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Biogeochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429510/mixing-of-water-masses-caused-by-a-drifting-iceberg-affects-bacterial-activity-community-composition-and-substrate-utilization-capability-in-the-southern-ocean
#1
Julie Dinasquet, Inga Richert, Ramiro Logares, Patricia Yager, Stefan Bertilsson, Lasse Riemann
The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419734/the-life-sulfuric-microbial-ecology-of-sulfur-cycling-in-marine-sediments
#2
REVIEW
Kenneth Wasmund, Marc Mußmann, Alexander Loy
Almost the entire seafloor is covered with sediments that can be more than 10,000 m thick and represent a vast microbial ecosystem that is a major component of Earth's element and energy cycles. Notably, a significant proportion of microbial life in marine sediments can exploit energy conserved during transformations of sulfur compounds among different redox states. Sulfur cycling, which is primarily driven by sulfate reduction, is tightly interwoven with other important element cycles (carbon, nitrogen, iron, manganese) and therefore has profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396575/the-role-of-biology-in-global-climate-change-interdisciplinary-research-in-biogeochemistry-can-help-to-understand-local-and-global-fluxes-of-carbon-and-other-elements-and-inform-environmental-policies
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382982/biogeochemistry-large-rise-in-carbon-uptake-by-land-plants
#4
Dan Yakir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377745/photoferrotrophy-remains-of-an-ancient-photosynthesis-in-modern-environments
#5
REVIEW
Antonio Camacho, Xavier A Walter, Antonio Picazo, Jakob Zopfi
Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347915/chromium-speciation-bioavailability-uptake-toxicity-and-detoxification-in-soil-plant-system-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad Shahid, Saliha Shamshad, Marina Rafiq, Sana Khalid, Irshad Bibi, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Camille Dumat, Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
Chromium (Cr) is a potentially toxic heavy metal which does not have any essential metabolic function in plants. Various past and recent studies highlight the biogeochemistry of Cr in the soil-plant system. This review traces a plausible link among Cr speciation, bioavailability, phytouptake, phytotoxicity and detoxification based on available data, especially published from 2010 to 2016. Chromium occurs in different chemical forms (primarily as chromite (Cr(III)) and chromate (Cr(VI)) in soil which vary markedly in term of their biogeochemical behavior...
March 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342414/impacts-of-soil-incorporation-of-pre-incubated-silica-rich-rice-residue-on-soil-biogeochemistry-and-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-under-flooding-and-drying
#7
Madison Y Gutekunst, Rodrigo Vargas, Angelia L Seyfferth
Incorporation of silica-rich rice husk residue into flooded paddy soil decreases arsenic uptake by rice. However, the impact of this practice on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and elemental cycling is unresolved particularly as amended soils experience recurrent flooding and drying cycles. We evaluated the impact of pre-incubated silica-rich rice residue incorporation to soils on pore water chemistry and soil GHG fluxes (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) over a flooding and drying cycle typical of flooded rice cultivation...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337180/the-effect-of-increased-loads-of-dissolved-organic-matter-on-estuarine-microbial-community-composition-and-function
#8
Sachia J Traving, Owen Rowe, Nina M Jakobsen, Helle Sørensen, Julie Dinasquet, Colin A Stedmon, Agneta Andersson, Lasse Riemann
Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated DOM on a coastal pelagic food web from the coastal northern Baltic Sea, in a 32-day mesocosm experiment. In particular, the study addresses the response of bacterioplankton to differences in character and composition of supplied DOM...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334283/the-microbiology-of-oil-sands-tailings-past-present-future
#9
Julia M Foght, Lisa M Gieg, Tariq Siddique
Surface mining of enormous oil sands deposits in northeastern Alberta, Canada since 1967 has contributed greatly to Canada's economy but has also received negative international attention due largely to environmental concerns and challenges. Not only have microbes profoundly affected the composition and behaviour of this petroleum resource over geological time, they currently influence the management of semi-solid tailings in oil sands tailing ponds (OSTP) and tailings reclamation. Historically, microbial impacts on OSTP were generally discounted but next-generation sequencing and biogeochemical studies have revealed unexpectedly diverse indigenous communities and expanded our fundamental understanding of anaerobic microbial functions...
March 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317324/big-in-the-benthos-future-change-of-seafloor-community-biomass-in-a-global-body-size-resolved-model
#10
Andrew Yool, Adrian P Martin, Thomas R Anderson, Brian J Bett, Daniel O B Jones, Henry A Ruhl
Deep-water benthic communities in the ocean are almost wholly dependent on near-surface pelagic ecosystems for their supply of energy and material resources. Primary production in sunlit surface waters is channelled through complex food webs that extensively recycle organic material, but lose a fraction as particulate organic carbon (POC) that sinks into the ocean interior. This exported production is further rarefied by microbial breakdown in the abyssal ocean, but a residual ultimately drives diverse assemblages of seafloor heterotrophs...
March 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317257/top-down-control-of-carbon-sequestration-grazing-affects-microbial-structure-and-function-in-salt-marsh-soils
#11
Peter Mueller, Dirk Granse, Stefanie Nolte, Hai Thi Do, Magdalena Weingartner, Stefan Hoth, Kai Jensen
Tidal wetlands have been increasingly recognized as long-term carbon sinks in recent years. Work on carbon sequestration and decomposition processes in tidal wetlands focused so far mainly on effects of global-change factors such as sea-level rise and increasing temperatures. However, little is known about effects of land use, such as livestock grazing, on organic matter decomposition and ultimately carbon sequestration. The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms by which large herbivores can affect organic matter decomposition in tidal wetlands...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300099/biogeochemistry-a-plan-for-efficient-use-of-nitrogen-fertilizers
#12
Xin Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291233/lysogeny-in-nature-mechanisms-impact-and-ecology-of-temperate-phages
#13
Cristina Howard-Varona, Katherine R Hargreaves, Stephen T Abedon, Matthew B Sullivan
Viruses that infect bacteria (phages) can influence bacterial community dynamics, bacterial genome evolution and ecosystem biogeochemistry. These influences differ depending on whether phages establish lytic, chronic or lysogenic infections. Although the first two produce virion progeny, with lytic infections resulting in cell destruction, phages undergoing lysogenic infections replicate with cells without producing virions. The impacts of lysogeny are numerous and well-studied at the cellular level, but ecosystem-level consequences remain underexplored compared to those of lytic infections...
March 14, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290556/porewater-methane-transport-within-the-gas-vesicles-of-diurnally-migrating-chaoborus-spp-an-energetic-advantage
#14
Daniel F McGinnis, Sabine Flury, Kam W Tang, Hans-Peter Grossart
Diurnally-migrating Chaoborus spp. reach populations of up to 130,000 individuals m(-2) in lakes up to 70 meters deep on all continents except Antarctica. Linked to eutrophication, migrating Chaoborus spp. dwell in the anoxic sediment during daytime and feed in the oxic surface layer at night. Our experiments show that by burrowing into the sediment, Chaoborus spp. utilize the high dissolved gas partial pressure of sediment methane to inflate their tracheal sacs. This mechanism provides a significant energetic advantage that allows the larvae to migrate via passive buoyancy rather than more energy-costly swimming...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276134/deterministic-influences-exceed-dispersal-effects-on-hydrologically-connected-microbiomes
#15
Emily B Graham, Alex R Crump, Charles T Resch, Sarah Fansler, Evan Arntzen, David W Kennedy, Jim K Fredrickson, James C Stegen
Subsurface groundwater-surface water mixing zones (hyporheic zones) have enhanced biogeochemical activity, but assembly processes governing subsurface microbiomes remain a critical uncertainty in understanding hyporheic biogeochemistry. To address this obstacle, we investigated (a) biogeographical patterns in attached and waterborne microbiomes across three hydrologically-connected, physicochemically-distinct zones (inland hyporheic, nearshore hyporheic and river); (b) assembly processes that generated these patterns; (c) groups of organisms that corresponded to deterministic changes in the environment; and (d) correlations between these groups and hyporheic metabolism...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258135/unusual-versatility-revealed-by-a-filamentous-diazotrophic-cyanobacterium-anabaena-torulosa-for-its-survival-under-prolonged-uranium-exposure
#16
Celin Acharya, Pallavi Chandwadkar, Chandrani Nayak
Reports on cyanobacterial interactions with uranyl carbonate are rare. Here, we present an interesting succession of the metabolic responses employed by a marine, filamentous, diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa for its survival following prolonged exposure to uranyl carbonate extending up to 384 h at pH 7.8 under phosphate limited conditions. The cells sequestered uranium (U) in their polyphosphates on initial exposure to 100 μM uranyl carbonate for 24-28 h. Further incubation until 120 h resulted in (a) significant degradation of cellular polyphosphates causing extensive chlorosis and cell lysis, (b) akinete differentiation followed by (c) extracellular uranyl precipitation...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252066/the-integral-role-of-iron-in-ocean-biogeochemistry
#17
Alessandro Tagliabue, Andrew R Bowie, Philip W Boyd, Kristen N Buck, Kenneth S Johnson, Mak A Saito
The micronutrient iron is now recognized to be important in regulating the magnitude and dynamics of ocean primary productivity, making it an integral component of the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. In this Review, we discuss how a recent increase in observational data for this trace metal has challenged the prevailing view of the ocean iron cycle. Instead of focusing on dust as the major iron source and emphasizing iron's tight biogeochemical coupling to major nutrients, a more complex and diverse picture of the sources of iron, its cycling processes and intricate linkages with the ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles has emerged...
March 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246922/investigating-the-microbial-degradation-potential-in-oil-sands-fluid-fine-tailings-using-gamma-irradiation-a-metagenomic-perspective
#18
Danielle VanMensel, Subba Rao Chaganti, Ryan Boudens, Thomas Reid, Jan Ciborowski, Christopher Weisener
Open-pit mining of the Athabasca oil sands has generated large volumes of waste termed fluid fine tailings (FFT), stored in tailings ponds. Accumulation of toxic organic substances in the tailings ponds is one of the biggest concerns. Gamma irradiation (GI) treatment could accelerate the biodegradation of toxic organic substances. Hence, this research investigates the response of the microbial consortia in GI-treated FFT materials with an emphasis on changes in diversity and organism-related stimuli. FFT materials from aged and fresh ponds were used in the study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
March 1, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246637/hypoxia-causes-preservation-of-labile-organic-matter-and-changes-seafloor-microbial-community-composition-black-sea
#19
Gerdhard L Jessen, Anna Lichtschlag, Alban Ramette, Silvio Pantoja, Pamela E Rossel, Carsten J Schubert, Ulrich Struck, Antje Boetius
Bottom-water oxygen supply is a key factor governing the biogeochemistry and community composition of marine sediments. Whether it also determines carbon burial rates remains controversial. We investigated the effect of varying oxygen concentrations (170 to 0 μM O2) on microbial remineralization of organic matter in seafloor sediments and on community diversity of the northwestern Crimean shelf break. This study shows that 50% more organic matter is preserved in surface sediments exposed to hypoxia compared to oxic bottom waters...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238435/lateral-and-longitudinal-patterns-of-water-physico-chemistry-and-trace-metal-distribution-and-partitioning-in-a-large-river-floodplain
#20
Dorothea Hug Peter, Emmanuel Castella, Vera I Slaveykova
Floodplain water bodies provide habitat to diversified ecological communities. Floodplains are also among the most impacted aquatic ecosystems. While the link between the lateral connectivity of floodplain sites to the main channel and their plant, fish and invertebrate communities has been well established, detailed information on chemical characteristics and particularly on trace metal spatial distribution and partitioning is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the link between the lateral connectivity and physico-chemical variables, their trace metal concentrations and partitioning as well as the upstream-downstream gradient of these parameters...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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