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Shih-Jen Tsai
Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Isabel Cubero-Millán, María-José Ruiz-Ramos, Antonio Molina-Carballo, Sylvia Martínez-Serrano, Luisa Fernández-López, Irene Machado-Casas, Pilar Tortosa-Pinto, Aida Ruiz-López, Juan-de-Dios Luna-Del-Castillo, José Uberos, Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos
RATIONALE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances the growth and maintenance of several monoamine neuronal systems, serves as a neurotransmitter modulator and participates in the mechanisms of neuronal plasticity. Therefore, BDNF is a good candidate for interventions in the pathogenesis and/or treatment response of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OBJECTIVE: We quantified the basal concentration and daily fluctuation of serum BDNF, as well as changes after methylphenidate treatment...
January 2017: Psychopharmacology
Onder Ozturk, Burge Kabukcu Basay, Ahmet Buber, Omer Basay, Huseyin Alacam, Ali Bacanlı, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Hasan Herken, Eyup Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD. METHODS: Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Ayhan Bilgiç, Aysun Toker, Ümit Işık, İbrahim Kılınç
It has been suggested that neurotrophins are involved in the etiopathogenesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NTF3) levels between children with ADHD and healthy controls. A total of 110 treatment-naive children with the combined presentation of ADHD and 44 healthy controls aged 8-18 years were enrolled in this study...
August 25, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Jungyun Kim, Heamen Park, Seong-Lan Yu, Sungju Jee, Keun-Ah Cheon, Dong Ho Song, Seung Jun Kim, Woo-Young Im, Jaeku Kang
The current treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pharmacotherapy. A search for new treatment options is underway, however, as the wide application of drugs to the general population of patients with ADHD is limited by side effects and the variance of pharmacokinetic effects of the drugs in each patient. In the present study, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive treatment used in a number of other psychiatric disorders, to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD, in order to assess the efficacy of the treatment in modifying behavioural symptoms as well as levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
October 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Z Hawi, T D R Cummins, J Tong, M Arcos-Burgos, Q Zhao, N Matthews, D P Newman, B Johnson, A Vance, H S Heussler, F Levy, S Easteal, N R Wray, E Kenny, D Morris, L Kent, M Gill, M A Bellgrove
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and highly heritable disorder of childhood with negative lifetime outcomes. Although candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified promising common variant signals, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of ADHD. The observation that rare structural variants confer substantial risk to psychiatric disorders suggests that rare variants might explain a portion of the missing heritability for ADHD. Here we believe we performed the first large-scale next-generation targeted sequencing study of ADHD in 152 child and adolescent cases and 188 controls across an a priori set of 117 genes...
July 26, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Jodi L Lukkes, Nadja Freund, Britta S Thompson, Shirisha Meda, Susan L Andersen
Clinical and preclinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that juvenile males that are exposed to methylphenidate (MPH) show reduced risk for substance use later in life. In contrast, little is known about whether females have the same enduring treatment response to stimulants and how gonadal hormones influence their behavior later in life. Females received either a sham or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) microinjection in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at postnatal day (P)10. Subjects were then treated with Vehicle or MPH (2mg/kg, p...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
C Bonvicini, S V Faraone, C Scassellati
The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug...
July 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
C P Zeni, S Tramontina, B W Aguiar, A Salatino-Oliveira, G F Pheula, A Sharma, L Stertz, C R Moreira Maia, M Hutz, F P Kapczinski, L A Rohde
OBJECTIVE: Frontiers between pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well defined. Few studies have addressed potentially different neurobiological factors between the two disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been increasingly recognized for its etiologic and prognostic role in adult bipolar disorder (BD) studies. This study aimed to examine the BDNF gene polymorphism and potential alterations in BDNF serum levels in the pediatric ADHD patients with or without comorbid BD illness...
September 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Andressa de Souza, Vanessa Leal Scarabelot, Liciane Fernandes Medeiros, Carla de Oliveira, Eugenio Horacio Grevet, Wolnei Caumo, Diogo Onofre de Souza, Luis Augusto Paim Rohde, Iraci L S Torres
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impairing levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. However, different meta-analyses have reported disruptions in short and long-term memory in ADHD patients. Previous studies indicate that mnemonic dysfunctions might be the result of deficits in attentional circuits, probably due to ineffective dopaminergic modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In this study we aimed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of a neuromodulatory technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in short-term memory (STM) deficits presented by the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), the most widely used animal model of ADHD...
February 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Namju Lee, Sok Park, Jongkyu Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hippotherapy on brain function and levels of blood-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: The hippotherapy group (HRG) included twenty children with ADHD and the control group (CG) included 19 children. All participants' physical fitness, fMRI brain scans, and blood BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy...
June 2015: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Yaarit Simchon Tenenbaum, Abraham Weizman, Moshe Rehavi
Frequently, healthy individuals, children, and students are using stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms or to enhance cognitive capacity, attention and concentration. Methylphenidate, the most common treatment for ADHD, similarly to cocaine, blocks the dopamine reuptake, leading to increase in dopamine level in the synaptic cleft. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other neuroplasticity-relevant proteins have a major role in cellular plasticity during development and maturation of the brain...
October 2015: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ho Jang Kwon, Mina Ha, Han Jun Jin, Jung Keun Hyun, Se Hoon Shim, Ki Chung Paik, Woo Sung Park, Myung Ho Lim
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as attention deficit, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most abundant neurotrophin in the brain. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the genotype and alleles for the BDNF gene in Korean children with ADHD. METHODS: The sample consisted of 180 ADHD children and 159 control children...
July 2015: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
V Bryn, B Halvorsen, T Ueland, J Isaksen, K Kolkova, K Ravn, O H Skjeldal
BACKGROUND: Neurotrophic factors are essential regulators of neuronal maturation including synaptic synthesis. Among those, Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been in particular focus in the understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to investigate whether BNDF could be used as diagnostic/biological marker for ASD. For this purpose we examined the plasma levels of BDNF and the precursors pro- BDNF in patients with ASD and compared it with non-autistic controls; determined whether there was a correlation between the BDNF and proBDNF levels and clinical severity...
July 2015: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Stacey L Kigar, Liza Chang, Anthony P Auger
Precise regulation of the epigenome during perinatal development is critical to the formation of species-typical behavior later in life. Recent data suggests that Gadd45b facilitates active DNA demethylation by recruiting proteins involved in base excision repair (BER), which will catalyze substitution of 5-methyl-cytosine (5mC) for an unmodified cytosine. While a role for Gadd45b has been implicated in both hippocampal and amygdalar learning tasks, to the best of our knowledge, no study has been done investigating the involvement of Gadd45b in neurodevelopmental programming of social behavior...
May 2015: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Young Ho Lee, Gwan Gyu Song
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) 196 G/A or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphisms is associated with susceptibility to ADHD. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis of the associations between the BDNF 196 G/A and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms and ADHD. RESULTS: Sixteen studies consisting of 3,594 patients with ADHD and 4,040 controls were included in this meta-analysis...
February 17, 2015: Journal of Attention Disorders
Yaarit Simchon-Tenenbaum, Abraham Weizman, Moshe Rehavi
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) overdiagnosis and a pharmacological attempt to increase cognitive performance, are the major causes for the frequent (ab)use of psychostimulants in non-ADHD individuals. Methylphenidate is a non-addictive psychostimulant, although its mode of action resembles that of cocaine, a well-known addictive and abused drug. Neuronal- and glial-derived growth factors play a major role in the development, maintenance and survival of neurons in the central nervous system...
April 1, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Subin Park, Bung-Nyun Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Yeon-Kyung Jung, Jin Lee, Min-Sup Shin, Hee Jeong Yoo, Soo-Churl Cho
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether early parenting is associated with externalizing and internalizing symptoms in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and whether such an association is affected by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism. METHODS: The participants included 92 patients with ADHD aged 6-15 years. Measures of parenting in early life and externalizing and internalizing symptoms and the genotype of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism were obtained...
2014: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
De-Yi Liu, Xue-Mei Shen, Fang-Fen Yuan, Ou-Yang Guo, Yan Zhong, Jian-Guo Chen, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Jing Wu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major neurotrophin in the central nervous system that plays a critical role in the physiological brain functions via its two independent receptors: tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and p75, especially in the neurodevelopment. Disrupting of BDNF and its downstream signals has been found in many neuropsychological diseases, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common mental disorder which is prevalent in childhood. Understanding the physiological functions of BDNF during neural development and its potential relationship with ADHD will help us to elucidate the possible mechanisms of ADHD and to develop therapeutic approaches for this disease...
December 2015: Molecular Neurobiology
Justine M Gatt, Karen L O Burton, Leanne M Williams, Peter R Schofield
Major efforts have been directed at family-based association and case-control studies to identify the involvement of candidate genes in the major disorders of mental health. What remains unknown is whether candidate genes are associated with multiple disorders via pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or if other genes are specific to susceptibility for individual disorders. Here we undertook a review of genes that have been identified in prior meta-analyses examining specific genes and specific mental disorders that have core disruptions to emotional and cognitive function and contribute most to burden of illness- major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD, including panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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