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Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Mauro Pettorruso, Chiara Montemitro, Maria Chiara Spano, Marco Lorusso, Massimo di Giannantonio, Arturo G Lerner
Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a rare, and therefore, poorly understood condition linked to hallucinogenic drugs consumption. The prevalence of this disorder is low; the condition is more often diagnosed in individuals with a history of previous psychological issues or substance misuse, but it can arise in anyone, even after a single exposure to triggering drugs. The aims of the present study are to review all the original studies about HPPD in order to evaluate the following: (1) the possible suggested etiologies; (2) the possible hallucinogens involved in HPPD induction; (3) the clinical features of both HPPD I and II; (4) the possible psychiatric comorbidities; and (5) the available and potential therapeutic strategies...
March 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
Ying Fu, Yi-Na Sun, Ke-Han Yi, Ming-Qiang Li, Hai-Feng Cao, Jia-Zhong Li, Fei Ye
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC, HPPD) is a potent new bleaching herbicide target. Therefore, in silico structure-based virtual screening was performed in order to speed up the identification of promising HPPD inhibitors. In this study, an integrated virtual screening protocol by combining 3D-pharmacophore model, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was established to find novel HPPD inhibitors from four commercial databases. 3D-pharmacophore Hypo1 model was applied to efficiently narrow potential hits...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Zixin Xie, Shiying Zou, Wentao Xu, Xu Liu, Kunlun Huang, Xiaoyun He
The genetically modified (GM) soybean FG72 contains two exogenous genes: p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd) and double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mepsps), endowing the FG72 with the glyphosate and isoxaflutole herbicides resistant abilities for presence of the 2mEPSPS and HPPD W336 proteins. A food safety assessment of GM soybean FG72 was evaluated by a 90-days feeding study using three different dietary concentrations (7.5%, 15%, or 30% w/w) of the GM soybean or its corresponding non-GM cultivar Jack fed to Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 17, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Reza Najafi, Neda Mostofizadeh, Mahin Hashemipour
Tyrosinemia type III is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of 4- hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). It is characterized by elevated levels of blood tyrosine and massive excretion of its derivatives into the urine. Clinical findings of tyrosinemia type III include neurological symptoms and mental retardation. Only a few patients presenting with this disease have been described, and the clinical phenotype remains variable and unclear. We present a case, who was admitted to the hospital at the age of 4 months for recurrent seizures...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Maxwel C Oliveira, Todd A Gaines, Amit J Jhala, Stevan Z Knezevic
A population of Amaranthus tuberculatus (var. rudis ) evolved resistance to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor herbicides (mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone) in Nebraska. The level of resistance was the highest to mesotrione, and the mechanism of resistance in this population is metabolism-based likely via cytochrome P450 enzymes. The increasing number of weeds resistant to herbicides warrants studies on the ecology and evolutionary factors contributing for resistance evolution, including inheritance of resistance traits...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Matteo Seligardi, Erika Bassi, Maria Mongardi
. Nursing sensitive outcomes and staffing: a review on healthcare associated infection. INTRODUCTION: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) continue to be an unresolved problem in hospital settings. AIM: To assess the relationship between nurse staffing and healthcare associated infections in different settings. METHODS: From April to May 2015 a review of literature was conducted consulting PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. RESULTS: An increased amount of Registered Nurse Hours Per Patient Day (RNHPPD) and nurse-to-patient ratio was associated to a decreased occurrence of HAI...
October 2017: Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca: AIR
Xue-Fang Yang, Kang Lei, Chui-Hua Kong, Xiao-Hua Xu
Despite increasing knowledge of allelochemicals as leads for new herbicides, relatively little is known about the mode of action of allelochemical-based herbicides on herbicide-resistant weeds. In this study, herbicidal activities of a series of allelochemical tricin-derived compounds were evaluated. Subsequently, a benzothiazine derivative 3-(2-chloro-4-methanesulfonyl)-benzoyl-hydroxy-2-methyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-1,1-dioxide with 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibiting activity was identified as a target compound on photosynthetic performance of penoxsulam-resistant versus -susceptible barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli)...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Anita Küpper, Falco Peter, Peter Zöllner, Lothar Lorentz, Patrick J Tranel, Roland Beffa, Todd A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Resistance to the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide tembotrione in an Amaranthus palmeri population from Nebraska (NER) has previously been confirmed to be due to enhanced metabolism. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the metabolites formed in susceptible (NES) and NER biotypes. RESULTS: NER and NES formed the same metabolites. Tembotrione metabolism in NER differed from NES in that resistant plants showed faster 4-hydroxylation followed by glycosylation...
November 3, 2017: Pest Management Science
Hua-Bin Li, Lei Li, Jun-Xian Li, Ting-Feng Han, Jing-Li He, You-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Herbicides that inhibit 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD, EC are very important for grass weed control. In order to discover novel HPPD herbicides, a series of triketone 2H-benzo[b] oxazin-3(4H)-one analogs was designed and synthesized. RESULTS: In comparison with the commercial triketone HPPD herbicide mesotrione (IC50 = 0.252 μM), some of these new triketone analogs displayed excellent HPPD inhibitory potency in vitro, for example B39 (IC50 = 0...
March 2018: Pest Management Science
Ferdinand Ndikuryayo, Behrooz Moosavi, Wen-Chao Yang, Guang-Fu Yang
The development of new herbicides is receiving considerable attention to control weed biotypes resistant to current herbicides. Consequently, new enzymes are always desired as targets for herbicide discovery. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD, EC is an enzyme engaged in photosynthetic activity and catalyzes the transformation of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (HPPA) into homogentisic acid (HGA). HPPD inhibitors constitute a promising area of discovery and development of innovative herbicides with some advantages, including excellent crop selectivity, low application rates, and broad-spectrum weed control...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lauren Anderson, Hannah Lake, Mark Walterfang
OBJECTIVES: The differential diagnosis of psychotic symptoms is broad and extends beyond primary psychotic and affective disorders. We aim to illustrate that the chronology and phenomenological nature of hallucinatory symptoms may provide clues towards alternative diagnoses, such as hallucinogen persisting perceptual disorder (HPPD). We describe the resurgence of visual pseudo-hallucinations in a young woman in the context of previous substance-induced hallucinatory symptoms and a prior diagnosis of occipital lobe epilepsy...
August 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Maxwel C Oliveira, Todd A Gaines, Franck E Dayan, Eric L Patterson, Amit J Jhala, Stevan Z Knezevic
BACKGROUND: A population of Amaranthus tuberculatus (var. rudis) was confirmed resistant to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitor herbicides (mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone) in a seed corn/soybean rotation in Nebraska. Further investigation confirmed a non-target-site resistance mechanism in this population. The main objective of this study was to explore the role of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in restoring the efficacy of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides on the HPPD-inhibitor resistant A...
August 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
Shabir Ahmad, Seung Yeup Lee, Raees Khan, Hyun Gi Kong, Geun Ju Son, Nazish Roy, Kihyuck Choi, Seon-Woo Lee
Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt in a wide variety of host plant species and produces a melanin-like blackish-brown pigment in stationary phase when grown in minimal medium supplemented with tyrosine. To study melanin production regulation in R. solanacearum, five mutants exhibiting overproduction of melanin-like pigments were selected from a transposon (Tn) insertion mutant library of R. solanacearum SL341. Most of the mutants, except one (SL341T), were not complemented by the original gene or overproduced melanins...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shiv S Kaundun, Sarah-Jane Hutchings, Richard P Dale, Anushka Howell, James A Morris, Vance C Kramer, Vinod K Shivrain, Eddie Mcindoe
Amaranthus tuberculatus is a troublesome weed in corn and soybean production systems in Midwestern USA, due in part to its ability to evolve multiple resistance to key herbicides including 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD). Here we have investigated the mechanism of resistance to mesotrione, an important chemical for managing broadleaf weeds in corn, in a multiple herbicide resistant population (NEB) from Nebraska. NEB showed a 2.4-fold and 45-fold resistance increase to mesotrione compared to a standard sensitive population (SEN) in pre-emergence and post-emergence dose-response pot tests, respectively...
2017: PloS One
Shaul Lev-Ran, Daniel Feingold, Craig Goodman, Arturo G Lerner
BACKGROUND AND OJECTIVE: Exploring differences in visual disturbances and triggers between Hallucinogen-Persisting-Perceptual-Disorder (HPPD) Type I ("positive/benign") and II ("negative/distressing"). METHODS: Forty individuals with HPPD and prior LSD use completed clinical questionnaires. RESULTS: The most common type of visual disturbances among individuals with HPPD I and II was slow movement of still objects and trailing phenomena, respectively...
June 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
Ying Fu, Yi-Na Sun, Hai-Feng Cao, Ke-Han Yi, Li-Xia Zhao, Jia-Zhong Li, Fei Ye
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), converting p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate, is an important target for treating type I tyrosinemia and synthesizing novel herbicides due to its significant role in tyrosine catabolism. HPPD inhibitors, sulcotrione, mesotrione and benzobicylon etc. have been used in commercialized herbicides by binding to HPPD. Based on the structure-activity relationships, a series of quinolinone-2,4-diones derivatives were studied using combined of 2D-MLR and 3D-QSARand the structural requirements for their HPPD inhibition have been investigated...
June 21, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Ying Fu, Yi-Na Sun, Ke-Han Yi, Ming-Qiang Li, Hai-Feng Cao, Jia-Zhong Li, Fei Ye
p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is not only the useful molecular target in treating life-threatening tyrosinemia type I, but also an important target for chemical herbicides. A combined in silico structure-based pharmacophore and molecular docking-based virtual screening were performed to identify novel potential HPPD inhibitors. The complex-based pharmacophore model (CBP) with 0.721 of ROC used for screening compounds showed remarkable ability to retrieve known active ligands from among decoy molecules...
June 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sridevi Nakka, Amar S Godar, Prashant S Wani, Curtis R Thompson, Dallas E Peterson, Jeroen Roelofs, Mithila Jugulam
Herbicides that inhibit hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) such as mesotrione are widely used to control a broad spectrum of weeds in agriculture. Amaranthus palmeri is an economically troublesome weed throughout the United States. The first case of evolution of resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in A. palmeri was documented in Kansas (KS) and later in Nebraska (NE). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechansim of HPPD-inhibitor (mesotrione) resistance in A. palmeri. Dose response analysis revealed that this population (KSR) was 10-18 times more resistant than their sensitive counterparts (MSS or KSS)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lautaro F Belfiori-Carrasco, María S Marcora, Nadia I Bocai, M Fernanda Ceriani, Laura Morelli, Eduardo M Castaño
The accumulation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients begins many years before clinical onset. Such process has been proposed to be pathogenic through the toxicity of Aβ soluble oligomers leading to synaptic dysfunction, phospho-tau aggregation and neuronal loss. Yet, a massive accumulation of Aβ can be found in approximately 30% of aged individuals with preserved cognitive function. Therefore, within the frame of the "amyloid hypothesis", compensatory mechanisms and/or additional neurotoxic or protective factors need to be considered and investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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