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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926811/towards-better-monitoring-of-technology-critical-elements-in-europe-coupling-of-natural-and-anthropogenic-cycles
#1
Philip Nuss, Gian Andrea Blengini
The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere')...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926810/revisiting-the-biogeochemistry-of-arsenic-in-the-baltic-sea-impact-of-anthropogenic-activity
#2
Lei Li, Christa Pohl, Jing-Ling Ren, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Xiu-Hong Cao, Günther Nausch, Jing Zhang
With the increase in anthropogenic environmental disruption, the behavior of arsenic in the Baltic Sea has received more scientific attention because of its complex forms and toxicity, and was re-visited to determine if there have been measurable changes recently. A cruise was conducted in 10-19 May 2011 to investigate the species and distribution of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs: [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) revealing links between the hydrographic dynamics and biological/chemical reactions in the Baltic Sea...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903468/a-case-for-the-protection-of-saline-and-hypersaline-environments-a-microbiological-perspective
#3
Varun G Paul, Melanie R Mormile
Saline and hypersaline environments are known for their unique geochemical properties, microbial populations and aesthetic appeal. Microbial activities and a spectrum of diversity seen in hypersaline environments are distinct with many novel species being identified and reported on a regular basis. Many distinguishing characteristics about the adaptation, morphology, evolutionary history, and potential environmental and biotechnological applications of these organisms are continually investigated. An abundance of interdisciplinary activities and opportunities exist to explore and understand the importance of these environments that potentially hold promising solutions for current and future global issues...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863371/modelling-co2-emissions-from-water-surface-of-a-boreal-hydroelectric-reservoir
#4
Weifeng Wang, Nigel T Roulet, Youngil Kim, Ian B Strachan, Paul Del Giorgio, Yves T Prairie, Alain Tremblay
To quantify CO2 emissions from water surface of a reservoir that was shaped by flooding the boreal landscape, we developed a daily time-step reservoir biogeochemistry model. We calibrated the model using the measured concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (C) in a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir, Eastmain-1 (EM-1), in northern Quebec, Canada. We validated the model against observed CO2 fluxes from an eddy covariance tower in the middle of EM-1. The model predicted the variability of CO2 emissions reasonably well compared to the observations (root mean square error: 0...
August 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859355/whole-genome-sequence-of-the-anaerobic-isosaccharinic-acid-degrading-isolate-macellibacteroides-fermentans-strain-hh-zs
#5
Simon P Rout, Zohier B Salah, Christopher J Charles, Paul N Humphreys
The ability of micro-organisms to degrade isosaccharinic acids (ISAs) while tolerating hyperalkaline conditions is pivotal to our understanding of the biogeochemistry associated within these environs, but also in scenarios pertaining to the cementitious disposal of radioactive wastes. An alkalitolerant, ISA degrading micro-organism was isolated from the hyperalkaline soils resulting from lime depositions. Here, we report the first whole-genome sequence, ISA degradation profile and carbohydrate preoteome of a Macellibacteroides fermentans strain HH-ZS, 4...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854387/biogeochemical-controls-on-the-speciation-and-aquatic-toxicity-of-vanadium-and-other-metals-in-sediments-from-a-river-reservoir
#6
Sara M Nedrich, Anthony Chappaz, Michelle L Hudson, Steven S Brown, G Allen Burton
Effects of hydrologic variability on reservoir biogeochemistry are relatively unknown, particularly for less studied metals like vanadium (V). Further, few studies have investigated the fate and effects of sediment-associated V to aquatic organisms in hydrologically variable systems. Our primary objective was to assess effects of hydrologic manipulation on speciation and toxicity of V (range: 635 to 1620mgkg(-1)) and other metals to Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna. Sediments were collected from a reservoir located in a former mining area and microcosm experiments were conducted to emulate 7-day drying and inundation periods...
August 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829435/global-distribution-of-clay-size-minerals-on-land-surface-for-biogeochemical-and-climatological-studies
#7
Akihiko Ito, Rota Wagai
Clay-size minerals play important roles in terrestrial biogeochemistry and atmospheric physics, but their data have been only partially compiled at global scale. We present a global dataset of clay-size minerals in the topsoil and subsoil at different spatial resolutions. The data of soil clay and its mineralogical composition were gathered through a literature survey and aggregated by soil orders of the Soil Taxonomy for each of the ten groups: gibbsite, kaolinite, illite/mica, smectite, vermiculite, chlorite, iron oxide, quartz, non-crystalline, and others...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815366/abiotic-nitrate-loss-and-nitrogenous-trace-gas-emission-from-chinese-acidic-forest-soils
#8
Yajing Wang, Wenchao Cao, Xinmu Zhang, Jingheng Guo
There are an increasing number of studies, which have shown the potential importance of abiotic denitrification in nitrogen biogeochemistry through pure chemical coupling between nitrate/nitrite reduction and Fe(II) oxidation. However, there is little direct evidence showing the environmental significance of abiotic nitrate (NO3(-)) reduction in acidic soils. We assessed the magnitude and gaseous product stoichiometry of abiotic nitrate reduction in acidic forest soils based on sterilized anoxic soil incubations at different soil pHs and nitrate loadings...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815314/a-comparative-study-on-macro-and-microelement-bioaccumulation-properties-of-leaves-and-bark-of-quercus-petraea-and-pinus-sylvestris
#9
Agnieszka Klink, Ludmiła Polechońska, Małgorzata Dambiec, Kamila Białas
Trees are widely used for biomonitoring and filtering air in industrial, urban, and rural areas. This research was undertaken to examine accumulation capacities of macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) and trace metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in needles and bark of Pinus sylvestris and leaves and bark of Quercus petraea growing in the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant PCC Rokita in Brzeg Dolny (Lower Silesia, SW Poland). Because Scots pine is well studied and considered a useful bioindicator, we have used this species as a base for comparison of the accumulation ability of sessile oak that shows some features of good bioindicator, but whose biogeochemistry was scarcely studied...
August 16, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813420/biogeochemistry-food-for-early-animal-evolution
#10
Andrew H Knoll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800694/variability-drivers-and-effects-of-atmospheric-nitrogen-inputs-across-an-urban-area-emerging-patterns-among-human-activities-the-atmosphere-and-soils
#11
Stephen M Decina, Pamela H Templer, Lucy R Hutyra, Conor K Gately, Preeti Rao
Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) is a major input of N to the biosphere and is elevated beyond preindustrial levels throughout many ecosystems. Deposition monitoring networks in the United States generally avoid urban areas in order to capture regional patterns of N deposition, and studies measuring N deposition in cities usually include only one or two urban sites in an urban-rural comparison or as an anchor along an urban-to-rural gradient. Describing patterns and drivers of atmospheric N inputs is crucial for understanding the effects of N deposition; however, little is known about the variability and drivers of atmospheric N inputs or their effects on soil biogeochemistry within urban ecosystems...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800485/validation-of-site-specific-soil-ni-toxicity-thresholds-with-independent-ecotoxicity-and-biogeochemistry-data-for-elevated-soil-ni
#12
Beverley Hale, Yamini Gopalapillai, Amanda Pellegrino, Tyson Jennett, Julie Kikkert, Wilson Lau, Christian Schlekat, Mike J McLaughlin
The Existing Substances Regulation Risk Assessments by the European Union (EU RA) generated new toxicity data for soil organisms exposed to Ni added to sixteen field-collected soils with low background concentration of metals and varying physico-chemical soil characteristics. Using only effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) as a bioavailability correction, chronic toxicity of Ni in soils with a wide range of characteristics could be predicted within a factor of two. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this was also the case for three independent data sets of Ni toxicity thresholds...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783911/wind-induced-changes-in-the-dynamics-of-fluorescent-organic-matter-in-the-coastal-nw-mediterranean
#13
Fran L Aparicio, Mar Nieto-Cid, Eva Calvo, Carles Pelejero, Àngel López-Sanz, Josep Pascual, Jordi Salat, Elvia D Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia De La Fuente, Josep M Gasol, Cèlia Marrasé
Marine biogeochemistry dynamics in coastal marine areas is strongly influenced by episodic events such as rain, intense winds, river discharges and anthropogenic activities. We evaluated in this study the importance of these forcing events on modulating seasonal changes in the marine biogeochemistry of the northwestern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, based on data gathered from a fixed coastal sampling station in the area. A 4-year (2011-2014) monthly sampling at four depths (0.5m, 20m, 50m and 80m) was performed to examine the time variability of several oceanographic variables: seawater temperature, salinity, inorganic nutrient concentrations (NO3(-), PO4(3-) and SiO2), chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM)...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771908/bacteriohopanepolyols-along-redox-gradients-in-the-humboldt-current-system-off-northern-chile
#14
E D Matys, J Sepúlveda, S Pantoja, C B Lange, M Caniupán, F Lamy, R E Summons
Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are characterized by the presence of subsurface suboxic or anoxic waters where diverse microbial processes are responsible for the removal of fixed nitrogen. OMZs have expanded over past decades and are expected to continue expanding in response to the changing climate. The implications for marine biogeochemistry, particularly nitrogen cycling, are uncertain. Cell membrane lipids (biomarkers), such as bacterial bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) and their degradation products (hopanoids), have distinctive structural attributes that convey information about their biological sources...
August 3, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770028/first-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-strain-from-the-genus-fusibacter-isolated-from-salar-de-ascot%C3%A3-n-in-northern-chile
#15
Antonio E Serrano, Lorena V Escudero, Cinthya Tebes-Cayo, Mauricio Acosta, Olga Encalada, Sebastián Fernández-Moroso, Cecilia Demergasso
Fusibacter sp. 3D3 (ATCC BAA-2418) is an arsenate-reducing halotolerant strain within the Firmicutes phylum, isolated from the Salar de Ascotán, a hypersaline salt flat in Northern Chile. This high-Andean closed basin is an athalassohaline environment located at the bottom of a tectonic basin surrounded by mountain range, including some active volcanoes. This landscape can be an advantageous system to explore the effect of salinity on microorganisms that mediate biogeochemical reactions. Since 2000, microbial reduction of arsenic has been evidenced in the system, and the phylogenetic analysis of the original community plus the culture enrichments has revealed the predominance of Firmicutes phylum...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752871/understanding-the-mobilisation-of-metal-pollution-associated-with-historical-mining-in-a-carboniferous-upland-catchment
#16
Magaly Valencia-Avellan, Rebecca Slack, Anthony Stockdale, Robert John George Mortimer
Point and diffuse pollution from metal mining has led to severe environmental damage worldwide. Mine drainage is a significant problem for riverine ecosystems, it is commonly acidic (AMD), but neutral mine drainage (NMD) can also occur. A representative environment for studying metal pollution from NMD is provided by carboniferous catchments characterised by a circumneutral pH and high concentrations of carbonates, supporting the formation of secondary metal-minerals as potential sinks of metals. The present study focuses on understanding the mobility of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750008/physiological-responses-of-coccolithophores-to-abrupt-exposure-of-naturally-low-ph-deep-seawater
#17
Maria Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, Bethan M Jones, Sonia Blanco-Ameijeiras, Mervyn Greaves, Maria Huete-Ortega, Mario Lebrato
Upwelling is the process by which deep, cold, relatively high-CO2, nutrient-rich seawater rises to the sunlit surface of the ocean. This seasonal process has fueled geoengineering initiatives to fertilize the surface ocean with deep seawater to enhance productivity and thus promote the drawdown of CO2. Coccolithophores, which inhabit many upwelling regions naturally 'fertilized' by deep seawater, have been investigated in the laboratory in the context of ocean acidification to determine the extent to which nutrients and CO2 impact their physiology, but few data exist in the field except from mesocosms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747904/bridging-food-webs-ecosystem-metabolism-and-biogeochemistry-using-ecological-stoichiometry-theory
#18
REVIEW
Nina Welti, Maren Striebel, Amber J Ulseth, Wyatt F Cross, Stephen DeVilbiss, Patricia M Glibert, Laodong Guo, Andrew G Hirst, Jim Hood, John S Kominoski, Keeley L MacNeill, Andrew S Mehring, Jill R Welter, Helmut Hillebrand
Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and thereby impede a comprehensive understanding of the underlying processes governing energy and matter flow and transformation. The fate of multiple chemical elements in ecosystems is strongly linked by biotic demand and uptake; thus, considering elemental stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747000/response-of-soil-dissolved-organic-matter-to-microplastic-addition-in-chinese-loess-soil
#19
Hongfei Liu, Xiaomei Yang, Guobin Liu, Chutao Liang, Sha Xue, Hao Chen, Coen J Ritsema, Violette Geissen
Plastic debris is accumulating in agricultural land due to the increased use of plastic mulches, which is causing serious environmental problems, especially for biochemical and physical properties of the soil. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in driving soil biogeochemistry, but little information is available on the effects of plastic residues, especially microplastic, on soil DOM. We conducted a soil-incubation experiment in a climate-controlled chamber with three levels of microplastic added to loess soil collected from the Loess Plateau in China: 0% (control, CK), 7% (M1) and 28% (M2) (w/w)...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738864/identification-of-two-organohalide-respiring-dehalococcoidia-associated-to-different-dechlorination-activities-in-pcb-impacted-marine-sediments
#20
Andrea Nuzzo, Andrea Negroni, Giulio Zanaroli, Fabio Fava
BACKGROUND: Microbial reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) plays a major role in detoxifying anoxic contaminated freshwater and marine sediments from PCBs. Known members of the phylum Chloroflexi are typically responsible for this activity in freshwater sediments, whereas less is known about the microorganisms responsible for this activity in marine sediments. PCB-respiring activities were detected in PCB-impacted marine sediments of the Venice Lagoon. The aim of this work was to identify the indigenous organohalide-respiring microorganisms in such environments and assess their dechlorination specificity against spiked Aroclor™ 1254 PCBs under laboratory conditions resembling the in situ biogeochemistry...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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