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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144458/biogeochemistry-ocean-hotspots-of-nitrogen-loss
#1
Katja Fennel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140980/prokaryotic-diversity-and-biogeochemical-characteristics-of-benthic-microbial-ecosystems-at-la-brava-a-hypersaline-lake-at-salar-de-atacama-chile
#2
Maria Eugenia Farias, Maria Cecilia Rasuk, Kimberley L Gallagher, Manuel Contreras, Daniel Kurth, Ana Beatriz Fernandez, Daniel Poiré, Fernando Novoa, Pieter T Visscher
Benthic microbial ecosystems of Laguna La Brava, Salar de Atacama, a high altitude hypersaline lake, were characterized in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity, biogeochemistry, (including O2 and sulfide depth profiles and mineralogy), and physicochemical characteristics. La Brava is one of several lakes in the Salar de Atacama where microbial communities are growing in extreme conditions, including high salinity, high solar insolation, and high levels of metals such as lithium, arsenic, magnesium, and calcium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136599/the-bioavailability-of-different-dissolved-organic-nitrogen-compounds-for-the-freshwater-algae-raphidocelis-subcapitata
#3
Lu Fan, Michael T Brett, Bo Li, Mingming Song
Understanding which factors affect the algal bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compounds in natural surface waters is important for our understanding of nutrient biogeochemistry and water quality management. We used nitrogen uptake kinetics and algal cell yield to characterize the algal bioavailability of 22 dissolved DON compounds that are commonly found in natural surface waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents, including urea, amino acids, amino sugars, nucleotides, pyrimidines, oraganonitriles, polyacrylamide, EDTA, caffeine, phenolic compounds and humic acids...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130494/variability-of-iodine-in-temperate-seaweeds-and-iodine-accumulation-kinetics-of-fucus-vesiculosus-and-laminaria-digitata-phaeophyceae-ochrophyta
#4
Udo Nitschke, Philip Walsh, Jade McDaid, Dagmar B Stengel
The biogeochemistry of iodine in temperate coastal ecosystems is largely mediated by macroalgae, which act as a major biological sink and source of iodine. Their capacity to accumulate, retain and release iodine has been associated with abiotic and biotic stressors, but quantitative information is limited. We evaluated the seasonal iodine retention capacity of eleven macroalgal species belonging to different systematic groups, collected from two sites in Ireland. Iodine accumulation and retention were then further quantified in Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata in relation to I(-) concentrations in seawater and temperature...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109703/the-temperature-dependence-of-phytoplankton-stoichiometry-investigating-the-roles-of-species-sorting-and-local-adaptation
#5
Gabriel Yvon-Durocher, Charlotte-Elisa Schaum, Mark Trimmer
The elemental composition of phytoplankton (C:N:P stoichiometry) is a critical factor regulating nutrient cycling, primary production and energy transfer through planktonic food webs. Our understanding of the multiple direct and indirect mechanisms through which temperature controls phytoplankton stoichiometry is however incomplete, increasing uncertainty in the impacts of global warming on the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we use a decade-long warming experiment in outdoor freshwater ponds to investigate how temperature-driven turnover in species composition and shifts in stoichiometric traits within species through local thermal adaptation contribute to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092031/synechococcus-plasticity-under-environmental-changes
#6
Cristiana Callieri
Cyanobacteria are among the oldest photoautotrophic organisms on Earth, and have contributed to shaping the planet's biogeochemistry with their significant biomass and key metabolic activities. Synechococcus, the focus of this review, is one of the prevalent genera in the order Chroococcales, common in oceans and lakes and characterized by a coccoid unicellular or microcolony morphology. The evolution of its phycobilisomes is the key of the adaptation of this tiny photosynthetic cell to different light regimes and environmental conditions...
October 30, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089625/modes-of-carbon-fixation-in-an-arsenic-and-co2-rich-shallow-hydrothermal-ecosystem
#7
Nolwenn Callac, Nicole R Posth, Jayne E Rattray, Kweku K Y Yamoah, Alan Wiech, Magnus Ivarsson, Christoffer Hemmingsson, Stephanos P Kilias, Ariadne Argyraki, Curt Broman, Henrik Skogby, Rienk H Smittenberg, Ernest Chi Fru
The seafloor sediments of Spathi Bay, Milos Island, Greece, are part of the largest arsenic-CO2-rich shallow submarine hydrothermal ecosystem on Earth. Here, white and brown deposits cap chemically distinct sediments with varying hydrothermal influence. All sediments contain abundant genes for autotrophic carbon fixation used in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) and reverse tricaboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles. Both forms of RuBisCO, together with ATP citrate lyase genes in the rTCA cycle, increase with distance from the active hydrothermal centres and decrease with sediment depth...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089526/salinity-stratification-controlled-productivity-variation-over-300-ky-in-the-bay-of-bengal
#8
R Da Silva, A Mazumdar, T Mapder, A Peketi, R K Joshi, A Shaji, P Mahalakshmi, B Sawant, B G Naik, M A Carvalho, S K Molletti
The unique hydrographic setting of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) makes it an ideal tropical marine system to study the influence of regional and global forcings on productivity and [CO2aq] through the late quaternary. Enormous fresh water flux into the BoB and consequent salinity stratification significantly weaken the convective mixing and wind driven processes which are commonly responsible for transport of nutrients to the euphotic zone driving primary productivity. Here we present a high resolution organic carbon-CaCO3 MAR and δ(13)CTOC records for the last 300 ky from the BoB...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076547/the-sphagnome-project-enabling-ecological-and-evolutionary-insights-through-a-genus-level-sequencing-project
#9
David J Weston, Merritt R Turetsky, Matthew G Johnson, Gustaf Granath, Zoë Lindo, Lisa R Belyea, Steven K Rice, David T Hanson, Katharina A M Engelhardt, Jeremy Schmutz, Ellen Dorrepaal, Eugénie S Euskirchen, Hans K Stenøien, Péter Szövényi, Michelle Jackson, Bryan T Piatkowski, Wellington Muchero, Richard J Norby, Joel E Kostka, Jennifer B Glass, Håkan Rydin, Juul Limpens, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Kristian K Ullrich, Alyssa Carrell, Brian W Benscoter, Jin-Gui Chen, Tobi A Oke, Mats B Nilsson, Priya Ranjan, Daniel Jacobson, Erik A Lilleskov, R S Clymo, A Jonathan Shaw
Considerable progress has been made in ecological and evolutionary genetics with studies demonstrating how genes underlying plant and microbial traits can influence adaptation and even 'extend' to influence community structure and ecosystem level processes. Progress in this area is limited to model systems with deep genetic and genomic resources that often have negligible ecological impact or interest. Thus, important linkages between genetic adaptations and their consequences at organismal and ecological scales are often lacking...
October 27, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073070/diel-cycling-and-long-term-persistence-of-viruses-in-the-ocean-s-euphotic-zone
#10
Frank O Aylward, Dominique Boeuf, Daniel R Mende, Elisha M Wood-Charlson, Alice Vislova, John M Eppley, Anna E Romano, Edward F DeLong
Viruses are fundamental components of marine microbial communities that significantly influence oceanic productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem processes. Despite their importance, the temporal activities and dynamics of viral assemblages in natural settings remain largely unexplored. Here we report the transcriptional activities and variability of dominant dsDNA viruses in the open ocean's euphotic zone over daily and seasonal timescales. While dsDNA viruses exhibited some fluctuation in abundance in both cellular and viral size fractions, the viral assemblage was remarkably stable, with the most abundant viral types persisting over many days...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067615/an-overview-of-municipal-solid-waste-management-and-landfill-leachate-treatment-malaysia-and-asian-perspectives
#11
Mohamad Anuar Kamaruddin, Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Lo Ming Rui, Awatif Md Isa, Mohd Hafiz Zawawi, Rasyidah Alrozi
Currently, generation of solid waste per capita in Malaysia is about 1.1 kg/day. Over 26,500 t of solid waste is disposed almost solely through 166 operating landfills in the country every day. Despite the availability of other disposal methods, landfill is the most widely accepted and prevalent method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in developing countries, including Malaysia. This is mainly ascribed to its inherent forte in terms cost saving and simpler operational mechanism. However, there is a downside...
October 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055080/matrix-approach-to-land-carbon-cycle-modeling-a-case-study-with-community-land-model
#12
Yuanyuan Huang, Xingjie Lu, Zheng Shi, David Lawrence, Charles Koven, Jianyang Xia, Zhenggang Du, Erik Kluzek, Yiqi Luo
The terrestrial carbon (C) cycle has been commonly represented by a series of C balance equations to track C influxes into and effluxes out of individual pools in earth system models (ESMs). This representation matches our understanding of C cycle processes well but makes it difficult to track model behaviors. It is also computationally expensive, limiting the ability to conduct comprehensive parametric sensitivity analyses. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a matrix approach, which reorganizes the C balance equations in the original ESM into one matrix equation without changing any modeled C cycle processes and mechanisms...
October 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054640/apportioning-source-of-erosion-induced-organic-matter-in-the-hilly-gully-region-of-loess-plateau-in-china-insight-from-lipid-biomarker-and-isotopic-signature-analysis
#13
Chun Liu, Zhongwu Li, Xiaofeng Chang, Xiaodong Nie, Lin Liu, Haibing Xiao, Danyang Wang, Hao Peng, Guangming Zeng
Understanding the dynamics of organic matter (OM) at global and local scales is one of the challenges in the environmental sciences and i.e. terrestrial biogeochemistry. The accurate identification of OM is an essential element to achieve this goal. In our study, a novel application for quantitatively apportioning sources of eroded sedimentary OM from an eco-geomorphologic perspective was shown successfully via a coupled molecular n-alkane biomarkers and stable isotopic signatures ((13)C and (15)N) along with elemental compositions (TOC and TN) using a Bayesian mixing model (SIAR)...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050668/microbial-transformation-of-iodine-from-radioisotopes-to-iodine-deficiency
#14
Chris M Yeager, Seigo Amachi, Russell Grandbois, Daniel I Kaplan, Chen Xu, Kathy A Schwehr, Peter H Santschi
Iodine is a biophilic element that is important for human health, both as an essential component of several thyroid hormones and, on the other hand, as a potential carcinogen in the form of radioiodine generated by anthropogenic nuclear activity. Iodine exists in multiple oxidation states (-1, 0, +1, +3, +5, and +7), primarily as molecular iodine (I2), iodide (I(-)), iodate [Formula: see text] , or organic iodine (org-I). The mobility of iodine in the environment is dependent on its speciation and a series of redox, complexation, sorption, precipitation, and microbial reactions...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035267/coastal-ocean-and-shelf-sea-biogeochemical-cycling-of-trace-elements-and-isotopes-lessons-learned-from-geotraces
#15
REVIEW
Matthew A Charette, Phoebe J Lam, Maeve C Lohan, Eun Young Kwon, Vanessa Hatje, Catherine Jeandel, Alan M Shiller, Gregory A Cutter, Alex Thomas, Philip W Boyd, William B Homoky, Angela Milne, Helmuth Thomas, Per S Andersson, Don Porcelli, Takahiro Tanaka, Walter Geibert, Frank Dehairs, Jordi Garcia-Orellana
Continental shelves and shelf seas play a central role in the global carbon cycle. However, their importance with respect to trace element and isotope (TEI) inputs to ocean basins is less well understood. Here, we present major findings on shelf TEI biogeochemistry from the GEOTRACES programme as well as a proof of concept for a new method to estimate shelf TEI fluxes. The case studies focus on advances in our understanding of TEI cycling in the Arctic, transformations within a major river estuary (Amazon), shelf sediment micronutrient fluxes and basin-scale estimates of submarine groundwater discharge...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035265/hydrothermal-impacts-on-trace-element-and-isotope-ocean-biogeochemistry
#16
C R German, K A Casciotti, J-C Dutay, L E Heimbürger, W J Jenkins, C I Measures, R A Mills, H Obata, R Schlitzer, A Tagliabue, D R Turner, H Whitby
Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035263/developing-a-test-bed-for-robust-research-governance-of-geoengineering-the-contribution-of-ocean-iron-biogeochemistry
#17
Philip W Boyd, Matthieu Bressac
Geoengineering to mitigate climate change has long been proposed, but remains nebulous. Exploration of the feasibility of geoengineering first requires the development of research governance to move beyond the conceptual towards scientifically designed pilot studies. Fortuitously, 12 mesoscale (approx. 1000 km(2)) iron enrichments, funded to investigate how ocean iron biogeochemistry altered Earth's carbon cycle in the geological past, provide proxies to better understand the benefits and drawbacks of geoengineering...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035255/diagnosing-oceanic-nutrient-deficiency
#18
C Mark Moore
The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035252/atmospheric-transport-of-trace-elements-and-nutrients-to-the-oceans
#19
T D Jickells, A R Baker, R Chance
This paper reviews atmospheric inputs of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans in the context of the GEOTRACES programme and provides new data from two Atlantic GEOTRACES cruises. We consider the deposition of nitrogen to the oceans, which is now dominated by anthropogenic emissions, the deposition of mineral dust and related trace elements, and the deposition of other trace elements which have a mixture of anthropogenic and dust sources. We then consider the solubility (as a surrogate for bioavailability) of the various elements...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027338/stoichiometric-distribution-models-ecological-stoichiometry-at-the-landscape-extent
#20
Shawn J Leroux, Eric Vander Wal, Yolanda F Wiersma, Louis Charron, Jonathan D Ebel, Nichola M Ellis, Christopher Hart, Emilie Kissler, Paul W Saunders, Lucie Moudrá, Amy L Tanner, Semra Yalcin
Human activities are altering the fundamental geography of biogeochemicals. Yet we lack an understanding of how the spatial patterns in organismal stoichiometry affect biogeochemical processes and the tools to predict the impacts of global changes on biogeochemical processes. In this contribution we develop stoichiometric distribution models (StDMs), which allow us to map spatial structure in resource elemental composition across a landscape and evaluate spatial responses of consumers. We parameterise StDMs for a consumer-resource (moose-white birch) system and demonstrate that we can develop predictive models of resource stoichiometry across a landscape and that such models could improve our predictions of consumer space use...
October 12, 2017: Ecology Letters
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