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Sridevi Nakka, Amar S Godar, Prashant S Wani, Curtis R Thompson, Dallas E Peterson, Jeroen Roelofs, Mithila Jugulam
Herbicides that inhibit hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) such as mesotrione are widely used to control a broad spectrum of weeds in agriculture. Amaranthus palmeri is an economically troublesome weed throughout the United States. The first case of evolution of resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in A. palmeri was documented in Kansas (KS) and later in Nebraska (NE). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechansim of HPPD-inhibitor (mesotrione) resistance in A. palmeri. Dose response analysis revealed that this population (KSR) was 10-18 times more resistant than their sensitive counterparts (MSS or KSS)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lautaro F Belfiori-Carrasco, María S Marcora, Nadia I Bocai, M Fernanda Ceriani, Laura Morelli, Eduardo M Castaño
The accumulation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients begins many years before clinical onset. Such process has been proposed to be pathogenic through the toxicity of Aβ soluble oligomers leading to synaptic dysfunction, phospho-tau aggregation and neuronal loss. Yet, a massive accumulation of Aβ can be found in approximately 30% of aged individuals with preserved cognitive function. Therefore, within the frame of the "amyloid hypothesis", compensatory mechanisms and/or additional neurotoxic or protective factors need to be considered and investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Li Tang, Jie-Ran Luo, Yun-Lan Li, Rui Ge, Qing-Shan Li
Di-n-butyl-di-(4-chlorobenzohydroxamato)tin(IV) (DBDCT) is an anti-tumour organotin(IV) compound with hepatotoxicity. To investigate the hepatotoxicity and mechanisms of DBDCT in vivo, proteomic technology 2D gel combined with MALDI-TOF-MS was used in our research. Results indicated that DBDCT increased AST, AKP and ACP activities and decreased ALT activity. Further, sporadic eosinophilic changes and nuclear pyknosis were visible in hepatic pathological observation. Proteomic analysis showed that twenty-two proteins involved in amino acid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, stress response, multicellular organism development and cell apoptosis were differentially expressed and identified...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mahdi Naderi, Saeed Keyvanshokooh, Amir Parviz Salati, Alireza Ghaedi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E (vit E) and selenium nanoparticles (nanoSe) on liver proteome profile of rainbow trout under high density condition. To correlate the proteome modifications with physiological aspects, growth, serum metabolites (cortisol, glucose, lactate, ALT, AST, and ALP), and liver antioxidant-related parameters (SOD, GPx, CAT, and MDA) were also examined. A total of 1275 fish (average weight of 42.6±2.3g) were stocked into 12 tanks at a density of 80kgm(-3)...
February 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Annalisa Santucci, Giulia Bernardini, Daniela Braconi, Elena Petricci, Fabrizio Manetti
This review mainly focuses on the physiological function of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), as well as on the development and application of HPPD inhibitors of several structural classes. Among them, one illustrative example is represented by compounds belonging to the class of triketone compounds. They were discovered by serendipitous observations on weed growth and were developed as bleaching herbicides. Informed reasoning on nitisinone (NTBC, 14), a triketone that failed to reach the final steps of the herbicidal design and development process, allowed it to become a curative agent for type I tyrosinemia (T1T), and to enter clinical trials for alkaptonuria...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Da-Wei Wang, Hong-Yan Lin, Bo He, Feng-Xu Wu, Tao Chen, Qiong Chen, Wen-Chao Yang, Guang-Fu Yang
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC, HPPD) is an important target for new bleaching herbicides discovery. As a continuous work to discover novel crop selective HPPD inhibitor, a series of 2-(aryloxyacetyl)cyclohexane-1,3-diones were rationally designed and synthesized by an efficient one-pot procedure using N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), triethylamine, and acetone cyanohydrin in CH2Cl2. A total of 58 triketone compounds were synthesized in good to excellent yields. Some of the triketones displayed potent in vitro Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD (AtHPPD) inhibitory activity...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rucha K Chiddarwar, Sebastian G Rohrer, Antje Wolf, Stefan Tresch, Sabrina Wollenhaupt, Andreas Bender
The rapid emergence of pesticide resistance has given rise to a demand for herbicides with new mode of action (MoA). In the agrochemical sector, with the availability of experimental high throughput screening (HTS) data, it is now possible to utilize in silico target prediction methods in the early discovery phase to suggest the MoA of a compound via data mining of bioactivity data. While having been established in the pharmaceutical context, in the agrochemical area this approach poses rather different challenges, as we have found in this work, partially due to different chemistry, but even more so due to different (usually smaller) amounts of data, and different ways of conducting HTS...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
John H Halpern, Arturo G Lerner, Torsten Passie
Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is rarely encountered in clinical settings. It is described as a re-experiencing of some perceptual distortions induced while intoxicated and suggested to subsequently cause functional impairment or anxiety. Two forms exist: Type 1, which are brief "flashbacks," and Type 2 claimed to be chronic, waxing, and waning over months to years. A review of HPPD is presented. In addition, data from a comprehensive survey of 20 subjects reporting Type-2 HPPD-like symptoms are presented and evaluated...
November 8, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Jerry M Green
Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits...
October 18, 2016: Pest Management Science
Jianghua He, Vincent S Staggs, Sandra Bergquist-Beringer, Nancy Dunton
BACKGROUND: Time trends and seasonal patterns have been observed in nurse staffing and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes in recent years. It is unknown whether these changes were associated. METHODS: Quarterly unit-level nursing data in 2004-2012 were extracted from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®). Units were divided into groups based on patterns of missing data. All variables were aggregated across units within these groups and analyses were conducted at the group level...
2016: BMC Nursing
Minmin Wang, Kyoko Toda, Hiroshi A Maeda
Plants produce various L-tyrosine (Tyr)-derived compounds that are of pharmaceutical or nutritional importance to humans. Tyr aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the reversible transamination between Tyr and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP), the initial step in the biosynthesis of many Tyr-derived plant natural products. Herein reported is the biochemical characterization and subcellular localization of TAT enzymes from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Arabidopsis has at least two homologous TAT genes, At5g53970 (AtTAT1) and At5g36160 (AtTAT2)...
December 2016: Phytochemistry
James Peek, Joseph Roman, Graham R Moran, Dinesh Christendat
Quinate and shikimate can be degraded by a number of microbes. Dehydroshikimate dehydratases (DSDs) play a central role in this process, catalyzing the conversion of 3-dehydroshikimate to protocatechuate, a common intermediate of aromatic degradation pathways. DSDs have applications in metabolic engineering for the production of valuable protocatechuate-derived molecules. Although a number of Gram-negative bacteria are known to catabolize quinate and shikimate, only limited information exists on the quinate/shikimate catabolic enzymes found in these organisms...
January 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Radhika Vattikunta, Dasari Venkatakrishnarao, Mahamad Ahamad Mohiddon, Rajadurai Chandrasekar
A novel supramolecular fluorescent donor-acceptor type dye molecule, (2E,4E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyren-1-yl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (HPPD) self-assembles in a mixture of ethanol/chloroform through intermolecular π-π stacking (distance ca. 3.384 Å) to form J-aggregated single-crystalline microribbons displaying Fabry-Pèrot (F-P) type visible-range optical resonance. The corresponding borondifluoride dye (HPPD-BF), with a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap, self-assembles into crystalline microrods acting as an F-P type resonator in the near-infrared (NIR) range...
November 4, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Marcos Sterkel, Hugo D Perdomo, Melina G Guizzo, Ana Beatriz F Barletta, Rodrigo D Nunes, Felipe A Dias, Marcos H F Sorgine, Pedro L Oliveira
Blood-feeding arthropods are vectors of infectious diseases such as dengue, Zika, Chagas disease, and malaria [1], and vector control is essential to limiting disease spread. Because these arthropods ingest very large amounts of blood, a protein-rich meal, huge amounts of amino acids are produced during digestion. Previous work on Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, showed that, among all amino acids, only tyrosine degradation enzymes were overexpressed in the midgut compared to other tissues [2]...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
John P Ward, Joanne L Dunster, Gianne Derks, Pratibha Mistry, José D Salazar
Nitisinone or 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione is a reversible inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an enzyme important in tyrosine catabolism. Today, nitisinone is successfully used to treat Hereditary Tyrosinaemia type 1, although its original expected role was as a herbicide. In laboratory animals, treatment with nitisinone leads to the elevation of plasma tyrosine (tyrosinaemia). In rats and Beagle dogs, repeat low-dose exposure to nitisinone leads to corneal opacities whilst similar studies in the mouse and Rhesus monkey showed no comparable toxicities or other treatment related findings...
June 15, 2016: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Juan J Gutierrez-Gonzalez, David F Garvin
Vitamin E is essential for humans and thus must be a component of a healthy diet. Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) have high vitamin E content. To date, no gene sequences in the vitamin E biosynthesis pathway have been reported for oats. Using deep sequencing and orthology-guided assembly, coding sequences of genes for each step in vitamin E synthesis in oats were reconstructed, including resolution of the sequences of homeologs. Three homeologs, presumably representing each of the three oat subgenomes, were identified for the main steps of the pathway...
May 2, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Sathyavageeswaran Shreeram, Subbarayan Ramesh, Jithesh K Puthan, Gayathri Balakrishnan, Ramachandran Subramanian, Murali Todime Reddy, Suzette L Pereira
BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major factor contributing to strength decline during aging. β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine has been shown to enhance muscle protein synthesis and attenuate loss of muscle mass by multiple pathways. However, the production and regulation of endogenous levels of HMB over the lifespan have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to do a cross-sectional analysis of the basal plasma levels of HMB in male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages and to compare the efficiency of conversion of leucine to HMB in young versus older rats...
July 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Marcella Laschi, Giulia Bernardini, Elena Dreassi, Lia Millucci, Michela Geminiani, Daniela Braconi, Barbara Marzocchi, Maurizio Botta, Fabrizio Manetti, Annalisa Santucci
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum...
April 5, 2016: ChemMedChem
Chih-Wei Huang, Hsiu-Chen Liu, Chia-Pei Shen, Yi-Tong Chen, Sung-Jai Lee, Matthew D Lloyd, Hwei-Jen Lee
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is a non-haem iron(II)-dependent oxygenase that catalyses the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) to homogentisate (HG). In the active site, a strictly conserved 2-His-1-Glu facial triad co-ordinates the iron ready for catalysis. Substitution of these residues resulted in about a 10-fold decrease in the metal binding affinity, as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a large reduction in enzyme catalytic efficiencies. The present study revealed the vital role of the ligand Glu(349) in enzyme function...
May 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Kang Lei, Xue-Wen Hua, Yuan-Yuan Tao, Yang Liu, Na Liu, Yi Ma, Yong-Hong Li, Xiao-Hua Xu, Chui-Hua Kong
A series of (2-benzoylethen-1-ol)-containing benzothiazine derivatives was synthesized, and their herbicidal activities were first evaluated. The bioassay results indicated that some of 3-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-1,1-dioxide derivatives displayed good herbicidal activity in greenhouse testing, especially, compound 4w had good pre-emergent herbicidal activities against Brassica campestris, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa crusgalli even at a dosage of 187.5 g ha(-1). More importantly, compound 4w displayed significant inhibitory activity against Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD and was identified as the most potent candidate with IC50 value of 0...
January 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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