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Biogeochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636273/long-term-belowground-effects-of-grassland-management-the-key-role-of-liming
#1
Jemma Heyburn, Paul McKenzie, Michael J Crawley, Dario A Fornara
The functioning of human-managed grassland ecosystems strongly depends on how common management practices will affect grassland 'belowground compartment' including soil biogeochemistry and plant roots. Key questions remain about how animal grazing, liming (e.g. the addition of CaCO3 to soils), and nutrient fertilization might affect, in the long-term, soil nutrient cycling and multiple root traits. Here we focus on a mesotrophic grassland located in Berkshire, UK, where contrasting levels of rabbit grazing, liming and different inorganic fertilizers have been applied since 1991...
June 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607347/living-microorganisms-change-the-information-shannon-content-of-a-geophysical-system
#2
Fiona H M Tang, Federico Maggi
The detection of microbial colonization in geophysical systems is becoming of interest in various disciplines of Earth and planetary sciences, including microbial ecology, biogeochemistry, geomicrobiology, and astrobiology. Microorganisms are often observed to colonize mineral surfaces, modify the reactivity of minerals either through the attachment of their own biomass or the glueing of mineral particles with their mucilaginous metabolites, and alter both the physical and chemical components of a geophysical system...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602082/linking-genes-to-microbial-biogeochemical-cycling-lessons-from-arsenic
#3
Yong-Guan Zhu, Xi-Mei Xue, Andreas Kappler, Barry P Rosen, Andrew A Meharg
The biotransformation of arsenic is highly relevant to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle. Identification of the molecular details of microbial pathways of arsenic biotransformation coupled with analyses of microbial communities by meta-omics can provide insights into detailed aspects of the complexities of this biocycle. Arsenic transformations couple to other biogeochemical cycles, and to the fate of both nutrients and other toxic environmental contaminants. Microbial redox metabolism of iron, carbon, sulfur and nitrogen affects the redox and bioavailability of arsenic species...
June 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600318/colonization-habitat-controls-biomass-composition-and-metabolic-activity-of-attached-microbial-communities-in-the-columbia-river-hyporheic-corridor
#4
Noah Stern, Matthew Ginder-Vogel, James C Stegen, Evan Arntzen, David W Kennedy, Bret R Larget, Eric E Roden
Hydrologic exchange plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling within the hyporheic zone (interface between river water and groundwater) of riverine ecosystems. Such exchange may set limits on rates of microbial metabolism, and impose deterministic selection on microbial communities that adapt to dynamically changing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sources. This study examined the response of attached microbial communities (in situ colonized sand packs) from groundwater, hyporheic, and riverbed habitats within the Columbia River hyporheic corridor to "cross-feeding" with either groundwater, river water, or DOC-free artificial fluids...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600313/novel-microbial-assemblages-dominate-weathered-sulfide-bearing-rock-from-copper-nickel-deposits-in-the-duluth-complex-minnesota-usa
#5
Daniel S Jones, Kim A Lapakko, Zachary J Wenz, Michael C Olson, Elizabeth W Roepke, Michael J Sadowsky, Paige J Novak, Jake V Bailey
The Duluth Complex in northeastern Minnesota hosts economically-significant deposits of copper, nickel, and platinum group elements (PGEs). The primary sulfide mineralogy of these deposits includes the minerals pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and cubanite, and weathering experiments show that most sulfide-bearing rock from the Duluth Complex generates moderately acidic leachate (pH 4-6). Microorganisms are important catalysts for metal sulfide oxidation and could influence water quality from mines in the Duluth Complex...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592848/metal-biogeochemistry-in-constructed-wetlands-based-on-fluviatile-sand-and-zeolite-and-clinopyroxene-dominated-lava-sand
#6
Jen-How Huang, Sonja Paul, Silke Mayer, Eloise Moradpour, Ralf Hasselbach, Reto Gieré, Christine Alewell
For the first time, speciation of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb was determined along the profiles of 8 constructed wetlands (CWs) consisting of fluviatile sand (Fluv), clinopyroxene-dominated lava sand (Cl-LS) and zeolite-dominated lava sand (Ze-LS), aiming at quantifying metal behaviour in CWs and the impact caused by different filter materials. With the exception of Mn, which underwent reductive dissolution, CWs were sinks for the studied metals. Metal accumulation rates differed in the following order: Ze-LS ≥ Cl-LS > Fluv CWs, reflecting the highest metal adsorption capacity and the lowest hydraulic conductivity of Ze-LS...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591840/novel-approaches-in-function-driven-single-cell-genomics
#7
Devin F R Doud, Tanja Woyke
Deeper sequencing and improved bioinformatics in conjunction with single-cell and metagenomic approaches continue to illuminate undercharacterized environmental microbial communities. This has propelled the 'who is there, and what might they be doing' paradigm to the uncultivated and has already radically changed the topology of the tree of life and provided key insights into the microbial contribution to biogeochemistry. While characterization of 'who' based on marker genes can describe a large fraction of the community, answering 'what are they doing' remains the elusive pinnacle for microbiology...
June 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581674/radial-oxygen-loss-by-the-cushion-plant-eriocaulon-schimperi-prevents-methane-emissions-from-an-east-african-mountain-mire
#8
B W Dullo, A P Grootjans, J G M Roelofs, A F Senbeta, C Fritz, L P M Lamers
RESEARCH RATIONALE: Groundwater-fed fens are known sources of methane (CH4 ) emissions to the atmosphere, but these are known to be mediated by vegetation. In a fen located in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, we assessed the effects of a cushion plant (Eriocaulon schimperi) and a sedge species (Carex monostachya) on rhizosphere biogeochemistry. CENTRAL METHODS: CH4 and CO2 concentrations and pH were measured in pore water at different depths in the profile. Redox potentials and NaCl-extractable element concentrations were analyzed in soil samples from sites dominated by either E...
June 5, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577167/bacterial-rhizoplane-colonization-patterns-of-buchloe-dactyloides-growing-in-metalliferous-mine-tailings-reflect-plant-status-and-biogeochemical-conditions
#9
Linnea K Honeker, Julia W Neilson, Robert A Root, Juliana Gil-Loaiza, Jon Chorover, Raina M Maier
Plant establishment during phytostabilization of legacy mine tailings in semiarid regions is challenging due to low pH, low organic carbon, low nutrients, and high toxic metal(loid) concentrations. Plant-associated bacterial communities are particularly important under these harsh conditions because of their beneficial services to plants. We hypothesize that bacterial colonization profiles on rhizoplane surfaces reflect deterministic processes that are governed by plant health and the root environment. The aim of this study was to identify associations between bacterial colonization patterns on buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) rhizoplanes and both plant status (leaf chlorophyll and plant cover) and substrate biogeochemistry (pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and rhizosphere microbial community)...
June 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548659/metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-prokaryotic-communities-active-in-sulfur-and-arsenic-cycling-in-mono-lake-california-usa
#10
Christian F Edwardson, James T Hollibaugh
This study evaluates the transcriptionally active, dissimilatory sulfur- and arsenic-cycling components of the microbial community in alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake, CA, USA. We sampled five depths spanning the redox gradient (10, 15, 18, 25 and 31 m) during maximum thermal stratification. We used custom databases to identify transcripts of genes encoding complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) proteins, with a focus on arsenic (arrA, aioA and arxA) and sulfur cycling (dsrA, aprA and soxB), and assigned them to taxonomic bins...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546182/response-to-comment-on-dissolved-organic-sulfur-in-the-ocean-biogeochemistry-of-a-petagram-inventory
#11
Boris P Koch, Kerstin B Ksionzek, Oliver J Lechtenfeld, S Leigh McCallister, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Jana K Geuer, Walter Geibert
Dittmar et al proposed that mixing alone can explain our observed decrease in marine dissolved organic sulfur with age. However, their simple model lacks an explanation for the origin of sulfur-depleted organic matter in the deep ocean and cannot adequately reproduce our observed stoichiometric changes. Using radiocarbon age also implicitly models the preferential cycling of sulfur that they are disputing.
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546181/comment-on-dissolved-organic-sulfur-in-the-ocean-biogeochemistry-of-a-petagram-inventory
#12
Thorsten Dittmar, Aron Stubbins, Takamitsu Ito, Daniel C Jones
Ksionzek et al (Reports, 28 October 2016, p. 456) provide important data describing the distribution of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) in the Atlantic Ocean. Here, we show that mixing between water masses is sufficient to explain the observed distribution of DOS, concluding that the turnover time of refractory DOS that Ksionzek et al present cannot be deduced from their data.
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536570/the-importance-of-h-in-particulate-organic-matter-stoichiometry-export-and-energy-flow
#13
REVIEW
David M Karl, Eric Grabowski
The discipline of marine ecological stoichiometry has progressed rapidly over the past two decades, and continues to be at the forefront of microbial oceanography. Most of this effort has been focused on the elements carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and to a lesser extent phosphorus (P), with little consideration of hydrogen (H), or the redox state of the organic matter pools despite the fact that H is the most abundant, and possibly the most important, element in biogeochemistry. Obtaining accurate estimates of the H content of organic matter, either in suspended or sinking particles, is a major analytical challenge...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534879/epibionts-dominate-metabolic-functional-potential-of-trichodesmium-colonies-from-the-oligotrophic-ocean
#14
Kyle R Frischkorn, Mónica Rouco, Benjamin A S Van Mooy, Sonya T Dyhrman
Trichodesmium is a genus of marine diazotrophic colonial cyanobacteria that exerts a profound influence on global biogeochemistry, by injecting 'new' nitrogen into the low nutrient systems where it occurs. Colonies of Trichodesmium ubiquitously contain a diverse assemblage of epibiotic microorganisms, constituting a microbiome on the Trichodesmium host. Metagenome sequences from Trichodesmium colonies were analyzed along a resource gradient in the western North Atlantic to examine microbiome community structure, functional diversity and metabolic contributions to the holobiont...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528651/manganese-in-marine-microbiology
#15
Colleen M Hansel
The importance of manganese in the physiology of marine microbes, the biogeochemistry of the ocean and the health of microbial communities of past and present is emerging. Manganese is distributed widely throughout the global ocean, taking the form of an essential antioxidant (Mn(2+)), a potent oxidant (Mn(3+)) and strong adsorbent (Mn oxides) sequestering disproportionately high levels of trace metals and nutrients in comparison to the surrounding seawater. Manganese is, in fact, linked to nearly all other elemental cycles and intricately involved in the health, metabolism and function of the ocean's microbiome...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502020/biogeochemical-zonation-of-sulfur-during-the-discharge-of-groundwater-to-lake-in-desert-plateau-dakebo-lake-nw-china
#16
Xiaosi Su, Geng Cui, Huang Wang, Zhenxue Dai, Nam-Chil Woo, Wenzhen Yuan
As one of the important elements of controlling the redox system within the hyporheic and hypolentic zone, sulfur is involved in a series of complex biogeochemical processes such as carbon cycle, water acidification, formation of iron and manganese minerals, redox processes of trace metal elements and a series of important ecological processes. Previous studies on biogeochemistry of the hyporheic and hypolentic zones mostly concentrated on nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorus, heavy metals and other pollutants...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500769/biogeochemistry-drives-diversity-in-the-prokaryotes-fungi-and-invertebrates-of-a-panama-forest
#17
Michael Kaspari, Jelena Bujan, Michael D Weiser, Daliang Ning, Sean T Michaletz, He Zhili, Brian J Enquist, Robert B Waide, Jizhong Zhou, Benjamin L Turner, S Joseph Wright
Humans are both fertilizing the world and depleting its soils, decreasing the diversity of aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial plants in the process. We know less about how nutrients shape the abundance and diversity of the prokaryotes, fungi, and invertebrates of Earth's soils. Here we explore this question in the soils of a Panama forest subject to a 13-year fertilization with factorial combinations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a separate micronutrient cocktail. We contrast three hypotheses linking biogeochemistry to abundance and diversity...
May 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489281/unveiling-microbial-interactions-in-stratified-mat-communities-from-a-warm-saline-shallow-pond
#18
Aurélien Saghaï, Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado, Philippe Deschamps, David Moreira, Paola Bertolino, Marie Ragon, Purificación López-García
Modern phototrophic microbial mats are complex communities often used as analogs of major Precambrian ecosystems. Characterizing biotic, notably metabolic, interactions among different microbial mat members is essential to gain insights into the ecology and biogeochemistry of these systems. We applied 16S/18S rRNA metabarcoding approaches to characterize the structure of archaea, bacteria and protist communities from microbial mats collected along strong physicochemical (oxygen, salinity, temperature, depth) gradients in a shallow pond at the salar de Llamara (Chile)...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489250/causal-mechanisms-of-soil-organic-matter-decomposition-deconstructing-salinity-and-flooding-impacts-in-coastal-wetlands
#19
Camille L Stagg, Donald R Schoolmaster, Ken W Krauss, Nicole Cormier, William H Conner
Coastal wetlands significantly contribute to global carbon storage potential. Sea-level rise and other climate change-induced disturbances threaten coastal wetland sustainability and carbon storage capacity. It is critical that we understand the mechanisms controlling wetland carbon loss so that we can predict and manage these resources in anticipation of climate change. However, our current understanding of the mechanisms that control soil organic matter decomposition, in particular the impacts of elevated salinity, are limited, and literature reports are contradictory...
May 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488752/functional-structure-of-the-bromeliad-tank-microbiome-is-strongly-shaped-by-local-geochemical-conditions
#20
Stilianos Louca, Saulo M S Jacques, Aliny P F Pires, Juliana S Leal, Angélica L González, Michael Doebeli, Vinicius F Farjalla
Phytotelmata in tank-forming Bromeliaceae plants are regarded as potential miniature models for aquatic ecology, but detailed investigations of their microbial communities are rare. Hence, the biogeochemistry in bromeliad tanks remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the detritus within the tanks of two bromeliad species, Aechmea nudicaulis and Neoregelia cruenta, from a Brazilian sand dune forest. We used metagenomic sequencing for functional community profiling and 16S sequencing for taxonomic profiling...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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