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Jerry M Green
Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits...
October 18, 2016: Pest Management Science
Jianghua He, Vincent S Staggs, Sandra Bergquist-Beringer, Nancy Dunton
BACKGROUND: Time trends and seasonal patterns have been observed in nurse staffing and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes in recent years. It is unknown whether these changes were associated. METHODS: Quarterly unit-level nursing data in 2004-2012 were extracted from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®). Units were divided into groups based on patterns of missing data. All variables were aggregated across units within these groups and analyses were conducted at the group level...
2016: BMC Nursing
Minmin Wang, Kyoko Toda, Hiroshi A Maeda
Plants produce various L-tyrosine (Tyr)-derived compounds that are of pharmaceutical or nutritional importance to humans. Tyr aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the reversible transamination between Tyr and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP), the initial step in the biosynthesis of many Tyr-derived plant natural products. Herein reported is the biochemical characterization and subcellular localization of TAT enzymes from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Arabidopsis has at least two homologous TAT genes, At5g53970 (AtTAT1) and At5g36160 (AtTAT2)...
October 7, 2016: Phytochemistry
James Peek, Joseph Roman, Graham R Moran, Dinesh Christendat
Quinate and shikimate can be degraded by a number of microbes. Dehydroshikimate dehydratases (DSDs) play a central role in this process, catalyzing the conversion of 3-dehydroshikimate to protocatechuate, a common intermediate of aromatic degradation pathways. DSDs have applications in metabolic engineering for the production of valuable protocatechuate-derived molecules. Although a number of Gram-negative bacteria are known to catabolize quinate and shikimate, only limited information exists on the quinate/shikimate catabolic enzymes found in these organisms...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Radhika Vattikunta, Dasari Venkatakrishnarao, Mahamad Ahamad Mohiddon, Rajadurai Chandrasekar
Novel supramolecular fluorescent donor-acceptor type dye molecule, (2E,4E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyren-1-yl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (HPPD) self-assemble in a mixture of methanol/chloroform via inter molecular - stacking (distance ~ 3.384 Å) to form J- aggregated single crystalline micro-ribbons displaying Fabry-Pèrot (F-P) type visible range optical resonance, whereas its borondifluoride dye (HPPD-BF) with a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap self-assemble into crystalline micro-rods acting as F-P type resonator in the near infrared (NIR) range...
August 25, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Marcos Sterkel, Hugo D Perdomo, Melina G Guizzo, Ana Beatriz F Barletta, Rodrigo D Nunes, Felipe A Dias, Marcos H F Sorgine, Pedro L Oliveira
Blood-feeding arthropods are vectors of infectious diseases such as dengue, Zika, Chagas disease, and malaria [1], and vector control is essential to limiting disease spread. Because these arthropods ingest very large amounts of blood, a protein-rich meal, huge amounts of amino acids are produced during digestion. Previous work on Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, showed that, among all amino acids, only tyrosine degradation enzymes were overexpressed in the midgut compared to other tissues [2]...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
John P Ward, Joanne L Dunster, Gianne Derks, Pratibha Mistry, José D Salazar
Nitisinone or 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione is a reversible inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an enzyme important in tyrosine catabolism. Today, nitisinone is successfully used to treat Hereditary Tyrosinaemia type 1, although its original expected role was as a herbicide. In laboratory animals, treatment with nitisinone leads to the elevation of plasma tyrosine (tyrosinaemia). In rats and Beagle dogs, repeat low-dose exposure to nitisinone leads to corneal opacities whilst similar studies in the mouse and Rhesus monkey showed no comparable toxicities or other treatment related findings...
June 15, 2016: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Juan J Gutierrez-Gonzalez, David F Garvin
Vitamin E is essential for humans and thus must be a component of a healthy diet. Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) have high vitamin E content. To date, no gene sequences in the vitamin E biosynthesis pathway have been reported for oats. Using deep sequencing and orthology-guided assembly, coding sequences of genes for each step in vitamin E synthesis in oats were reconstructed, including resolution of the sequences of homeologs. Three homeologs, presumably representing each of the three oat subgenomes, were identified for the main steps of the pathway...
May 2, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Sathyavageeswaran Shreeram, Subbarayan Ramesh, Jithesh K Puthan, Gayathri Balakrishnan, Ramachandran Subramanian, Murali Todime Reddy, Suzette L Pereira
BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major factor contributing to strength decline during aging. β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine has been shown to enhance muscle protein synthesis and attenuate loss of muscle mass by multiple pathways. However, the production and regulation of endogenous levels of HMB over the lifespan have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to do a cross-sectional analysis of the basal plasma levels of HMB in male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages and to compare the efficiency of conversion of leucine to HMB in young versus older rats...
July 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Marcella Laschi, Giulia Bernardini, Elena Dreassi, Lia Millucci, Michela Geminiani, Daniela Braconi, Barbara Marzocchi, Maurizio Botta, Fabrizio Manetti, Annalisa Santucci
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum...
April 5, 2016: ChemMedChem
Chih-Wei Huang, Hsiu-Chen Liu, Chia-Pei Shen, Yi-Tong Chen, Sung-Jai Lee, Matthew D Lloyd, Hwei-Jen Lee
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is a non-haem iron(II)-dependent oxygenase that catalyses the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) to homogentisate (HG). In the active site, a strictly conserved 2-His-1-Glu facial triad co-ordinates the iron ready for catalysis. Substitution of these residues resulted in about a 10-fold decrease in the metal binding affinity, as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a large reduction in enzyme catalytic efficiencies. The present study revealed the vital role of the ligand Glu(349) in enzyme function...
May 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Kang Lei, Xue-Wen Hua, Yuan-Yuan Tao, Yang Liu, Na Liu, Yi Ma, Yong-Hong Li, Xiao-Hua Xu, Chui-Hua Kong
A series of (2-benzoylethen-1-ol)-containing benzothiazine derivatives was synthesized, and their herbicidal activities were first evaluated. The bioassay results indicated that some of 3-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-1,1-dioxide derivatives displayed good herbicidal activity in greenhouse testing, especially, compound 4w had good pre-emergent herbicidal activities against Brassica campestris, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa crusgalli even at a dosage of 187.5 g ha(-1). More importantly, compound 4w displayed significant inhibitory activity against Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD and was identified as the most potent candidate with IC50 value of 0...
January 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Egli C Georgiadou, Thessaloniki Ntourou, Vlasios Goulas, George A Manganaris, Panagiotis Kalaitzis, Vasileios Fotopoulos
The aim of this work was to generate a high resolution temporal mapping of the biosynthetic pathway of vitamin E in olive fruit (Olea europaea cv. "Koroneiki") during 17 successive on-tree developmental stages. Fruit material was collected from the middle of June until the end of January, corresponding to 6-38 weeks after flowering (WAF). Results revealed a variable gene regulation pattern among 6-38 WAF studied and more pronounced levels of differential regulation of gene expression for the first and intermediate genes in the biosynthetic pathway (VTE5, geranylgeranyl reductase, HPPD, VTE2, HGGT and VTE3) compared with the downstream components of the pathway (VTE1 and VTE4)...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
L Hermle, M Ruchsow, K L Täschner
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current research on "Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder" (HPPD) and "Flashback" phenomena. The definition and diagnostic features of "Flashback" and HPPD remained often unclear and since the 1960 s interchangeable. METHODS: Relevant literature was identified by means of a computerized MEDLINE search including the years 1994-2014. Finally 75 journal articles out were included in the review...
September 2015: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Enrico Fabris, Gianluca Caiazzo, Ismail Dogu Kilic, Roberta Serdoz, Gioel Gabrio Secco, Gianfranco Sinagra, Renick Lee, Nicolas Foin, Carlo Di Mario
OBJECTIVES: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to investigate integrity and expansion of bioresorbable drug-eluting scaffolds (BVS) after high-pressure postdilation (HPPD). BACKGROUND: Because of concerns about the risk of BVS damage, postdilation was not recommended and applied in the existing randomized studies and most registries. Recent real world data suggest incomplete BVS expansion cause higher rates of thrombosis. In vivo confirmation of the safety of high pressure postdilation is of paramount importance...
April 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Karen K Kirby
Hours per patient day (HPPD) is a metric that is easy to use in determining budgeted FTE and in comparing staffing across organizations. There are many considerations in determining the appropriate HPPD. The combination of automated patient acuity, staffing, and human resource systems provide a wealth of information for determining the budgeted HPPD and in making defensible requests for adjustments in HPPD. No matter how much data we have about staffing levels, nurse education and skill levels, the environment of care, or patient acuity, the real key is determining the outcomes we need to compare staffing against...
January 2015: Nursing Economic$
Vincent S Staggs
OBJECTIVE: The study examined associations between staffing levels by registered nurses (RNs) and non-RNs on psychiatric units and the rate of injurious assaults against hospital personnel, the rate of injurious assaults against other patients, and the total rate of injurious assaults. METHODS: Generalized mixed models were used to analyze 2011-2013 data from 461 adult inpatient psychiatric units in 327 U.S. hospitals. Monthly data were aggregated to the unit level...
November 2015: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
S Claerhout, B De Cauwer, D Reheul
Echinochloa crus-galli populations exhibit high morphological variability and their response to herbicides varies from field to field. Differential response to herbicides could reflect differences in selection pressure, caused by years of cropping system related herbicide usage. This study investigates the relation between herbicide sensitivity of Echinochloa crus-galli populations and the cropping system to which they were subjected. The herbicide sensitivity of Echinochloa crus-galli was evaluated for populations collected on 18 fields, representing three cropping systems, namely (1) a long-term organic cropping system, (2) a conventional cropping system with corn in crop rotation or (3) a conventional cropping system with long-term monoculture of corn...
2014: Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences
Da-Wei Wang, Hong-Yan Lin, Run-Jie Cao, Tao Chen, Feng-Xu Wu, Ge-Fei Hao, Qiong Chen, Wen-Chao Yang, Guang-Fu Yang
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC, HPPD) is one of the most important targets for herbicide discovery. In the search for new HPPD inhibitors with novel scaffolds, triketone-quinoline hybrids were designed and subsequently optimized on the basis of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed potent inhibition of Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD (AtHPPD), and some of them exhibited broad-spectrum and promising herbicidal activity at the rate of 150 g ai/ha by postemergence application...
June 17, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Amar S Godar, Vijaya K Varanasi, Sridevi Nakka, P V Vara Prasad, Curtis R Thompson, J Mithila
Herbicide efficacy is known to be influenced by temperature, however, underlying mechanism(s) are poorly understood. A marked alteration in mesotrione [a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor] efficacy on Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) was observed when grown under low- (LT, 25/15 °C, day/night temperatures) and high (HT, 40/30° C) temperature compared to optimum (OT, 32.5/22.5 °C) temperature. Based on plant height, injury, and mortality, Palmer amaranth was more sensitive to mesotrione at LT and less sensitive at HT compared to OT (ED50 for mortality; 18...
2015: PloS One
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