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Gemma S Milligan, James R House, Michael J Tipton
BACKGROUND: To establish a Physical Employment Standard for tasks with high physical demands, it is important to determine the physiological requirements. One such task for the UK Coastguard is mud rescue. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the physiological demand of pulling a rescue sled across estuary mud, and determine whether rescuer experience has an impact on the physiological demand of this task. METHODS: Forty participants walked 150 m in 3 minutes across estuary mud...
February 17, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Maria Aparecida da RessurreiÇão Brandão, Amanda Teixeira Sampaio Lopes, Maria Tereza da Silva Neta, Rhyan Barros Farias de Oliveira, Rachel Passos Rezende, George Rêgo Albuquerque, Verônica Dias Gonçalves, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Guisla Boehs, Bianca Mendes Maciel
The microbiological quality of oysters reflects the microbiological quality of their habitats because they are filter feeders. The objective of this study was to assess the bacterial composition of the edible oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in urban and preserved estuaries. Particularly, we assessed the presence of pathogenic bacteria, investigated antibiotic susceptibility in bacterial isolates, and quantified β-lactam antibiotic resistance genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaKPC) via quantitative PCR of oyster DNA...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Godfred Odame Duodu, Ashantha Goonetilleke, Godwin A Ayoko
A weak acid extraction was used to mobilize the loosely bound metals in estuary sediment samples. More than 30% of Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn Ni, Pb and Zn were leached from the sediment showing that these metals are significantly present in the bioavailable form. PCA/APCS identified three sources of the metals, namely: lithogenic accounting for 72%, shipping related contributing 15% and traffic related representing 13% of the total load. Application of pollution index (PI) and modified pollution index (MPI) revealed that the sediment range from unpolluted to heavily polluted while ecological risk index (RI) classifies the sediment as posing low ecological risk modified ecological risk index (MRI) suggests considerable to very high ecological risk...
February 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Kisei R Tanaka, Samuel L Belknap, Jared J Homola, Yong Chen
The expansion of shell disease is an emerging threat to the inshore lobster fisheries in the northeastern United States. The development of models to improve the efficiency and precision of existing monitoring programs is advocated as an important step in mitigating its harmful effects. The objective of this study is to construct a statistical model that could enhance the existing monitoring effort through (1) identification of potential disease-associated abiotic and biotic factors, and (2) estimation of spatial variation in disease prevalence in the lobster fishery...
2017: PloS One
Feng Liu, Lixia Niu, Hui Chen, Ping Li, Feng Tian, Qingshu Yang
The behaviours of PAHs (containing 2-6 aromatic rings) in the Pearl River estuary were examined each month in 2011. This study was designed to investigate the abundance of 16 priority PAHs and their response to the seasonal dynamics of anthropogenic activities and hydrological cycles. Monthly mean concentrations of ∑16PAHs in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 88.31ng/L and 252.31ng/L respectively, with higher concentrations in the wet season (April to September). Heavy precipitation in the wet season resulted in relatively increased PAH input via riverine discharges and atmospheric deposition...
February 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Panpan Diao, Qi Chen, Rui Wang, Dong Sun, Zhuoping Cai, Hao Wu, Shunshan Duan
Three phenolic endocrine-disrupting compounds, 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol and bisphenol A, were determined in water, sediment and biota (fish, shrimp and mollusk) collected from sites along the Pearl River Estuary, China. The 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol and bisphenol A concentrations ranged from 1.20-3352.86ng/L in the water, <0.17-20.80ng/g dw in the sediment and <1.49-237.12ng/g dw in the biota. The concentrations of 4-nonylphenol were higher than those of 4-tert-octylphenol and bisphenol A in the water, sediment and organisms...
February 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hongjun Li, Lin Lin, Sheng Ye, Hongbo Li, Jingfeng Fan
Yalujiang River is a famous border river between China and North Korea. In this study, 22 sample sites (seawater and sediments) were investigated to determine the concentrations of nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus) and trace elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Zn) during the flood season (August). Generally, the concentration of nutrients were higher in the entrance of the estuary than that in the downstream region and the trophic index ranged from moderate to high production, indicating a potential eutrophication risk...
February 6, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Gaojie Wu, Wenzhi Cao, Zheng Huang, Chih-Ming Kao, Chang-Tang Chang, Pen-Chi Chiang, Feifei Wang
Estuaries are areas of both freshwater and seawater that are partially enclosed with contact to the open sea and a flow of fresh water. Although the Jiulong River Estuary has a relatively small catchment, this area was found to exhibit high nutrient fluxes. The nutrient fluxes showed obvious fluctuations for different years. The Jiulong River Estuary was predominantly P-limited, and was slowly moving towards higher DIN:DIP and DSi:DIP ratios as the nitrate concentrations increased. The high nutrient fluxes into the estuary may affect estuarine ecosystems by the alteration of DO concentrations in bottom waters, causing harm to benthic fauna due to a lack of oxygen, triggering algal blooms...
February 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jonathan S Lefcheck, David J Wilcox, Rebecca R Murphy, Scott R Marion, Robert J Orth
Interactions among global change stressors and their effects at large scales are often proposed, but seldom evaluated. This situation is primarily due to lack of comprehensive, sufficiently long-term, and spatially extensive datasets. Seagrasses, which provide nursery habitat, improve water quality, and constitute a globally important carbon sink, are among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. Here, we unite 31 years of high-resolution aerial monitoring and water quality data to elucidate the patterns and drivers of eelgrass (Zostera marina) abundance in Chesapeake Bay, USA, one of the largest and most valuable estuaries in the world, with an unparalleled history of regulatory efforts...
February 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
F J Valesini, A Cottingham, C S Hallett, K R Clarke
This study examined inter-period changes over two to three decades in the fish fauna of an urbanized estuary experiencing rapid population growth and a drying climate (Swan-Canning Estuary, Western Australia). Responses were compared at the fish community level (species composition; 1978-2009 in the shallows and 1993-2009 in deeper waters) and at the population and individual levels of an estuarine indicator species, black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (biomass-abundance and per capita mass at age, respectively; 1993-2009)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
Daniel A Lemley, Janine B Adams, Susan Taljaard
This study compared the spatio-temporal dynamics in two agriculturally-influenced South African estuaries - Gamtoos and Sundays - to investigate how contrasting hydrological alterations influence physical, chemical and biological responses. With the Gamtoos Estuary experiencing regular high flow conditions, a key difference between the two systems is the propensity for natural flushing events to occur; a mechanism largely eliminated from the highly-regulated Sundays Catchment. Phytoplankton blooms (>20Chl-aμgl(-1)) were persistent and seasonal in the Sundays, inducing summer bottom-water hypoxia (<2mgl(-1)), whilst those in the Gamtoos were episodic and flow-dependent...
February 1, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Zhiguang Niu, Xiaonan Li, Ying Zhang
To characterize the spatiotemporal distribution and potential ecological risk for trihalomethanes (THMs) in the surface water of a river estuary, surface water samples were collected over five consecutive months (from March to July 2016) from four sites in the Haihe River estuary of Bohai Bay. The potential ecological risks of THMs were evaluated quantitatively based on a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model. The results demonstrate that trichloromethane (TCM) was the predominant THM in surface water of the Haihe River estuary (2...
January 31, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yuanyang Wan, Dezhao Zhao
Spatial and temporal measurement data describing spring-neap variations of velocity, salinity, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the North Passage Deepwater Navigational Channel (DNC) of the Yangtze Estuary, China, were obtained in the wet season of 2012. These data were collected in the middle of the DNC and apparently document the formation of a rather stable density stratification interface and salt wedge, especially during neap tides and slack waters. The convergent zone of residual currents, salinity transport, and sediment transport during neap and spring tides oscillates in the middle and lower reach of the DNC...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
René A Manríquez, Tamara Vera, Melina V Villalba, Alejandra Mancilla, Vikram N Vakharia, Alejandro J Yañez, Juan G Cárcamo
BACKGROUND: The infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes significant economic losses in Chilean salmon farming. For effective sanitary management, the IPNV strains present in Chile need to be fully studied, characterized, and constantly updated at the molecular level. METHODS: In this study, 36 Chilean IPNV isolates collected over 6 years (2006-2011) from Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Oncorhynchus kisutch were genotypically characterized. Salmonid samples were obtained from freshwater, estuary, and seawater sources from central, southern, and the extreme-south of Chile (35° to 53°S)...
January 31, 2017: Virology Journal
Hye Su Jung, Sang Eun Jeong, Kyung Hyun Kim, Che Ok Jeon
A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic and moderate halotolerant bacterial strain, designated S2-26T, was isolated from the Asan Bay estuary in South Korea. Cells were motile rods with two polar flagella showing oxidase- and catalase-positive activities. Growth of strain S2-26T was observed at 15-45 C (optimum, 25C) and pH 5.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.5) and in the presence of 0-8.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.0 %). Strain S2-26T contained C17:1 ω8c, summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C17:1 ω9c/C16:0 10-methyl) and C17:0 as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone-8 as the sole isoprenoid quinone...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yong-Guan Zhu, Yi Zhao, Bing Li, Chu-Long Huang, Si-Yu Zhang, Shen Yu, Yong-Shan Chen, Tong Zhang, Michael R Gillings, Jian-Qiang Su
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have moved from the environmental resistome into human commensals and pathogens, driven by human selection with antimicrobial agents. These genes have increased in abundance in humans and domestic animals, to become common components of waste streams. Estuarine habitats lie between terrestrial/freshwater and marine ecosystems, acting as natural filtering points for pollutants. Here, we have profiled ARGs in sediments from 18 estuaries over 4,000 km of coastal China using high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and investigated their relationship with bacterial communities, antibiotic residues and socio-economic factors...
January 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Lourduraj A Vasanthi, Peranandam Revathi, Ramaswamy Babu Rajendran, Natesan Munuswamy
This study report the impact of heavy metals on cytopathology and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and the Kovalam coastal waters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significant differences among all variables at the scale of plots. The ultrastructural alterations such as lack of microvilli, distorted mitochondria, electron dense particles and the presence of large mucous droplets were common in the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of mussels from Ennore estuary...
January 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Tao Jiang, Ulf Skyllberg, Erik Björn, Nelson W Green, Jianhui Tang, Dingyong Wang, Jie Gao, Chuxian Li
Because of heterogeneous properties, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is known to control the environmental fate of a variety of organic pollutants and trace metals in aquatic systems. Here we report absorptive and fluorescence properties of DOM, in concurrence with concentrations of dissolved mercury (Hg), along the Xiaoqing River-Laizhou Bay estuary system located in the Bohai Sea of China. A mixing model consisting of the two end-members terrestrial and aquatic DOM demonstrated that terrestrial signatures decreased significantly from the river into the estuary...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Matthew D Taylor, Brian Fry, Alistair Becker, Natalie Moltschaniwskyj
Estuaries provide a diverse mosaic of habitats which support both juveniles and adults of exploited species. In particular, estuaries play an important role in the early life history of many penaeid prawn species. This study used a combination of stable isotope ecology and quantitative sampling to examine recruitment and the nursery function of seagrass habitats for Eastern King Prawn (Penaeus [Melicertus] plebejus), and the processes that contributed to this nursery role. Stable isotopes were used to assign prawns joining the adult stock to putative nursery habitat areas within the estuary...
January 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Laura Bankers, Maurine Neiman
Snail-borne trematodes represent a large, diverse, and evolutionarily, ecologically, and medically important group of parasites, often imposing strong selection on their hosts and causing host morbidity and mortality. Even so, there are very few genomic and transcriptomic resources available for this important animal group. We help to fill this gap by providing transcriptome resources from trematode metacercariae infecting two congeneric snail species, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and P. estuarinus This genus of New Zealand snails has gained prominence in large part through the development of P...
January 25, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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