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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779393/a-new-method-for-visualizing-pulmonary-artery-microvasculature-using-synchrotron-radiation-pulmonary-microangiography-the-measurement-of-pulmonary-arterial-blood-flow-velocity-in-the-high-pulmonary-blood-flow-rat-model
#1
Chiho Tokunaga, Shonosuke Matsushita, Hiroaki Sakamoto, Kazuyuki Hyodo, Misao Kubota, Kenkichi Tanioka, Yuji Hiramatsu
Background Increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and shear stress may provoke irreversible vascular remodeling, yet invasive visualization of the microvasculature complicates monitoring. A non-invasive imaging methodology would therefore safely provide mechanistic insights into the progression of high PBF-induced vascular remodeling. Purpose To establish a novel microvasculature visualization method using synchrotron radiation pulmonary microangiography (SRPA) that can also calculate PBF velocity in vivo. Material and Methods A high PBF rat model was established by making a fistula between the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775115/immunofluorescent-localization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-thymus
#2
Dailun Hu, Philip K Nicholls, Changfu Yin, Khama Kelman, Qionglan Yuan, Wayne K Greene, Zhongli Shi, Bin Ma
The thymus is innervated by sympathetic/parasympathetic nerve fibers from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting a neural regulation of thymic function including T-cell development. Despite some published studies, data on the innervation and nerve-immune interaction inside the thymus remain limited. In the present study, we used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) coupled with confocal microscopy/three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to reveal the distribution of non-myelinating Schwann cells (NMSC) and their interactions with immune cells inside mouse thymus...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774032/protein-o-glcnac-modification-increases-in-white-blood-cells-after-a-single-bout-of-physical-exercise
#3
Tamás Nagy, Emese Kátai, Viktória Fisi, Tamás Tibor Takács, Antal Stréda, István Wittmann, Attila Miseta
Background: Protein O-linked N -acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic posttranslational modification influencing the function of many intracellular proteins. Recently it was revealed that O-GlcNAc regulation is modified under various stress states, including ischemia and oxidative stress. Aside from a few contradictory studies based on animal models, the effect of exercise on O-GlcNAc is unexplored. Purpose: To evaluate O-GlcNAc levels in white blood cells (WBC) of human volunteers following physical exercise...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771718/evaluation-of-drug-effects-on-cerebral-blood-flow-and-glucose-uptake-in-un-anesthetized-and-un-stimulated-rats-application-of-free-moving-apparatus-enabling-to-keep-rats-free-during-pet-spect-tracer-injection-and-uptake
#4
Taku Sugita, Yusuke Kondo, Seigo Ishino, Ikuo Mori, Takashi Horiguchi, Mikako Ogawa, Yasuhiro Magata
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is the development of novel fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET and Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) SPECT methods with free-moving apparatus on conscious rats to investigate brain activity without the effects of anesthesia and tactual stimulation. We also assessed the sensitivity of the experimental system by an intervention study using fluoxetine as a reference drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A catheter was inserted into the femoral vein and connected to a free-moving cannula system...
May 15, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771709/combined-recirculatory-compartmental-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-arterial-and-venous-plasma-s-and-r-ketamine-concentrations
#5
Thomas K Henthorn, Michael J Avram, Albert Dahan, Lars L Gustafsson, Jan Persson, Tom C Krejcie, Erik Olofsen
BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics of infused drugs have been modeled without regard for recirculatory or mixing kinetics. We used a unique ketamine dataset with simultaneous arterial and venous blood sampling, during and after separate S(+) and R(-) ketamine infusions, to develop a simplified recirculatory model of arterial and venous plasma drug concentrations. METHODS: S(+) or R(-) ketamine was infused over 30 min on two occasions to 10 healthy male volunteers...
May 16, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771166/prediction-of-volume-of-distribution-in-preclinical-species-and-humans-application-of-simplified-physiologically-based-algorithms
#6
Prashant B Nigade, Jayasagar Gundu, K Sreedhara Pai, Kumar V S Nemmani, Rashmi Talwar
1. The present study was aimed at developing simplified physiologically based semi-mechanistic algorithms to predict Vss and interspecies scaling factors to predict tissue-Kps which require minimum input parameters, diminish the computing complexity and have better predictability. 2. Vss of 86 structurally diverse compounds in preclinical species and 27 compounds in humans were predicted using only lung- and muscle-Kp as inputs. Interspecies scaling factor (s) were developed based on fold-differences in individual tissue lipid contents, relative organ blood flow: relative organ weight ratio between two species...
May 17, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766930/measurement-of-the-permeability-perfusion-and-histogram-characteristics-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-with-extended-tofts-linear-model
#7
Ping Yin, Hua Xiong, Yi Liu, Shambhu K Sah, Chun Zeng, Jingjie Wang, Yongmei Li, Nan Hong
Objective: To investigate the application value of using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with extended Tofts linear model for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and its correlation with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores and disease duration. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DCE-MRI with a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner. An extended Tofts linear model was used to quantitatively measure MR imaging biomarkers...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763886/perfusion-computer-tomography-assessment-of-the-effect-of-angiotensin-ii-on-blood-flow-distribution-in-rabbits-with-intrarenal-vx2-tumors
#8
Ying-Jin Xu, Song-Hong Wu, Huai-Jun Liu, Pei Niu, Wen-Zeng Shen, Ying-Jie Xu, Xiao-Ping Yin, Tian-Le Zhang, Xue-Zhao Li, Fei Guo, Xiao-Long Niu, Jin-Song Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Unlike other organs, which only have one set of capillary network, the renal microvasculature consists of two sets of capillary network series connected by efferent arterioles. Angiotensin II constricts the efferent glomerular artery. Hence, renal tumor blood flow (BF) distribution may be different from tumors in other organs. This study aims to investigate the effects of angiotensin II on the hemodynamics of intrarenal VX2 tumors using perfusion computed tomography(CT)...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762256/computed-tomography-perfusion-measurements-in-renal-lesions-obtained-by-bayesian-estimation-advanced-singular-value-decomposition-deconvolution-maximum-slope-and-patlak-models-intermodel-agreement-and-diagnostic-accuracy-of-tumor-classification
#9
Dominik Deniffel, Timothé Boutelier, Aissam Labani, Mickael Ohana, Daniela Pfeiffer, Catherine Roy
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the agreement of computed tomography (CT)-perfusion parameter values of the normal renal cortex and various renal tumors, which were obtained by different mathematical models, and to evaluate their diagnostic accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Perfusion imaging was performed prospectively in 35 patients to analyze 144 regions of interest of the normal renal cortex and 144 regions of interest of renal tumors, including 21 clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 6 papillary RCCs, 5 oncocytomas, 1 chromophobe RCC, 1 angiomyolipoma with minimal fat, and 1 tubulocystic RCC...
May 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761422/computational-pre-surgical-planning-of-arterial-patch-reconstruction-parametric-limits-and-in-vitro-validation
#10
S Samaneh Lashkarinia, Senol Piskin, Tijen A Bozkaya, Ece Salihoglu, Can Yerebakan, Kerem Pekkan
Surgical treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD) involves complex vascular reconstructions utilizing artificial and native surgical materials. A successful surgical reconstruction achieves an optimal hemodynamic profile through the graft in spite of the complex post-operative vessel growth pattern and the altered pressure loading. This paper proposes a new in silico patient-specific pre-surgical planning framework for patch reconstruction and investigates its computational feasibility. The proposed protocol is applied to the patch repair of main pulmonary artery (MPA) stenosis in the Tetralogy of Fallot CHD template...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759947/a-simplified-method-to-account-for-wall-motion-in-patient-specific-blood-flow-simulations-of-aortic-dissection-comparison-with-fluid-structure-interaction
#11
Mirko Bonfanti, Stavroula Balabani, Mona Alimohammadi, Obiekezie Agu, Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam, Vanessa Díaz-Zuccarini
Aortic dissection (AD) is a complex and highly patient-specific vascular condition difficult to treat. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can aid the medical management of this pathology, yet its modelling and simulation are challenging. One aspect usually disregarded when modelling AD is the motion of the vessel wall, which has been shown to significantly impact simulation results. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) methods are difficult to implement and are subject to assumptions regarding the mechanical properties of the vessel wall, which cannot be retrieved non-invasively...
May 11, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759739/aortic-valve-bypass-surgery-in-severe-aortic-valve-stenosis-insights-from-cardiac-and-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Cesare Mantini, Massimo Caulo, Daniele Marinelli, Piero Chiacchiaretta, Armando Tartaro, Antonio Raffaele Cotroneo, Gabriele Di Giammarco
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and describe the distribution of aortic and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with severe valvular aortic stenosis (AS) before and after aortic valve bypass (AVB) surgery. METHODS: We enrolled 10 consecutive patients who underwent AVB surgery for severe AS. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and brain magnetic resonance imaging were performed as baseline before surgery and twice after surgery. Quantitative flow measurements were obtained using 1...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752712/maternal-diabetes-alters-the-development-of-ductus-venosus-shunting-in-the-fetus
#13
Agnethe Lund, Cathrine Ebbing, Svein Rasmussen, Torvid W Kiserud, Jörg Kessler
INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate glycemic control, the risks of fetal macrosomia and perinatal complications are increased in diabetic pregnancies. Adjustments of the umbilical venous (UV) distribution, including increased ductus venosus (DV) shunting, can be important fetal compensatory mechanisms, but the impact of pregestational diabetes on UV and DV flow is not known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 49 women with pregestational diabetes mellitus underwent monthly ultrasound examinations from gestational week 20 to 36...
May 11, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750877/respiratory-induced-hemodynamic-changes-measured-by-whole-body-multichannel-impedance-plethysmography
#14
P Langer, P Jurák, V Vondra, J Halámek, M Mešťaník, I Tonhajzerová, I Viščor, L Soukup, M Matejkova, E Závodná, P Leinveber
The cardiovascular system is described by parameters including blood flow, blood distribution, blood pressure, heart rate and pulse wave velocity. Dynamic changes and mutual interactions of these parameters are important for understanding the physiological mechanisms in the cardiovascular system. The main objective of this study is to introduce a new technique based on parallel continuous bioimpedance measurements on different parts of the body along with continuous blood pressure, ECG and heart sound measurement during deep and spontaneous breathing to describe interactions of cardiovascular parameters...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747847/quantitative-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-versus-visual-analysis-in-diagnosing-myocardial-ischemia-a-ce-marc-substudy
#15
John D Biglands, Montasir Ibraheem, Derek R Magee, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Sven Plein, John P Greenwood
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of visual and quantitative analyses of myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance against a reference standard of quantitative coronary angiography. BACKGROUND: Visual analysis of perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies for assessing myocardial perfusion has been shown to have high diagnostic accuracy for coronary artery disease. However, only a few small studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative myocardial perfusion...
May 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745271/fetal-hemoglobin-in-the-maternal-circulation-contribution-of-fetal-red-blood-cells
#16
Mutaz Dana, Eitan Fibach
The major hemoglobin (Hb) during fetal life is fetal Hb (Hb F). It is mostly replaced by adult Hbs before birth and during the first year of life. In adults, where Hb F comprises <2.0% of the total Hb, it is not homogenously distributed among the red blood cells (RBCs) but is concentrated in a few RBCs, termed F-cells. Interestingly, for reasons that are unclear, Hb F increases in the maternal circulation during pregnancy. This increased Hb F could have two potential origins that are not mutually exclusive: A) maternal origin, due to inducing environment of Hb F in the maternal erythroid precursors; B) fetal origin, due to fetal cells crossing the placenta and entering the maternal circulation...
May 10, 2018: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742415/the-margination-of-particles-in-areas-of-constricted-blood-flow
#17
Erik J Carboni, Brice H Bognet, David B Cowles, Anson W K Ma
Stroke is a leading cause of death globally and is caused by stenoses, abnormal narrowings of blood vessels. Recently, there has been an increased interest in shear-activated particle clusters for the treatment of stenosis, but there is a lack of literature investigating the impact of different stenosis geometries on particle margination. Margination refers to the movement of particles toward the blood vessel wall and is desirable for drug delivery. The current study investigated ten different geometries and their effects on margination...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736127/experimental-investigation-of-the-effect-of-non-newtonian-behavior-of-blood-flow-in-the-fontan-circulation
#18
Andrew L Cheng, Niema M Pahlevan, Derek G Rinderknecht, John C Wood, Morteza Gharib
The Fontan procedure for univentricular heart defects creates a unique circulation where all pulmonary blood flow is passively supplied directly from systemic veins. Computational simulations, aimed at optimizing the surgery, have assumed blood to be a Newtonian fluid without evaluating the potential error introduced by this assumption. We compared flow behavior between a non-Newtonian blood analog (0.04% xanthan gum) and a control Newtonian fluid (45% glycerol) in a simplified model of the Fontan circulation...
March 2018: European Journal of Mechanics. B, Fluids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735692/dynamic-switching-enables-efficient-bacterial-colonization-in-flow
#19
Anerudh Kannan, Zhenbin Yang, Minyoung Kevin Kim, Howard A Stone, Albert Siryaporn
Bacteria colonize environments that contain networks of moving fluids, including digestive pathways, blood vasculature in animals, and the xylem and phloem networks in plants. In these flow networks, bacteria form distinct biofilm structures that have an important role in pathogenesis. The physical mechanisms that determine the spatial organization of bacteria in flow are not understood. Here, we show that the bacterium P. aeruginosa colonizes flow networks using a cyclical process that consists of surface attachment, upstream movement, detachment, movement with the bulk flow, and surface reattachment...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735452/-characteristics-of-collateral-circulation-in-adult-moyamoya-disease-based-on-modified-suzuki-staging
#20
Qing-Shun Zhao, Gang Wang, Hao-Jiang Xiao, Wen-Feng Feng, Guo-Zhong Zhang, Ming-Zhou Li, Yong-Hong Liao, Yun-Yu Wen, Song-Tao Qi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of collateral circulation in adult moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS: The clinical data were collected from all adult patients with MMD undergoing digital subtractive angiography (DSA) in our department from 2006 to 2016. Based on the imaging findings, the patients were divided into ischemia group and bleeding group. A double-blind analysis was conducted of the CT or magnetic resonance imaging findings and the severity of the disease was graded using the modified Suzuki score (mSS)...
April 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
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