keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Biogeochemistry

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731295/biogeochemistry-of-lead-its-release-to-the-environment-and-chemical-speciation
#1
Jay T Cullen, Jason McAlister
Lead (Pb) is a metal that is not essential for life processes and proves acutely toxic to most organisms. Compared to other metals Pb is rather immobile in the environment but still its biogeochemical cycling is greatly perturbed by human activities. In this review we present a summary of information describing the physical and chemical properties of Pb, its distribution in crustal materials, and the processes, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to the metal's mobilization in the biosphere. The relatively high volatility of Pb metal, low melting point, its large ionic radius, and its chemical speciation in aquatic systems contributes to its redistribution by anthropogenic and natural processes...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712130/the-role-of-protected-areas-in-land-use-land-cover-change-and-the-carbon-cycle-in-the-conterminous-united-states
#2
Xiaoliang Lu, Yuyu Zhou, Yaling Liu, Le Page Yannick
Protected Areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous U.S. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial biogeochemistry model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous U.S. from 1700 to 2005. More than three million km(2) of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711848/long-term-litter-manipulation-alters-soil-organic-matter-turnover-in-a-temperate-deciduous-forest
#3
Jun-Jian Wang, Oliva Pisani, Lisa H Lin, Olivia O Y Lun, Richard D Bowden, Kate Lajtha, André J Simpson, Myrna J Simpson
Understanding soil organic matter (OM) biogeochemistry at the molecular-level is essential for assessing potential impacts from management practices and climate change on shifts in soil carbon storage. Biomarker analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used in an ongoing detrital input and removal treatment experiment in a temperate deciduous forest in Pennsylvania, USA, to examine how above- and below-ground plant inputs control soil OM quantity and quality at the molecular-level. From plant material to surface soils, the free acyclic lipids and cutin, suberin, and lignin biomarkers were preferentially retained over free sugars and free cyclic lipids...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707243/research-trends-and-hotspots-related-to-ammonia-oxidation-based-on-bibliometric-analysis
#4
Maosheng Zheng, Hui-Zhen Fu, Yuh-Shan Ho
Ammonia oxidation is the rate-limiting and central step in global biogeochemistry cycle of nitrogen. A bibliometric analysis based on 4314 articles extracted from Science Citation Index Expanded database was carried out to provide insights into publication performances and research trends of ammonia oxidation in the period 1991-2014. These articles were originated from a wide range of 602 journals and 95 Web of Science Categories, among which Applied and Environmental Microbiology and Environmental Sciences took the leading position, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703196/biogeochemistry-arctic-plants-take-up-mercury-vapour
#5
William Shotyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692788/watershed-versus-within-lake-drivers-of-nitrogen-phosphorus-dynamics-in-shallow-lakes
#6
Luke J Ginger, Kyle D Zimmer, Brian R Herwig, Mark A Hanson, William O Hobbs, Gaston E Small, James B Cotner
Research on lake eutrophication often identifies variables affecting amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, but understanding factors influencing N:P ratios is important given its influence on species composition and toxin production by cyanobacteria. We sampled 80 shallow lakes in Minnesota (USA) for three years to assess effects of watershed size, proportion of watershed as both row crop and natural area, fish biomass, and lake alternative state (turbid versus clear) on total N: total P (TN:TP), ammonium, total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and seston stoichiometry...
July 10, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667104/response-of-microbial-community-function-to-fluctuating-geochemical-conditions-within-a-legacy-radioactive-waste-trench-environment
#7
Xabier Vázquez-Campos, Andrew S Kinsela, Mark W Bligh, Jennifer J Harrison, Timothy E Payne, T David Waite
During the 1960s, small quantities of radioactive materials were co-disposed with chemical waste at the Little Forest Legacy Site (Sydney, Australia) in three-metre-deep, unlined trenches. Chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a six-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess how changing water levels impact upon the microbial ecology and contaminant mobility. Collectively, results demonstrated that oxygen-laden rainwater rapidly altered the redox balance in the trench water, strongly impacting microbial functioning as well as the radiochemistry...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660288/influence-of-water-management-on-the-active-root-associated-microbiota-involved-in-arsenic-iron-and-sulfur-cycles-in-rice-paddies
#8
Sarah Zecchin, Anna Corsini, Maria Martin, Lucia Cavalca
In recent years, the role of microorganisms inhabiting rice rhizosphere in promoting arsenic contamination has emerged. However, little is known concerning the species and metabolic properties involved in this phenomenon. In this study, the influence of water management on the rhizosphere microbiota in relation to arsenic dissolution in soil solution was tested. Rice plants were cultivated in macrocosms under different water regimes: continuous flooding, continuous flooding with a 2-week period drainage before flowering, and dry soil watered every 10 days...
June 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649411/the-microbiome-of-glaciers-and-ice-sheets
#9
Alexandre M Anesio, Stefanie Lutz, Nathan A M Chrismas, Liane G Benning
Glaciers and ice sheets, like other biomes, occupy a significant area of the planet and harbour biological communities with distinct interactions and feedbacks with their physical and chemical environment. In the case of the glacial biome, the biological processes are dominated almost exclusively by microbial communities. Habitats on glaciers and ice sheets with enough liquid water to sustain microbial activity include snow, surface ice, cryoconite holes, englacial systems and the interface between ice and overridden rock/soil...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636273/long-term-belowground-effects-of-grassland-management-the-key-role-of-liming
#10
Jemma Heyburn, Paul McKenzie, Michael J Crawley, Dario A Fornara
The functioning of human-managed grassland ecosystems strongly depends on how common management practices will affect grassland 'belowground compartment' including soil biogeochemistry and plant roots. Key questions remain about how animal grazing, liming (e.g. the addition of CaCO3 to soils), and nutrient fertilization might affect, in the long-term, soil nutrient cycling and multiple root traits. Here we focus on a mesotrophic grassland located in Berkshire, UK, where contrasting levels of rabbit grazing, liming and different inorganic fertilizers have been applied since 1991...
June 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607347/living-microorganisms-change-the-information-shannon-content-of-a-geophysical-system
#11
Fiona H M Tang, Federico Maggi
The detection of microbial colonization in geophysical systems is becoming of interest in various disciplines of Earth and planetary sciences, including microbial ecology, biogeochemistry, geomicrobiology, and astrobiology. Microorganisms are often observed to colonize mineral surfaces, modify the reactivity of minerals either through the attachment of their own biomass or the glueing of mineral particles with their mucilaginous metabolites, and alter both the physical and chemical components of a geophysical system...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602082/linking-genes-to-microbial-biogeochemical-cycling-lessons-from-arsenic
#12
Yong-Guan Zhu, Xi-Mei Xue, Andreas Kappler, Barry P Rosen, Andrew A Meharg
The biotransformation of arsenic is highly relevant to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle. Identification of the molecular details of microbial pathways of arsenic biotransformation coupled with analyses of microbial communities by meta-omics can provide insights into detailed aspects of the complexities of this biocycle. Arsenic transformations couple to other biogeochemical cycles, and to the fate of both nutrients and other toxic environmental contaminants. Microbial redox metabolism of iron, carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen affects the redox and bioavailability of arsenic species...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600318/colonization-habitat-controls-biomass-composition-and-metabolic-activity-of-attached-microbial-communities-in-the-columbia-river-hyporheic-corridor
#13
Noah Stern, Matthew Ginder-Vogel, James C Stegen, Evan Arntzen, David W Kennedy, Bret R Larget, Eric E Roden
Hydrologic exchange plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling within the hyporheic zone (interface between river water and groundwater) of riverine ecosystems. Such exchange may set limits on rates of microbial metabolism, and impose deterministic selection on microbial communities that adapt to dynamically changing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sources. This study examined the response of attached microbial communities (in situ colonized sand packs) from groundwater, hyporheic, and riverbed habitats within the Columbia River hyporheic corridor to "cross-feeding" with either groundwater, river water, or DOC-free artificial fluids...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600313/novel-microbial-assemblages-dominate-weathered-sulfide-bearing-rock-from-copper-nickel-deposits-in-the-duluth-complex-minnesota-usa
#14
Daniel S Jones, Kim A Lapakko, Zachary J Wenz, Michael C Olson, Elizabeth W Roepke, Michael J Sadowsky, Paige J Novak, Jake V Bailey
The Duluth Complex in northeastern Minnesota hosts economically-significant deposits of copper, nickel, and platinum group elements (PGEs). The primary sulfide mineralogy of these deposits includes the minerals pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and cubanite, and weathering experiments show that most sulfide-bearing rock from the Duluth Complex generates moderately acidic leachate (pH 4-6). Microorganisms are important catalysts for metal sulfide oxidation and could influence water quality from mines in the Duluth Complex...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592848/metal-biogeochemistry-in-constructed-wetlands-based-on-fluviatile-sand-and-zeolite-and-clinopyroxene-dominated-lava-sand
#15
Jen-How Huang, Sonja Paul, Silke Mayer, Eloise Moradpour, Ralf Hasselbach, Reto Gieré, Christine Alewell
For the first time, speciation of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb was determined along the profiles of 8 constructed wetlands (CWs) consisting of fluviatile sand (Fluv), clinopyroxene-dominated lava sand (Cl-LS) and zeolite-dominated lava sand (Ze-LS), aiming at quantifying metal behaviour in CWs and the impact caused by different filter materials. With the exception of Mn, which underwent reductive dissolution, CWs were sinks for the studied metals. Metal accumulation rates differed in the following order: Ze-LS ≥ Cl-LS > Fluv CWs, reflecting the highest metal adsorption capacity and the lowest hydraulic conductivity of Ze-LS...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591840/novel-approaches-in-function-driven-single-cell-genomics
#16
Devin F R Doud, Tanja Woyke
Deeper sequencing and improved bioinformatics in conjunction with single-cell and metagenomic approaches continue to illuminate undercharacterized environmental microbial communities. This has propelled the 'who is there, and what might they be doing' paradigm to the uncultivated and has already radically changed the topology of the tree of life and provided key insights into the microbial contribution to biogeochemistry. While characterization of 'who' based on marker genes can describe a large fraction of the community, answering 'what are they doing' remains the elusive pinnacle for microbiology...
June 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581674/radial-oxygen-loss-by-the-cushion-plant-eriocaulon-schimperi-prevents-methane-emissions-from-an-east-african-mountain-mire
#17
B W Dullo, A P Grootjans, J G M Roelofs, A F Senbeta, C Fritz, L P M Lamers
Groundwater-fed fens are known sources of methane (CH4 ) emissions to the atmosphere, and these are known to be mediated by the vegetation. In a fen located in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, we assessed the effects of a cushion plant (Eriocaulon schimperi) and a sedge (Carex monostachya) on rhizosphere biogeochemistry. Methane and CO2 concentrations and pH were measured in pore-water at different depths in the profile. Redox potentials and NaCl-extractable element concentrations were analysed in soil samples from sites dominated by either E...
June 5, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577167/bacterial-rhizoplane-colonization-patterns-of-buchloe-dactyloides-growing-in-metalliferous-mine-tailings-reflect-plant-status-and-biogeochemical-conditions
#18
Linnea K Honeker, Julia W Neilson, Robert A Root, Juliana Gil-Loaiza, Jon Chorover, Raina M Maier
Plant establishment during phytostabilization of legacy mine tailings in semiarid regions is challenging due to low pH, low organic carbon, low nutrients, and high toxic metal(loid) concentrations. Plant-associated bacterial communities are particularly important under these harsh conditions because of their beneficial services to plants. We hypothesize that bacterial colonization profiles on rhizoplane surfaces reflect deterministic processes that are governed by plant health and the root environment. The aim of this study was to identify associations between bacterial colonization patterns on buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) rhizoplanes and both plant status (leaf chlorophyll and plant cover) and substrate biogeochemistry (pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and rhizosphere microbial community)...
June 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548659/metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-prokaryotic-communities-active-in-sulfur-and-arsenic-cycling-in-mono-lake-california-usa
#19
Christian F Edwardson, James T Hollibaugh
This study evaluates the transcriptionally active, dissimilatory sulfur- and arsenic-cycling components of the microbial community in alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake, CA, USA. We sampled five depths spanning the redox gradient (10, 15, 18, 25 and 31 m) during maximum thermal stratification. We used custom databases to identify transcripts of genes encoding complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) proteins, with a focus on arsenic (arrA, aioA and arxA) and sulfur cycling (dsrA, aprA and soxB), and assigned them to taxonomic bins...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546182/response-to-comment-on-dissolved-organic-sulfur-in-the-ocean-biogeochemistry-of-a-petagram-inventory
#20
Boris P Koch, Kerstin B Ksionzek, Oliver J Lechtenfeld, S Leigh McCallister, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Jana K Geuer, Walter Geibert
Dittmar et al proposed that mixing alone can explain our observed decrease in marine dissolved organic sulfur with age. However, their simple model lacks an explanation for the origin of sulfur-depleted organic matter in the deep ocean and cannot adequately reproduce our observed stoichiometric changes. Using radiocarbon age also implicitly models the preferential cycling of sulfur that they are disputing.
May 26, 2017: Science
keyword
keyword
81930
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"