumors, normal liver, kidney, lung and spleen tissues were harvested and used for a series on histological and elemental analysis tests...
August 3, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326557/analysis-of-blood-flow-characteristics-in-a-model-of-a-mature-side-to-side-arteriovenous-fistula
#6
Ashkan Javadzadegan, Nay Myo Lwin, Muhammad Asyraf, Anne Simmons, Tracie Barber
The creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a common surgical procedure in hemodialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, several complications may occur after surgery, including thrombosis, stenosis, and aneurysm. These complications are attributed to hemodynamics perturbations including pathophysiological wall shear stress (WSS) and flow recirculation zones. In this study, we present a computational hemodynamic analysis in a model of a mature side-to-side AVF, which is then validated by experimental measurements...
March 21, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325445/nonlinear-model-on-pulsatile-flow-of-blood-through-a-porous-bifurcated-arterial-stenosis-in-the-presence-of-magnetic-field-and-periodic-body-acceleration
#7
R Ponalagusamy, S Priyadharshini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Background and Objective: The motivation of cardiovascular modeling is to understand the haemodynamic and mechanical factors in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Several investigations have been carried out by many authors to understand the flow properties of blood in modelling blood flows in the circulatory system. In the present article, the pulsatile flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid through a bifurcated arterial stenosis in a porous medium with magnetic field and periodic body acceleration has been investigated in view of understanding the role of rheological behaviour of blood, stenotic height, bifurcation angle, magnetic field and porosity of wall in the initiation and proliferation of cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324630/morphological-and-neurochemical-differences-in-peptidergic-nerve-fibres-of-the-mouse-vagina
#8
Christine Barry, Esther Ji, Harman Sharma, Lara Beukes, Pat Vilimas, Yvette DeGraaf, Dusan Matusica, Rainer V Haberberger
The vagina is innervated by a complex arrangement of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres that contain classical transmitters plus an array of neuropeptides and enzymes known to regulate diverse processes including blood flow and nociception. The neurochemical characteristics and distributions of peptide-containing nerves in the mouse vagina are unknown. This study used multiple labelling immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and analysis to investigate the presence and colocalization of the peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in nerve fibres of the murine vaginal wall...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323164/mapping-the-pharmacological-modulation-of-brain-oxygen-metabolism-the-effects-of-caffeine-on-absolute-cmro2-measured-using-dual-calibrated-fmri
#9
Alberto Merola, Michael A Germuska, Esther Ah Warnert, Lewys Richmond, Daniel Helme, Sharmila Khot, Kevin Murphy, Peter J Rogers, Judith E Hall, Richard G Wise
This study aims to map the acute effects of caffeine ingestion on grey matter oxygen metabolism and haemodynamics with a novel MRI method. Sixteen healthy caffeine consumers (8 males, age = 24.7±5.1) were recruited to this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was scanned on two days before and after the delivery of an oral caffeine (250mg) or placebo capsule. Our measurements were obtained with a newly proposed estimation approach applied to data from a dual calibration fMRI experiment that uses hypercapnia and hyperoxia to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation...
March 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321337/salivary-distinctiveness-and-modifications-in-males-with-diabetes-and-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#10
Loai Aljerf, Iyad Alhaffar
Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD) on saliva flow rate (SFR), pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) compared to healthy males and age-matched controls...
2017: Biochemistry Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304107/the-percutaneous-toxicokinetics-of-sulphur-mustard-in-a-damaged-skin-porcine-model-and-the-evaluation-of-woundstat%C3%A2-as-a-topical-decontaminant
#11
Charlotte A Hall, Helen L Lydon, Christopher H Dalton, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for decontamination of superficial (non-haemorrhaging), sulphur mustard-contaminated wounds. The dorsal skin of 12 female pigs was subjected to controlled physical damage and exposed to 10 μL (14) C-radiolabelled sulphur mustard ((14) C-SM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group. In the latter, WoundStat™ was applied 30 s post exposure and left in situ for 1 h. Skin lesion progression and decontaminant efficacy were quantified over 6 h using a range of biophysical measurements...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303921/partitioning-of-red-blood-cell-aggregates-in-bifurcating-microscale-flows
#12
E Kaliviotis, J M Sherwood, S Balabani
Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303511/macro-and-microelement-status-in-animal-and-human-hypertension-the-role-of-the-ace-gene-i-d-polymorphism
#13
Olena Pavlyushchik, Viktor Afonin, Svetlana Fatykhava, Polina Shabunya, Viktoryia Sarokina, Aliaksandr Khapaliuk
Genetic factors that predispose to hypertension may contribute to element disturbances observed in hypertensive patients. We tested the hypothesis that the deletion allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with element imbalances in hypertension. The concentrations of elements in genetically predisposed to hypertension rats (SHRs) and their controls (WKY rats) were also examined. ICP-MS was used for elemental analysis of human hair and animal fur. Genotyping was performed by PCR...
March 16, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302957/relationship-between-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-umbilical-cord-plasma-and-birth-weight-follows-a-u-shaped-curve
#14
Junji Takaya, Yuko Tanabe, Yuichi Kuroyanagi, Kazunari Kaneko
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a nonselective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. NO regulates placental blood flow, which plays an important role in fetal growth. Many epidemiological studies have disclosed that restricted fetal growth is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adult life. We studied the relationship between ADMA in cord blood and birth size. Nine small for gestational age (SGA) and 32 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were studied...
March 7, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293274/optimally-repeatable-kinetic-model-variant-for-myocardial-blood-flow-measurements-with-82-rb-pet
#15
Adrian F Ocneanu, Robert A deKemp, Jennifer M Renaud, Andy Adler, Rob S B Beanlands, Ran Klein
Purpose. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification with (82)Rb positron emission tomography (PET) is gaining clinical adoption, but improvements in precision are desired. This study aims to identify analysis variants producing the most repeatable MBF measures. Methods. 12 volunteers underwent same-day test-retest rest and dipyridamole stress imaging with dynamic (82)Rb PET, from which MBF was quantified using 1-tissue-compartment kinetic model variants: (1) blood-pool versus uptake region sampled input function (Blood/Uptake-ROI), (2) dual spillover correction (SOC-On/Off), (3) right blood correction (RBC-On/Off), (4) arterial blood transit delay (Delay-On/Off), and (5) distribution volume (DV) constraint (Global/Regional-DV)...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287120/optimizing-non-invasive-radiofrequency-hyperthermia-treatment-for-improving-drug-delivery-in-4t1-mouse-breast-cancer-model
#16
Matthew J Ware, Martyna Krzykawska-Serda, Jason Chak-Shing Ho, Jared Newton, Sarah Suki, Justin Law, Lam Nguyen, Vazrik Keshishian, Maciej Serda, Kimberly Taylor, Steven A Curley, Stuart J Corr
Interactions of high-frequency radio waves (RF) with biological tissues are currently being investigated as a therapeutic platform for non-invasive cancer hyperthermia therapy. RF delivers thermal energy into tissues, which increases intra-tumoral drug perfusion and blood-flow. Herein, we describe an optical-based method to optimize the short-term treatment schedules of drug and hyperthermia administration in a 4T1 breast cancer model via RF, with the aim of maximizing drug localization and homogenous distribution within the tumor microenvironment...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285454/association-between-hemodynamics-morphology-and-rupture-risk-of-intracranial-aneurysms-a-computational-fluid-modeling-study
#17
Tianlun Qiu, Guoliang Jin, Haiyan Xing, Haitao Lu
The objective of the study was to examine the correlations between intracranial aneurysm morphology and wall shear stress (WSS) to identify reliable predictors of rupture risk. Seventy-two intracranial aneurysms (41 ruptured and 31 unruptured) from 63 patients were studied retrospectively. All aneurysms were divided into two categories: narrow (aspect ratio ≥1.4) and wide-necked (aspect ratio <1.4 or neck width ≥4 mm). Computational fluid dynamics was used to determine the distribution of WSS, which was analyzed between different morphological groups and between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms...
March 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273722/a-theoretical-framework-for-determining-cerebral-vascular-function-and-heterogeneity-from-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri
#18
Ingrid Digernes, Atle Bjørnerud, Svein Are S Vatnehol, Grete Løvland, Frédéric Courivaud, Einar Vik-Mo, Torstein R Meling, Kyrre E Emblem
Mapping the complex heterogeneity of vascular tissue in the brain is important for understanding cerebrovascular disease. In this translational study, we build on previous work using vessel architectural imaging (VAI) and present a theoretical framework for determining cerebral vascular function and heterogeneity from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our tissue model covers realistic structural architectures for vessel branching and orientations, as well as a range of hemodynamic scenarios for blood flow, capillary transit times and oxygenation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273359/two-compartment-modeling-of-tissue-microcirculation-revisited
#19
Gunnar Brix, Mona Salehi Ravesh, Jürgen Griebel
PURPOSE: Conventional two-compartment modeling of tissue microcirculation is used for tracer kinetic analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies although it is well known that the underlying assumption of an instantaneous mixing of the administered contrast agent (CA) in capillaries is far from being realistic. It was thus the aim of the present study to provide theoretical and computational evidence in favor of a conceptually alternative modeling approach that makes it possible to characterize the bias inherent to compartment modeling and, moreover, to approximately correct for it...
March 8, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269071/pre-clinical-investigations-of-multi-path-propagation-in-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-flow-phantom
#20
Alexander J Weir, Cheng-Xiang Wang, Stuart Parks
There are various practical situations in medical applications when pre-clinical investigations must be performed using a simulation environment or test bench prior to human studies. One example is the analysis of propagation channels in Transcanial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound (US), a signal processing challenge requiring the analysis of data from US waves scattered in three dimensions (3D). When examining the effects of scatterers in such channels, it is common to use a data acquisition test bench and a Doppler flow phantom...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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