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Biogeochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229046/genome-sequence-of-three-psychrobacter-sp-strains-with-potential-applications-in-bioremediation
#1
Aide Lasa, Jesús L Romalde
To date, the genus Psychrobacter consists of 37 recognized species isolated from different sources, however they are more frequently found in cold and other non-polar environments of low water activity. Some strains belonging to the genus have shown different enzymatic activities with potential applications in bioremediation or food industry. In the present study, the whole genome sequences of three Psychrobacter-like strains (C 20.9, Cmf 22.2 and Rd 27.2) isolated from reared clams in Galicia (Spain) are described...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223076/leaching-of-rare-earth-elements-from-fluorescent-powder-using-the-tea-fungus-kombucha
#2
Stefanie Hopfe, Katrin Flemming, Falk Lehmann, Robert Möckel, Sabine Kutschke, Katrin Pollmann
In most modern technologies such as flat screens, highly effective magnets and lasers, as well as luminescence phosphors, Rare Earth Elements (REE) are used. Unfortunately no environmentally friendly recycling process exists so far. In comparison to other elements the interaction of microorganisms with REE has been studied to a less extent. However, as REE are ubiquitously present in nature it can be assumed that microorganisms play an important role in the biogeochemistry of REE. This study investigates the potential of organic acid-producing microbes for extracting REE from industrial waste...
February 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205106/copepod-grazing-and-their-impact-on-phytoplankton-standing-stock-and-production-in-a-tropical-coastal-water-during-the-different-seasons
#3
L Jagadeesan, R Jyothibabu, N Arunpandi, S Parthasarathi
The grazing rate of copepods on the total and size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass in a coastal environment (off Kochi, southwest coast of India) were measured during pre-monsoon (PRM), peak southwest monsoon (PKSWM), late southwest monsoon (LSWM) and post-southwest monsoon (PSWM). The phytoplankton standing stock (chlorophyll a-Chl. a) and growth rate (GR) were less during the PRM (Chl. a 0.58 mg m(-3); GR 0.23 ± 0.02) and PSWM (Chl. a 0.89 mg m(-3); GR 0.30 ± 0.05) compared to PKSWM (Chl. a 6...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199097/calibration-strategies-for-ftir-and-other-iris-instruments-for-accurate-%C3%AE-13c-and-%C3%AE-18o-measurements-of-co2-in-air
#4
Edgar Flores, Joele Viallon, Philippe Moussay, David W T Griffith, Robert Ian Wielgosz
This paper describes calibration strategies in laboratory conditions that can be applied to ensure accurate measurements of the isotopic composition of the CO2 in ultra-dry air, expressed as δ13C and δ18O on the VPDB scale, with either FTIR (in this case a Vertex 70V (Bruker)) or an Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS) (in this case a Delta Ray (Thermo Fisher Scientific)). In the case of FTIR a novel methodology using only two standards of CO2 in air with different mole fractions but identical isotopic composition was demonstrated to be highly accurate for measurements of δ13C and δ18O with standard uncertainties of 0...
February 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183017/effect-of-the-redox-dynamics-on-microbial-mediated-as-transformation-coupled-with-fe-and-s-in-flow-through-sediment-columns
#5
Hee Sun Moon, Bo-A Kim, Sung Pil Hyun, Yoon-Ho Lee, Doyun Shin
Arsenic (As) biogeochemistry coupled with iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) was studied using columns packed with As(V)-contaminated sediments under two phases: a reduction phase followed by an oxidation phase. During the reduction phase, four identical columns inoculated with G. sulfurreducens were stimulated with 3mM acetate for 60days. The As(III) in the effluent rapidly increased then gradually decreased. The Fe(II) and sulfate concentration indicated ferrous sulfide precipitation inside the column after day 14 and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra showed that As(III) was enriched at the column outlet...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177415/a-three-dimensional-view-on-soil-biogeochemistry-a-dataset-for-a-forested-headwater-catchment
#6
N Gottselig, I Wiekenkamp, L Weihermüller, N Brüggemann, A E Berns, H R Bogena, N Borchard, E Klumpp, A Lücke, A Missong, T Pütz, H Vereecken, J A Huisman, R Bol
Current understanding of the variability in soil properties and their relationship to processes and spatial patterns in forested landscapes is limited due to the scarcity of datasets providing such information. Here we present a spatially highly resolved dataset () that provides detailed information on the three-dimensional variability of biogeochemical properties in the Wüstebach catchment (western Germany), a long-term environmental observation site of the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) project...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135084/characterization-and-phenanthrene-sorption-of-natural-and-pyrogenic-organic-matter-fractions
#7
Jie Jin, Ke Sun, Ziying Wang, Yan Yang, Lanfang Han, Baoshan Xing
Pyrogenic humic acid (HA) is released into the environment during the large-scale application of biochar. However, the biogeochemistry of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) fractions and their sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) are poorly understood in comparison with natural organic matter (NOM) fractions. HA and humin (HM) fractions isolated from soils and the oxidized biochars were characterized. Sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) by these fractions was also examined. The characterization results demonstrate that pyrogenic HAs are different from natural HAs, with the former having lower atomic H/C ratios, more abundant aromatic C, and higher concentrations of surface carboxylic groups...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131099/lipid-biomarkers-and-spectroscopic-indices-for-identifying-organic-matter-sources-in-aquatic-environments-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Morgane Derrien, Liyang Yang, Jin Hur
Understanding the dynamics of organic matter (OM) and the roles in global and local carbon cycles is challenging to the fields of environmental sciences and biogeochemistry. The accurate identification of OM is an essential element to achieve this goal. Lipids, due to their ubiquitous presence and diagenetic and chemical stability, have long and successfully been used as molecular makers in assessing the sources and the fate of OM in natural environments. In parallel, optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) have been suggested as efficient tools in tracing OM sources...
January 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124708/environmental-effects-of-ozone-depletion-and-its-interactions-with-climate-change-progress-report-2016
#9
United Nations Environment Programme Environmental Effects Assessment Panel
The Parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three Panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects of UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may affect humans and the environment. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed...
January 26, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122279/-210-pb-137-cs-and-7-be-in-the-sediments-of-coastal-lakes-on-the-polish-coast-implications-for-sedimentary-processes
#10
Michał Woszczyk, Grzegorz Poręba, Łukasz Malinowski
In this study we combined radioisotopes ((210)Pb, (137)Cs and (7)Be) and hydrodynamic modeling to investigate sedimentary processes in three coastal lakes on the Polish Baltic coast. The research aimed at establishing the depth of sediment mixing and its effects on sediment geochemistry as well as showing the relationship between lake water salinity and radionuclide distribution in the sediment cores. We established that the intensity of mixing displayed appreciable variability throughout the lakes and the thickness of sediment mixing layer was between <2 and 22 cm...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120310/microbial-strategy-for-potential-lead-remediation-a-review-study
#11
REVIEW
Xiaohong Pan, Zhi Chen, Lan Li, Wenhua Rao, Zhangyan Xu, Xiong Guan
The extensive exploitation and usage of lead compounds result in severe lead(II) pollution in water and soil environments, even in agricultural land, threatening the health of animals and humans via food chains. The recovery and remediation of lead(II) from water and soil environments have been intensively concerned in recent years. Compared with the traditional physic-chemistry treatment, microbial remediation strategy is a promising alternative to remediate lead(II)-contaminated environments due to its cost-effective and environmentally-friendly properties...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111899/applying-population-and-community-ecology-theory-to-advance-understanding-of-belowground-biogeochemistry
#12
REVIEW
Robert W Buchkowski, Mark A Bradford, Andrew Stuart Grandy, Oswald J Schmitz, William R Wieder
Approaches to quantifying and predicting soil biogeochemical cycles mostly consider microbial biomass and community composition as products of the abiotic environment. Current numerical approaches then primarily emphasise the importance of microbe-environment interactions and physiology as controls on biogeochemical cycles. Decidedly less attention has been paid to understanding control exerted by community dynamics and biotic interactions. Yet a rich literature of theoretical and empirical contributions highlights the importance of considering how variation in microbial population ecology, especially biotic interactions, is related to variation in key biogeochemical processes like soil carbon formation...
February 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104558/composition-and-copper-binding-properties-of-aquatic-fulvic-acids-in-eutrophic-taihu-lake-china
#13
Weiwei Li, Fenfen Zhang, Qi Ye, Dan Wu, Liying Wang, Yihua Yu, Bing Deng, Jinzhou Du
Fulvic acid (FA) plays a significant role in biogenic-elemental cycling in aquatic ecosystems which is highly dependent on their organic composition. In this study, the aquatic FA contents and binding properties during bloom and non-bloom periods in Taihu Lake were investigated by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (2D-COS-FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. Compared with non-bloom FA, bloom FA was of lower nitrogen content and higher C/N ratio...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103105/evolution-of-earth-like-extrasolar-planetary-atmospheres-assessing-the-atmospheres-and-biospheres-of-early-earth-analog-planets-with-a-coupled-atmosphere-biogeochemical-model
#14
S Gebauer, J L Grenfell, J W Stock, R Lehmann, M Godolt, P von Paris, H Rauer
Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models...
January 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096366/iron-isotopes-reveal-distinct-dissolved-iron-sources-and-pathways-in-the-intermediate-versus-deep-southern-ocean
#15
Cyril Abadie, Francois Lacan, Amandine Radic, Catherine Pradoux, Franck Poitrasson
As an essential micronutrient, iron plays a key role in oceanic biogeochemistry. It is therefore linked to the global carbon cycle and climate. Here, we report a dissolved iron (DFe) isotope section in the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Throughout the section, a striking DFe isotope minimum (light iron) is observed at intermediate depths (200-1,300 m), contrasting with heavier isotopic composition in deep waters. This unambiguously demonstrates distinct DFe sources and processes dominating the iron cycle in the intermediate and deep layers, a feature impossible to see with only iron concentration data largely used thus far in chemical oceanography...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088848/mercury-bioaccumulation-in-estuarine-fishes-novel-insights-from-sulfur-stable-isotopes
#16
James J Willacker, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Joshua T Ackerman
Estuaries are transitional habitats characterized by complex biogeochemical and ecological gradients that result in substantial variation in fish total mercury concentrations (THg). We leveraged these gradients and used carbon (δ(13)C), nitrogen (δ(15)N), and sulfur (δ(34)S) stable isotopes to examine the ecological and biogeochemical processes underlying THg bioaccumulation in fishes from the San Francisco Bay Estuary. We employed a tiered approach that first examined processes influencing variation in fish THg among wetlands, and subsequently examined the roles of habitat and within-wetland processes in generating larger-scale patterns in fish THg...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073542/the-rise-of-toxic-benthic-phormidium-proliferations-a-review-of-their-taxonomy-distribution-toxin-content-and-factors-regulating-prevalence-and-increased-severity
#17
REVIEW
Tara G McAllister, Susanna A Wood, Ian Hawes
There has been a marked increase in the distribution, intensity and frequency of proliferations of some species of the benthic mat-forming, toxin-producing genus Phormidium in rivers globally over the last decade. This review summarises current knowledge on their taxonomy, distribution, toxin content, environmental drivers of proliferations, and monitoring and management strategies in New Zealand. Although toxic Phormidium proliferation occurs in rivers worldwide little is known about these factors in most countries...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055128/a-decade-of-boreal-rich-fen-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-in-response-to-natural-and-experimental-water-table-variability
#18
David Olefeldt, Eugénie S Euskirchen, Jennifer Harden, Evan Kane, A David McGuire, Mark P Waldrop, Merritt R Turetsky
Rich fens are common boreal ecosystems with distinct hydrology, biogeochemistry and ecology that influence their carbon (C) balance. We present growing season soil chamber methane emission (FCH4 ), ecosystem respiration (ER), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and gross primary production (GPP) fluxes from a nine year water table manipulation experiment in an Alaskan rich fen. The study included major flood and drought years, where wetting and drying treatments further modified the severity of droughts. Results support previous findings from peatlands that drought causes reduced magnitude of growing season FCH4 , GPP, and NEE, thus reducing or reversing their C sink function...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049626/estimating-monotonic-rates-from-biological-data-using-local-linear-regression
#19
Colin Olito, Craig R White, Dustin J Marshall, Diego R Barneche
Accessing many fundamental questions in biology begins with empirical estimation of simple monotonic rates of underlying biological processes. Across a variety of disciplines, ranging from physiology to biogeochemistry, these rates are routinely estimated from non-linear and noisy time series data using linear regression and ad hoc manual truncation of non-linearities. Here, we introduce the R package LoLinR, a flexible toolkit to implement local linear regression techniques to objectively and reproducibly estimate monotonic biological rates from non-linear time series data, and demonstrate possible applications using metabolic rate data...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008067/mass-seasonal-bioflows-of-high-flying-insect-migrants
#20
Gao Hu, Ka S Lim, Nir Horvitz, Suzanne J Clark, Don R Reynolds, Nir Sapir, Jason W Chapman
Migrating animals have an impact on ecosystems directly via influxes of predators, prey, and competitors and indirectly by vectoring nutrients, energy, and pathogens. Although linkages between vertebrate movements and ecosystem processes have been established, the effects of mass insect "bioflows" have not been described. We quantified biomass flux over the southern United Kingdom for high-flying (>150 meters) insects and show that ~3.5 trillion insects (3200 tons of biomass) migrate above the region annually...
December 23, 2016: Science
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