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mTOR in neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729914/effects-of-mtor-on-neurological-deficits-after-transient-global-ischemia
#1
Jihong Xing, Jian Lu
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase and activation of its signal pathway plays an important role in regulating protein growth and synthesis as well as cell proliferation and survival. In the present study, we examined the contribution of mTOR and its downstream products to brain injuries and neurological deficiencies after cardiac arrest (CA) induced-transient global ischemia. CA was induced by asphyxia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats. Our results showed that expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 4 (4E-BP1) and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1) pathways were amplified in CA rats compared to their controls...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726275/cpkc%C3%AE-mediated-down-regulation-of-uchl1-alleviates-ischaemic-neuronal-injuries-by-decreasing-autophagy-via-erk-mtor-pathway
#2
Dan Zhang, Song Han, Shizun Wang, Yanlin Luo, Li Zhao, Junfa Li
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world, but its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Both conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)γ and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) are neuron-specific proteins. In the models of 1-hr middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/24-hr reperfusion in mice and 1-hr oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24-hr reoxygenation in cortical neurons, we found that cPKCγ gene knockout remarkably aggravated ischaemic injuries and simultaneously increased the levels of cleaved (Cl)-caspase-3 and LC3-I proteolysis product LC3-II, and the ratio of TUNEL-positive cells to total neurons...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724388/o-glcnac-regulation-of-autophagy-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-homeostasis-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Willayat Y Wani, Xiaosen Ouyang, Gloria A Benavides, Matthew Redmann, Stacey S Cofield, John J Shacka, John C Chatham, Victor Darley-Usmar, Jianhua Zhang
Post-translational modification on protein Ser/Thr residues by O-linked attachment of ß-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is a key mechanism integrating redox signaling, metabolism and stress responses. One of the most common neurodegenerative diseases that exhibit aberrant redox signaling, metabolism and stress response is Parkinson's disease, suggesting a potential role for O-GlcNAcylation in its pathology. To determine whether abnormal O-GlcNAcylation occurs in Parkinson's disease, we analyzed lysates from the postmortem temporal cortex of Parkinson's disease patients and compared them to age matched controls and found increased protein O-GlcNAcylation levels...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712846/reactive-astrocytes-promote-als-like-degeneration-and-intracellular-protein-aggregation-in-human-motor-neurons-by-disrupting-autophagy-through-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#4
Pratibha Tripathi, Natalia Rodriguez-Muela, Joseph R Klim, A Sophie de Boer, Sahil Agrawal, Jackson Sandoe, Claudia S Lopes, Karolyn Sassi Ogliari, Luis A Williams, Matthew Shear, Lee L Rubin, Kevin Eggan, Qiao Zhou
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and rapidly progressing motor neuron disease. Astrocytic factors are known to contribute to motor neuron degeneration and death in ALS. However, the role of astrocyte in promoting motor neuron protein aggregation, a disease hallmark of ALS, remains largely unclear. Here, using culture models of human motor neurons and primary astrocytes of different genotypes (wild-type or SOD1 mutant) and reactive states (non-reactive or reactive), we show that reactive astrocytes, regardless of their genotypes, reduce motor neuron health and lead to moderate neuronal loss...
June 29, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710704/systemic-analysis-of-mirnas-in-pd-stress-condition-mir-5701-modulates-mitochondrial-lysosomal-cross-talk-to-regulate-neuronal-death
#5
Paresh Prajapati, Lakshmi Sripada, Kritarth Singh, Milton Roy, Khyati Bhatelia, Pooja Dalwadi, Rajesh Singh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is complex neurological disorder and is prevalent in the elderly population. This is primarily due to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) region of the brain. The modulators of the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD are still not well understood. The small non-coding RNAs specifically miRNAs fine-tune the protein levels by post-transcriptional gene regulation. The role of miRNAs in PD pathogenesis is still not well characterized. In the current study, we identified the miRNA expression pattern in 6-OHDA-induced PD stress condition in SH-SY5Y, dopaminergic neuronal cell line...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706113/pd-l1-programmed-death-ligand-1-protects-against-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage-induced-brain-injury
#6
Ranran Han, Jiaying Luo, Yanchao Shi, Yang Yao, Junwei Hao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a neurologically destructive stroke, for which no valid treatment is available. This preclinical study examined the therapeutic effect of PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1), a B7 family member and a ligand for both PD-1 (programmed death 1) and B7-1 (CD80), in a murine ICH model. METHODS: ICH was induced by injecting autologous blood into 252 male C57BL/6 and Rag1(-/-) mice. One hour later, ICH mice were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle, PD-L1, or anti-PD-L1 antibody...
July 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694093/functional-analyses-of-major-cancer-related-signaling-pathways-in-alzheimer-s-disease-etiology
#7
REVIEW
Jianping Guo, Ji Cheng, Brian J North, Wenyi Wei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an aging-related neurodegenerative disease and accounts for majority of human dementia. The hyper-phosphorylated tau-mediated intracellular neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid β-mediated extracellular senile plaque are characterized as major pathological lesions of AD. Different from the dysregulated growth control and ample genetic mutations associated with human cancers, AD displays damage and death of brain neurons in the absence of genomic alterations. Although various biological processes predominately governing tumorigenesis such as inflammation, metabolic alteration, oxidative stress and insulin resistance have been associated with AD genesis, the mechanistic connection of these biological processes and signaling pathways including mTOR, MAPK, SIRT, HIF, and the FOXO pathway controlling aging and the pathological lesions of AD are not well recapitulated...
July 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693022/temsirolimus-sensitive-stimulation-of-platelet-activity-apoptosis-and-aggregation-by-collagen-related-peptide
#8
Hang Cao, Rosi Bissinger, Anja T Umbach, Meinrad Gawaz, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor temsirolimus stimulates apoptosis of tumor cells and is thus therapeutically used for the treatment of diverse malignancies. On the other hand, temsirolimus has been shown to protect against apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Similar to nucleated cells, blood platelets may enter suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling. Platelet apoptosis is frequently preceded by Ca2+ entry, degranulation, integrin activation and stimulation of caspases...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688896/the-alteration-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats-with-natural-aging-dependent-cognitive-deficits
#9
Yang Yu, Linjing Feng, Junnan Li, Xiaoxin Lan, A Lixiang, Xiaoyan Lv, Ming Zhang, Li Chen
AIMS: The present study was aim to explore aging-dependent changes in hippocampal autophagy and apoptosis in a natural aging rat model from adult to old stages and to discover a suitable age for treating neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: Wistar rats at 5, 18 and 24 months of age were used to mimic the adulthood, initial old, and old phases, respectively. The learning and cognitive ability of the rats was detected by the Morris water maze test. Morphological changes in the hippocampus were observed...
July 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685385/exclusive-activation-of-caspase-3-in-mossy-fibers-and-altered-dynamics-of-autophagy-markers-in-the-mice-hippocampus-upon-status-epilepticus-induced-by-kainic-acid
#10
A Rami, A Benz
Epileptic seizures are generally associated with pathological changes in the hippocampus such as astrogliosis, mossy fiber sprouting, and neuronal damage. However, more than 30% of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans shows neither neuronal damage nor mossy fiber sprouting despite chronic epileptic seizures. A similar situation exists in certain commonly used strains of mice, specifically C57BL/6 and BALB/c, which exhibit epileptic seizures, but no neuronal damage upon kainic acid administration. This suggests that intrinsic factors may influence the pathological manifestations of epilepsy...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685010/hydrogen-sulfide-inhibits-autophagic-neuronal-cell-death-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-in-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Lei Xie, Sifei Yu, Kai Yang, Changwei Li, Yu Liang
Autophagy is upregulated in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion (SCIR) injury; however, its expression mechanism is largely unknown; moreover, whether autophagy plays a neuroprotective or neurodegenerative role in SCIR injury remains controversial. To explore these issues, we created an SCIR injury rat model via aortic arch occlusion. Compared with normal controls, autophagic cell death was upregulated in neurons after SCIR injury. We found that autophagy promoted neuronal cell death during SCIR, shown by a significant number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling- (TUNEL-) positive cells colabeled with the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, while the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and restored neurological and motor function...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683327/exosomes-mediate-mobilization-of-autocrine-wnt10b-to-promote-axonal-regeneration-in-the-injured-cns
#12
Nardos G Tassew, Jason Charish, Alireza P Shabanzadeh, Valbona Luga, Hidekiyo Harada, Nahal Farhani, Philippe D'Onofrio, Brian Choi, Ahmad Ellabban, Philip E B Nickerson, Valerie A Wallace, Paulo D Koeberle, Jeffrey L Wrana, Philippe P Monnier
Developing strategies that promote axonal regeneration within the injured CNS is a major therapeutic challenge, as axonal outgrowth is potently inhibited by myelin and the glial scar. Although regeneration can be achieved using the genetic deletion of PTEN, a negative regulator of the mTOR pathway, this requires inactivation prior to nerve injury, thus precluding therapeutic application. Here, we show that, remarkably, fibroblast-derived exosomes (FD exosomes) enable neurite growth on CNS inhibitory proteins...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683304/inhibition-of-the-schizophrenia-associated-microrna-mir-137-disrupts-nrg1%C3%AE-neurodevelopmental-signal-transduction
#13
Kristen Therese Thomas, Bart Russell Anderson, Niraj Shah, Stephanie Elaine Zimmer, Daniel Hawkins, Arielle Nicole Valdez, Qiaochu Gu, Gary Jonathan Bassell
Genomic studies have repeatedly associated variants in the gene encoding the microRNA miR-137 with increased schizophrenia risk. Bioinformatic predictions suggest that miR-137 regulates schizophrenia-associated signaling pathways critical to neural development, but these predictions remain largely unvalidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that miR-137 regulates neuronal levels of p55γ, PTEN, Akt2, GSK3β, mTOR, and rictor. All are key proteins within the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and act downstream of neuregulin (Nrg)/ErbB and BDNF signaling...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683067/early-postnatal-exposure-to-isoflurane-causes-cognitive-deficits-and-disrupts-development-of-newborn-hippocampal-neurons-via-activation-of-the-mtor-pathway
#14
Eunchai Kang, Danye Jiang, Yun Kyoung Ryu, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Christy D Gray, Michael Xu, Jun H Choi, Sue Junn, Jieun Kim, Jing Xu, Michele Schaefer, Roger A Johns, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming, C David Mintz
Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679060/protective-effects-of-green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-against-sevoflurane-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-involves-regulation-of-creb-bdnf-trk-b-and-pi3k-akt-mtor-signalling-pathways-in-neonatal-mice
#15
Mei-Li Ding, Hui Ma, Yi-Gang Man, Yan-Hong Lv
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol in green tea is an effective antioxidant and possesses neuroprotective effects. For neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are crucially involved. In this study we aimed to assess protective effects of EGCG against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in neonatal mice. Distinct groups of C57BL/6 mice were given EGCG (25, 50 or 75 mg/kg b.wt) from postnatal day 3 (P3) to P21 and were subjected to sevoflurane (3 %; 6 h) exposure on P7...
July 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674170/the-mnk-eif4e-signaling-axis-contributes-to-injury-induced-nociceptive-plasticity-and-the-development-of-chronic-pain
#16
Jamie K Moy, Arkady Khoutorsky, Marina N Asiedu, Bryan J Black, Jasper L Kuhn, Paulino Barragán-Iglesias, Salim Megat, Michael D Burton, Carolina C Burgos-Vega, Ohannes K Melemedjian, Scott Boitano, Josef Vagner, Christos G Gkogkas, Joseph J Pancrazio, Jeffrey S Mogil, Gregory Dussor, Nahum Sonenberg, Theodore J Price
Injury-induced sensitization of nociceptors contributes to pain states and the development of chronic pain. Inhibiting activity-dependent mRNA translation through mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways blocks the development of nociceptor sensitization. These pathways convergently signal to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4F complex to regulate sensitization of nociceptors but the details of this process are ill-defined. Here we investigated the hypothesis that phosphorylation of the 5' cap-binding protein, eIF4E, by its specific kinase MAPK interacting kinase (MNK) 1/2 is a key factor in nociceptor sensitization and the development of chronic pain...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671121/selenomethionine-attenuates-the-amyloid-%C3%AE-level-by-both-inhibiting-amyloid-%C3%AE-production-and-modulating-autophagy-in-neuron-2a-a%C3%AE-ppswe-cells
#17
Zhong-Hao Zhang, Qiu-Yan Wu, Chen Chen, Rui Zheng, Yao Chen, Qiong Liu, Jia-Zuan Ni, Guo-Li Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and progressive neurological disorder, and amyloid-β (Aβ) has been recognized as the major cause of AD. Inhibiting Aβ production and/or enhancing the clearance of Aβ to reduce its levels are still the effective therapeutic strategies pursued in anti-AD research. In previous studies, we have reported that selenomethionine (Se-Met), a major form of selenium in animals and humans with significant antioxidant capacity, can reduce both amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666378/mtor-signaling-pathway-differently-regulates-central-and-peripheral-axon-regeneration
#18
Ziwei Huang, Weihua Wang, Jinjin Ma, Bin Li, Jianquan Chen, Huilin Yang
Numerous studies have shown that the intrinsic axonal regenerative capacity of neurons differs between the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNSs). However, the molecular mechanisms controlling intrinsic axonal regenerative capacity are unclear. A better understanding of these mechanisms should aid in the development of effective therapeutic strategies for traumatic nervous system injury, including spinal cord injury. Here, we found that blocking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity dramatically diminished axonal regrowth from embryonic cortical neurons...
June 28, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663724/activation-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-impairs-the-dendritic-arborization-of-newborn-neurons-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-through-the-ampk-and-akt-signaling-pathways
#19
Yujing Tian, Mengwen Qi, Zhouqing Wang, Chunfeng Wu, Zhen Sun, Yingchun Li, Sha Sha, Yimei Du, Lei Chen, Ling Chen
Neurite growth is an important process for the adult hippocampal neurogenesis which is regulated by a specific range of the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a calcium-permeable channel and activation of it causes an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. We recently reported that TRPV4 activation promotes the proliferation of stem cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The present study aimed to examine the effect of TRPV4 activation on the dendrite morphology of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampal DG...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663053/protective-effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-neurons-autophagy-in-perfusion-period-of-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Zuo Ting, Zhang Jianbin, Huang Luqi
Electroacupuncture (EA) is an important treatment method in Chinese traditional medicine. The main purpose of the investigation was to explore whether EA could improve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) via neurons' autophagy. 4-vessel occlusion (4-VO) was applied to establish cerebral ischemia model and reperfusion 12h, 24h and 48h respectively were conduct 3h later. TTC staining was applied to assess cerebral infarction area and the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, SOD and MDA were detected by commercial kits...
June 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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