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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815366/abiotic-nitrate-loss-and-nitrogenous-trace-gas-emission-from-chinese-acidic-forest-soils
#1
Yajing Wang, Wenchao Cao, Xinmu Zhang, Jingheng Guo
There are an increasing number of studies, which have shown the potential importance of abiotic denitrification in nitrogen biogeochemistry through pure chemical coupling between nitrate/nitrite reduction and Fe(II) oxidation. However, there is little direct evidence showing the environmental significance of abiotic nitrate (NO3(-)) reduction in acidic soils. We assessed the magnitude and gaseous product stoichiometry of abiotic nitrate reduction in acidic forest soils based on sterilized anoxic soil incubations at different soil pHs and nitrate loadings...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815314/a-comparative-study-on-macro-and-microelement-bioaccumulation-properties-of-leaves-and-bark-of-quercus-petraea-and-pinus-sylvestris
#2
Agnieszka Klink, Ludmiła Polechońska, Małgorzata Dambiec, Kamila Białas
Trees are widely used for biomonitoring and filtering air in industrial, urban, and rural areas. This research was undertaken to examine accumulation capacities of macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) and trace metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in needles and bark of Pinus sylvestris and leaves and bark of Quercus petraea growing in the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant PCC Rokita in Brzeg Dolny (Lower Silesia, SW Poland). Because Scots pine is well studied and considered a useful bioindicator, we have used this species as a base for comparison of the accumulation ability of sessile oak that shows some features of good bioindicator, but whose biogeochemistry was scarcely studied...
August 16, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813420/biogeochemistry-food-for-early-animal-evolution
#3
Andrew H Knoll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800694/variability-drivers-and-effects-of-atmospheric-nitrogen-inputs-across-an-urban-area-emerging-patterns-among-human-activities-the-atmosphere-and-soils
#4
Stephen M Decina, Pamela H Templer, Lucy R Hutyra, Conor K Gately, Preeti Rao
Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) is a major input of N to the biosphere and is elevated beyond preindustrial levels throughout many ecosystems. Deposition monitoring networks in the United States generally avoid urban areas in order to capture regional patterns of N deposition, and studies measuring N deposition in cities usually include only one or two urban sites in an urban-rural comparison or as an anchor along an urban-to-rural gradient. Describing patterns and drivers of atmospheric N inputs is crucial for understanding the effects of N deposition; however, little is known about the variability and drivers of atmospheric N inputs or their effects on soil biogeochemistry within urban ecosystems...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800485/validation-of-site-specific-soil-ni-toxicity-thresholds-with-independent-ecotoxicity-and-biogeochemistry-data-for-elevated-soil-ni
#5
Beverley Hale, Yamini Gopalapillai, Amanda Pellegrino, Tyson Jennett, Julie Kikkert, Wilson Lau, Christian Schlekat, Mike J McLaughlin
The Existing Substances Regulation Risk Assessments by the European Union (EU RA) generated new toxicity data for soil organisms exposed to Ni added to sixteen field-collected soils with low background concentration of metals and varying physico-chemical soil characteristics. Using only effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) as a bioavailability correction, chronic toxicity of Ni in soils with a wide range of characteristics could be predicted within a factor of two. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this was also the case for three independent data sets of Ni toxicity thresholds...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783911/wind-induced-changes-in-the-dynamics-of-fluorescent-organic-matter-in-the-coastal-nw-mediterranean
#6
Fran L Aparicio, Mar Nieto-Cid, Eva Calvo, Carles Pelejero, Àngel López-Sanz, Josep Pascual, Jordi Salat, Elvia D Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia De La Fuente, Josep M Gasol, Cèlia Marrasé
Marine biogeochemistry dynamics in coastal marine areas is strongly influenced by episodic events such as rain, intense winds, river discharges and anthropogenic activities. We evaluated in this study the importance of these forcing events on modulating seasonal changes in the marine biogeochemistry of the northwestern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, based on data gathered from a fixed coastal sampling station in the area. A 4-year (2011-2014) monthly sampling at four depths (0.5m, 20m, 50m and 80m) was performed to examine the time variability of several oceanographic variables: seawater temperature, salinity, inorganic nutrient concentrations (NO3(-), PO4(3-) and SiO2), chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM)...
August 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771908/bacteriohopanepolyols-along-redox-gradients-in-the-humboldt-current-system-off-northern-chile
#7
E D Matys, J Sepúlveda, S Pantoja, C B Lange, M Caniupán, F Lamy, R E Summons
Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are characterized by the presence of subsurface suboxic or anoxic waters where diverse microbial processes are responsible for the removal of fixed nitrogen. OMZs have expanded over past decades and are expected to continue expanding in response to the changing climate. The implications for marine biogeochemistry, particularly nitrogen cycling, are uncertain. Cell membrane lipids (biomarkers), such as bacterial bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) and their degradation products (hopanoids), have distinctive structural attributes that convey information about their biological sources...
August 3, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770028/first-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-strain-from-the-genus-fusibacter-isolated-from-salar-de-ascot%C3%A3-n-in-northern-chile
#8
Antonio E Serrano, Lorena V Escudero, Cinthya Tebes-Cayo, Mauricio Acosta, Olga Encalada, Sebastián Fernández-Moroso, Cecilia Demergasso
Fusibacter sp. 3D3 (ATCC BAA-2418) is an arsenate-reducing halotolerant strain within the Firmicutes phylum, isolated from the Salar de Ascotán, a hypersaline salt flat in Northern Chile. This high-Andean closed basin is an athalassohaline environment located at the bottom of a tectonic basin surrounded by mountain range, including some active volcanoes. This landscape can be an advantageous system to explore the effect of salinity on microorganisms that mediate biogeochemical reactions. Since 2000, microbial reduction of arsenic has been evidenced in the system, and the phylogenetic analysis of the original community plus the culture enrichments has revealed the predominance of Firmicutes phylum...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752871/understanding-the-mobilisation-of-metal-pollution-associated-with-historical-mining-in-a-carboniferous-upland-catchment
#9
Magaly Valencia-Avellan, Rebecca Slack, Anthony Stockdale, Robert John George Mortimer
Point and diffuse pollution from metal mining has led to severe environmental damage worldwide. Mine drainage is a significant problem for riverine ecosystems, it is commonly acidic (AMD), but neutral mine drainage (NMD) can also occur. A representative environment for studying metal pollution from NMD is provided by carboniferous catchments characterised by a circumneutral pH and high concentrations of carbonates, supporting the formation of secondary metal-minerals as potential sinks of metals. The present study focuses on understanding the mobility of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750008/physiological-responses-of-coccolithophores-to-abrupt-exposure-of-naturally-low-ph-deep-seawater
#10
Maria Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, Bethan M Jones, Sonia Blanco-Ameijeiras, Mervyn Greaves, Maria Huete-Ortega, Mario Lebrato
Upwelling is the process by which deep, cold, relatively high-CO2, nutrient-rich seawater rises to the sunlit surface of the ocean. This seasonal process has fueled geoengineering initiatives to fertilize the surface ocean with deep seawater to enhance productivity and thus promote the drawdown of CO2. Coccolithophores, which inhabit many upwelling regions naturally 'fertilized' by deep seawater, have been investigated in the laboratory in the context of ocean acidification to determine the extent to which nutrients and CO2 impact their physiology, but few data exist in the field except from mesocosms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747904/bridging-food-webs-ecosystem-metabolism-and-biogeochemistry-using-ecological-stoichiometry-theory
#11
REVIEW
Nina Welti, Maren Striebel, Amber J Ulseth, Wyatt F Cross, Stephen DeVilbiss, Patricia M Glibert, Laodong Guo, Andrew G Hirst, Jim Hood, John S Kominoski, Keeley L MacNeill, Andrew S Mehring, Jill R Welter, Helmut Hillebrand
Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and thereby impede a comprehensive understanding of the underlying processes governing energy and matter flow and transformation. The fate of multiple chemical elements in ecosystems is strongly linked by biotic demand and uptake; thus, considering elemental stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747000/response-of-soil-dissolved-organic-matter-to-microplastic-addition-in-chinese-loess-soil
#12
Hongfei Liu, Xiaomei Yang, Guobin Liu, Chutao Liang, Sha Xue, Hao Chen, Coen J Ritsema, Violette Geissen
Plastic debris is accumulating in agricultural land due to the increased use of plastic mulches, which is causing serious environmental problems, especially for biochemical and physical properties of the soil. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in driving soil biogeochemistry, but little information is available on the effects of plastic residues, especially microplastic, on soil DOM. We conducted a soil-incubation experiment in a climate-controlled chamber with three levels of microplastic added to loess soil collected from the Loess Plateau in China: 0% (control, CK), 7% (M1) and 28% (M2) (w/w)...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738864/identification-of-two-organohalide-respiring-dehalococcoidia-associated-to-different-dechlorination-activities-in-pcb-impacted-marine-sediments
#13
Andrea Nuzzo, Andrea Negroni, Giulio Zanaroli, Fabio Fava
BACKGROUND: Microbial reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) plays a major role in detoxifying anoxic contaminated freshwater and marine sediments from PCBs. Known members of the phylum Chloroflexi are typically responsible for this activity in freshwater sediments, whereas less is known about the microorganisms responsible for this activity in marine sediments. PCB-respiring activities were detected in PCB-impacted marine sediments of the Venice Lagoon. The aim of this work was to identify the indigenous organohalide-respiring microorganisms in such environments and assess their dechlorination specificity against spiked Aroclor™ 1254 PCBs under laboratory conditions resembling the in situ biogeochemistry...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731295/biogeochemistry-of-lead-its-release-to-the-environment-and-chemical-speciation
#14
Jay T Cullen, Jason McAlister
Lead (Pb) is a metal that is not essential for life processes and proves acutely toxic to most organisms. Compared to other metals Pb is rather immobile in the environment but still its biogeochemical cycling is greatly perturbed by human activities. In this review we present a summary of information describing the physical and chemical properties of Pb, its distribution in crustal materials, and the processes, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to the metal's mobilization in the biosphere. The relatively high volatility of Pb metal, low melting point, its large ionic radius, and its chemical speciation in aquatic systems contributes to its redistribution by anthropogenic and natural processes...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712130/the-role-of-protected-areas-in-land-use-land-cover-change-and-the-carbon-cycle-in-the-conterminous-united-states
#15
Xiaoliang Lu, Yuyu Zhou, Yaling Liu, Le Page Yannick
Protected Areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous U.S. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial biogeochemistry model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous U.S. from 1700 to 2005. More than three million km(2) of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711848/long-term-litter-manipulation-alters-soil-organic-matter-turnover-in-a-temperate-deciduous-forest
#16
Jun-Jian Wang, Oliva Pisani, Lisa H Lin, Olivia O Y Lun, Richard D Bowden, Kate Lajtha, André J Simpson, Myrna J Simpson
Understanding soil organic matter (OM) biogeochemistry at the molecular-level is essential for assessing potential impacts from management practices and climate change on shifts in soil carbon storage. Biomarker analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used in an ongoing detrital input and removal treatment experiment in a temperate deciduous forest in Pennsylvania, USA, to examine how above- and below-ground plant inputs control soil OM quantity and quality at the molecular-level. From plant material to surface soils, the free acyclic lipids and cutin, suberin, and lignin biomarkers were preferentially retained over free sugars and free cyclic lipids...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707243/research-trends-and-hotspots-related-to-ammonia-oxidation-based-on-bibliometric-analysis
#17
Maosheng Zheng, Hui-Zhen Fu, Yuh-Shan Ho
Ammonia oxidation is the rate-limiting and central step in global biogeochemistry cycle of nitrogen. A bibliometric analysis based on 4314 articles extracted from Science Citation Index Expanded database was carried out to provide insights into publication performances and research trends of ammonia oxidation in the period 1991-2014. These articles were originated from a wide range of 602 journals and 95 Web of Science Categories, among which Applied and Environmental Microbiology and Environmental Sciences took the leading position, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703196/biogeochemistry-arctic-plants-take-up-mercury-vapour
#18
William Shotyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692788/watershed-versus-within-lake-drivers-of-nitrogen-phosphorus-dynamics-in-shallow-lakes
#19
Luke J Ginger, Kyle D Zimmer, Brian R Herwig, Mark A Hanson, William O Hobbs, Gaston E Small, James B Cotner
Research on lake eutrophication often identifies variables affecting amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, but understanding factors influencing N:P ratios is important given its influence on species composition and toxin production by cyanobacteria. We sampled 80 shallow lakes in Minnesota (USA) for three years to assess effects of watershed size, proportion of watershed as both row crop and natural area, fish biomass, and lake alternative state (turbid versus clear) on total N: total P (TN:TP), ammonium, total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and seston stoichiometry...
July 10, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667104/response-of-microbial-community-function-to-fluctuating-geochemical-conditions-within-a-legacy-radioactive-waste-trench-environment
#20
Xabier Vázquez-Campos, Andrew S Kinsela, Mark W Bligh, Jennifer J Harrison, Timothy E Payne, T David Waite
During the 1960s, small quantities of radioactive materials were co-disposed with chemical waste at the Little Forest Legacy Site (Sydney, Australia) in three-metre-deep, unlined trenches. Chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a six-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess how changing water levels impact upon the microbial ecology and contaminant mobility. Collectively, results demonstrated that oxygen-laden rainwater rapidly altered the redox balance in the trench water, strongly impacting microbial functioning as well as the radiochemistry...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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