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blood flow distribution

Julia J Mack, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The formation of a hierarchical vascular network is a complex process that requires precise temporal and spatial integration of several signaling pathways. Amongst those, Notch has emerged as a key regulator of multiple steps that expand from endothelial sprouting to arterial specification and remains relevant in the adult. This review aims to summarize major concepts and rising hypotheses on the role of Notch signaling in the endothelium. RECENT FINDINGS: A wealth of new information has helped to clarify how Notch signaling cooperates with other pathways to orchestrate vascular morphogenesis, branching, and function...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Burak Kurşun, Levent Uğur, Gökhan Keskin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hemodynamic analyzes are used in the clinical investigation and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the effect of bypass geometry on intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics was investigated numerically. Pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) and velocity distribution causing the aneurysm to grow and rupture were investigated and the best conditions were tried to be determined in case of bypassing between basilar (BA) and left/right posterior arteries (LPCA/RPCA) for different values of parameters...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Akiko Oota-Ishigaki, Toru Masuzawa, Kazuaki Nagayama
Thrombus formation on biomaterial surfaces with microstructures is complex and not fully understood. We have studied the micro-secondary flow around microstructures that causes components of blood to adhere physically in a low Reynolds number region. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of micro-column size on the adhesion phenomena and show a quantitative relationship between the micro-secondary flow and physical adhesion phenomena, considering microstructures of various sizes. The flow simulation and quantitative assessment of adhesion rates around micro-columns was conducted using four sizes of micro-columns...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Nora Elisabeth Zois, Mette Simonsen, Ole Lajord Munk
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating CBF is unresolved and therefore knowledge of optimal anaesthesia and monitoring of pigs in PET studies is sparse. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if and how physiological variables and the duration of anaesthesia affected CBF as measured by PET using [15 O]-water in isoflurane-N2 O anaesthetized domestic female pigs...
March 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Luca Ferrari, Elena Canelli, Elena De Angelis, Alessia Catella, Giulia Ferrarini, Giulia Ogno, Luca Bonati, Roberto Nardini, Paolo Borghetti, Paolo Martelli
Highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV isolates have been discovered within both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 genotypes and investigated in recent years especially for their ability to cause extremely severe disease in conventional pig herds. The exacerbation of general and respiratory clinical signs has been attributed not only to an efficient replication (virulence) but also to the ability to dysregulate viral recognition and induce mechanisms of immune evasion or immune enhancement of humoral and cellular anti-viral responses differently from non-HP PRRSV isolates in terms of intensity and temporal onset...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Vladislav Volarevic
BACKGROUND: Pericytes are multipotent cells present in every vascularized tissue in the body. Despite the fact that they are well-known for more than a century, pericytes are still representing cells with intriguing properties. This is mainly because of their heterogeneity in terms of definition, tissue distribution, origin, phenotype and multi-functional properties. The body of knowledge illustrates importance of pericytes in the regulation of homeostatic and healing processes in the body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Yan Zhou, Xiaolin Xu, Jianmin Ding, Xiang Jing, Fengmei Wang, Yandong Wang, Peng Wang
Aims: Thermal ablation can evoke an immune response, which may have effects on the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our aim is to investigate the changes of circulating T-cell subsets after microwave ablation (MWA) and to explore the risk factors of tumor recurrence in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. Methods: Thirty patients with HBV-related HCC were enrolled in this study. The blood samples were collected both before and after MWA (24 h, 72 h, and 1 month after MWA)...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Elodie Saudrais, Nathalie Strazielle
Drug bioavailability to the developing brain is a major concern in the treatment of neonates and infants as well as pregnant and breast-feeding women. Central adverse drug reactions can have dramatic consequences for brain development, leading to major neurological impairment. Factors setting the cerebral bioavailability of drugs include protein-unbound drug concentration in plasma, local cerebral blood flow, permeability across blood-brain interfaces, binding to neural cells, volume of cerebral fluid compartments, and cerebrospinal fluid secretion rate...
March 7, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Hongmei Chen
Inertial and deformability- based particles separations gradually attract more significant attentions. In this work, we present a hybrid chip by combining the advantages of inertial and deformability -based principle. The chip is a triplet parallelizing spiral inertial microfluidic chip interconnected with numerable tilted slits (Spiral-Slits Chip) for continuous separation of circulating tumor cells. Utilizing the inertial lift and viscous drag forces, different sized particles achieve different equilibrium at distinct streamlines of the spiral microchannel...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dmitry Telyshev, Maxim Denisov, Alexander Pugovkin, Sergey Selishchev, Igor Nesterenko
In this work, the study results of an implantable pediatric rotary blood pump (PRBP) are presented. They show the results of the numerical simulation of fluid flow rates in the pump. The determination method of the backflows and stagnation regions is represented. The operating points corresponding to fluid flow rates of 1, 3, and 5 L/min for 75-80 mm Hg pressure head are investigated. The study results have shown that use of the pump in the 1 L/min operating point can potentially lead to the appearance of backflows and stagnation regions...
March 6, 2018: Artificial Organs
Jun Cao, Haoran Zheng, Rui Hu, Jianhong Liao, Zengming Fei, Xuan Wei, Xiong Xiong, Fanglin Zhang, Hua Zheng, Dan Li
The drug controlled release responding to tumour microenvironment is a hotspot for cancer therapy research. Herein, pH-sensitive shell-core nanoparticles (NPs) were devised and fabricated for tumour treatment. The detailed characterisations of their structures demonstrated the successful formation of the precursors and NPs. More importantly, the NPs show excellent features, i.e., negative surface potential, narrow size distribution, and suitable dimension for cell penetration. And they have superior stability in pH 7...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Elisabetta Tedaldi, Chiara Montanari, Kenneth I Aycock, Francesco Sturla, Alberto Redaelli, Keefe B Manning
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have been used for over five decades as an alternative to anticoagulation therapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. However, complications associated with IVC filters remain common. Though many studies have investigated blood flow in the IVC, the effects of respiration-induced IVC collapse have not been evaluated. Our hypothesis is that IVC collapse may have an influence on IVC filter performance. Therefore, we herein investigate the hemodynamics in uncollapsed and collapsed IVC configurations using in vitro flow experiments and computational simulations...
February 24, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Silje Ekroll Jahren, Paul Philipp Heinisch, David Hasler, Bernhard Michael Winkler, Stefan Stortecky, Thomas Pilgrim, Martina Correa Londono, Thierry Carrel, Hendrik von Tengg-Kobligk, Dominik Obrist
OBJECTIVES: Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis has been considered uncommon, but recent studies have shown that it is more frequent than previously thought. Insufficient washout of the aortic sinus is believed to be a risk factor for bioprosthetic valve thrombosis. The objective of this in vitro experiment was to investigate the impact of aortic root morphology on blood flow in the aortic sinus and to relate these results to in vivo data obtained in patients with a transcatheter aortic valve implant...
February 21, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Ben Korman, Ranjan K Dash, Philip J Peyton
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies suggest that the magnitude of the second gas effect is considerably greater on arterial blood partial pressures of volatile agents than on end-expired partial pressures, and a significant second gas effect on blood partial pressures of oxygen and volatile agents occurs even at relatively low rates of nitrous oxide uptake. We set out to further investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon with the help of mathematical modeling. METHODS: Log-normal distributions of ventilation and blood flow were generated representing the range of ventilation-perfusion scatter seen in patients during general anesthesia...
February 26, 2018: Anesthesiology
S I S Pinto, J B L M Campos, E Azevedo, C F Castro, L C Sousa
The definition of a suitable mesh to simulate blood flow in the human carotid bifurcation has been investigated. In this research, a novel mesh generation method is proposed: hexahedral cells at the centre of the vessel and a fine grid of tetrahedral cells near the artery wall, in order to correctly simulate the large blood velocity gradients associated with specific locations. The selected numerical examples to show the pertinence of the novel generation method are supported by carotid ultrasound (US) image data of a patient-specific case...
February 22, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Marta Brambilla, Paolo Gelosa, Laura Rossetti, Laura Castiglioni, Chiara Zara, Paola Canzano, Elena Tremoli, Luigi Sironi, Marina Camera
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is a well known risk factor for thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Platelets express tissue factor (TF), the key activator of blood coagulation and thrombus formation. The number of TF-positive platelets increases in pathological conditions characterized by thrombotic complications but whether this occurs in hypertension is unknown. Here we investigated whether platelet TF expression is increased in a hypertensive status through a mechanism acting on megakaryocytes; the phenomenon could be modulated by antihypertensive drug as captopril; angiotensin (AngII) influences platelet TF expression...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Theodore S Nowicki, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Earl Avramis, Bartosz Chmielowski, Thinle Chodon, Beata Berent-Maoz, Xiaoyan Wang, Paula Kaplan-Lefko, Lili Yang, David Baltimore, James S Economou, Antoni Ribas, Begoña Comin-Anduix
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) consisting of genetically engineered T cells expressing tumor antigen-specific T-cell receptors displays robust initial antitumor activity, followed by loss of T-cell activity/persistence and frequent disease relapse. We characterized baseline and longitudinal T-cell phenotype variations resulting from different manufacturing and administration protocols in patients who received ACT. Patients with melanoma who enrolled in the F5-MART-1 clinical trial (NCT00910650) received infusions of MART-1 T-cell receptors transgenic T cells with MART-1 peptide-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Agnieszka Żyromska, Bogdan Małkowski, Tomasz Wiśniewski, Karolina Majewska, Joanna Reszke, Roman Makarewicz
OBJECTIVE: Studies examining radiation-induced heart toxicity in breast cancer patients are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively and quantitatively asses myocardial blood flow (MBF) with, for the first time, 15O-H2O PET/CT as a marker of heart damage in irradiated breast cancer patients. METHODS: Fifteen breast cancer patients receiving intact breast or chest wall irradiation were included in the analysis (six with right-sided and nine with left-sided breast cancer)...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Lixia Zhang, Jinyan Chen, Caiyun Xu, Lili Qi, Yan Ren
T helper 17 (Th17), T cytotoxic 17 (Tc17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells serve important roles in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution of Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) prior to as well as 7, 30 and 90 days following radioactive iodine-131 (131 I) therapy, and to elucidate the probable effects of131 I therapy on Th17/Tc17 and Treg/Th17 cells in patients with DTC. A total of 40 patients with DTC (26 female; 14 male) between the ages of 24 and 72 years, as well as 13 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in this study...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Krister Liungman, Kevin Mani, Anders Wanhainen, Linus Bosaeus, Mario Lachat
OBJECTIVE: A new endovascular tool, the Liungman Guidewire Fixator, has been developed to simplify endovascular treatment in complex aortic aneurysms. The device has been extensively tested in bench models and animal trials. To verify the safety and functionality demonstrated in the porcine model, the device was tested in ten patients undergoing endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) or fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (f-EVAR) treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm. METHODS: The Liungman Guidewire Fixator consists of a braided stent-like, cylindrical structure with conical ends and a central channel for a 0...
January 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
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