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Nitrification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102290/wells-provide-a-distorted-view-of-life-in-the-aquifer-implications-for-sampling-monitoring-and-assessment-of-groundwater-ecosystems
#1
Kathryn Korbel, Anthony Chariton, Sarah Stephenson, Paul Greenfield, Grant C Hose
When compared to surface ecosystems, groundwater sampling has unique constraints, including limited access to ecosystems through wells. In order to monitor groundwater, a detailed understanding of groundwater biota and what biological sampling of wells truly reflects, is paramount. This study aims to address this uncertainty, comparing the composition of biota in groundwater wells prior to and after purging, with samples collected prior to purging reflecting a potentially artificial environment and samples collected after purging representing the surrounding aquifer...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092731/biological-removal-of-selenate-and-ammonium-by-activated-sludge-in-a-sequencing-batch-reactor
#2
J Mal, Y V Nancharaiah, E D van Hullebusch, P N L Lens
Wastewaters contaminated by both selenium and ammonium need to be treated prior to discharge into natural water bodies, but there are no studies on the simultaneous removal of selenium and ammonium. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with activated sludge and operated for 90days. The highest ammonium removal efficiency achieved was 98%, while the total nitrogen removal was 75%. Nearly a complete chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency was attained after 16days of operation, whereas complete selenate removal was achieved only after 66days...
January 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089402/aerobic-composting-of-digested-residue-eluted-from-dry-methane-fermentation-to-develop-a-zero-emission-process
#3
Yu-Lian Huang, Zhao-Yong Sun, Xiao-Zhong Zhong, Ting-Ting Wang, Li Tan, Yue-Qin Tang, Kenji Kida
Digested residue remained at the end of a process for the production of fuel ethanol and methane from kitchen garbage. To develop a zero-emission process, the compostability of the digested residue was assessed to obtain an added-value fertilizer. Composting of the digested residue by adding matured compost and a bulking agent was performed using a lab-scale composting reactor. The composting process showed that volatile total solid (VTS) degradation mainly occurred during the first 13days, and the highest VTS degradation efficiency was about 27% at the end...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089204/effect-of-low-aeration-rate-on-simultaneous-nitrification-and-denitrification-in-an-intermittent-aeration-aged-refuse-bioreactor-treating-leachate
#4
Xiaojie Sun, Hongxia Zhang, Zhaowen Cheng, Siming Wang
Three intermittent aeration aged refuse bioreactors (ARBs), A, B, and C, with aeration rates of 670, 1340, and 2010L/m(3) aged refuse·d in stage 1, and 670, 503, and 335L/m(3) aged refuse·d in stage 2 were constructed to evaluate the effect of low aeration rate on leachate treatment by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Results show that SND can be achieved and improved by reasonably adjusting the aeration rate of the ARB. In stage 1, the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates of ARBs A, B, and C were 91%, 92%, and 93%, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088723/discovery-and-metagenomic-analysis-of-an-anammox-bacterial-enrichment-related-to-candidatus-brocadia-caroliniensis-in-a-full-scale-glycerol-fed-nitritation-denitritation-separate-centrate-treatment-process
#5
Hongkeun Park, Ariane C Brotto, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Kartik Chandran
A distinctive red biofilm was observed in a glycerol-fed digester liquid effluent treatment process coupling partial nitrification (nitritation) and partial denitrification (denitritation) processes. Based on initial phylogenetic screening using 16S rRNA clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the biofilm was enriched in novel anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AMX/anammox) closely related to Candidatus "Brocadia caroliniensis". The metabolic functionality of the C. "Brocadia caroliniensis" enrichment was further explored using high-throughput sequencing and de novo metagenome assembly...
January 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088719/low-temperature-mbbr-nitrification-microbiome-analysis
#6
Bradley Young, Robert Delatolla, Kevin Kennedy, Edith Laflamme, Alain Stintzi
This study aims to investigate post carbon removal moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) nitrification through the transition from 20 °C to 1 °C and during through long term operation at 1 °C. Four pilot nitrifying MBBR reactors were operated at various ammonia loading rates to elucidate the temperature effects on ammonia removal rates, cell viability and bacterial communities. The transition from 20 °C to 1 °C and during long term operation at 1 °C were modeled using Arrhenius temperature correction coefficients...
January 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074233/microbial-diversity-in-different-compartments-of-an-aquaponics-system
#7
Zala Schmautz, Andreas Graber, Sebastian Jaenicke, Alexander Goesmann, Ranka Junge, Theo H M Smits
Aquaponics is a solution for sustainable production of fish and plants in a single semi-closed system, where nutrient-rich water from the aquaculture provides nutrients for plant growth. We examined the microbial communities within an experimental aquaponics system. Whereas the fish feces contained a separate community dominated by bacteria of the genus Cetobacterium, the samples from plant roots, biofilter, and periphyton were more similar to each other, while the communities were more diverse. Detailed examination of the data gave the first indications to functional groups of organisms in the different compartments of the aquaponic system...
January 10, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072419/an-acid-tolerant-ammonia-oxidizing-%C3%AE-proteobacterium-from-soil
#8
Masahito Hayatsu, Kanako Tago, Ikuo Uchiyama, Atsushi Toyoda, Yong Wang, Yumi Shimomura, Takashi Okubo, Futoshi Kurisu, Yuhei Hirono, Kunihiko Nonaka, Hiroko Akiyama, Takehiko Itoh, Hideto Takami
Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, occurs in a wide range of acidic soils. However, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) that have been isolated from soil to date are acid-sensitive. Here we report the isolation and characterization of an acid-adapted AOB from an acidic agricultural soil. The isolated AOB, strain TAO100, is classified within the Gammaproteobacteria based on phylogenetic characteristics. TAO100 can grow in the pH range of 5-7.5 and survive in highly acidic conditions until pH 2 by forming cell aggregates...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063827/taxonomic-and-functional-diversity-of-a-coastal-planktonic-bacterial-community-in-a-river-influenced-marine-area
#9
Stefan Thiele, Michael Richter, Cecilia Balestra, Frank Oliver Glöckner, Raffaella Casotti
The Gulf of Naples is a dynamical area with intense exchanges between offshore oligotrophic and coastal eutrophic waters with frequent freshwater inputs. The Sarno River, one of the most polluted rivers in Europe, strongly contributes to the pollution of the area, discharging high amounts of heavy metals and organic wastes from heavily cultivated and industrial areas. This paper reports on the diversity and community structure of the marine residential Bacteria and Archaea of the Gulf of Naples in an area close to the river Sarno plume and investigates their small-scale taxonomic diversity and expression patterns as a proxy of potential metabolic activity using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics...
January 4, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063658/potential-role-of-biochars-in-decreasing-soil-acidification-a-critical-review
#10
REVIEW
Zhongmin Dai, Xiaojie Zhang, C Tang, Niaz Muhammad, Jianjun Wu, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
A large number of soils, worldwide, are acid (normally pH<5.5) and suffering from on-going soil acidification. Acid soils or soils undergoing acidification generally have low fertility and low crop productivity. Biochars have been reported to be of potential value in agriculture for improving soil properties and in reducing the hazards caused by soil acidification and in naturally acidic soils. However, the ameliorant effects of biochars on acid soils and the mechanisms involved have not previously been critically reviewed...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063296/biodegradation-of-the-artificial-sweetener-acesulfame-in-biological-wastewater-treatment-and-sandfilters
#11
Sandro Castronovo, Arne Wick, Marco Scheurer, Karsten Nödler, Manoj Schulz, Thomas A Ternes
A considerable removal of the artificial sweetener acesulfame (ACE) was observed during activated sludge processes at 13 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in a full-scale sand filter of a water works. A long-term sampling campaign over a period of almost two years revealed that ACE removal in WWTPs can be highly variable over time. Nitrifying/denitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBR) as well as aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge and filter sand from a water works confirmed that both activated sludge as well as filter sand can efficiently remove ACE and that the removal can be attributed to biologically mediated degradation processes...
November 17, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059164/pyruvic-oxime-dioxygenase-from-heterotrophic-nitrifier-alcaligenes-faecalis-is-a-nonheme-fe-ii-dependent-enzyme-homologous-to-class-ii-aldolase
#12
Shuhei Tsujino, Chisato Uematsu, Hideo Dohra, Taketomo Fujiwara
Pyruvic oxime dioxygenase (POD), a key enzyme in heterotrophic nitrification, was purified from Alcaligenes faecalis, and the molecular and catalytic characteristics were reexamined. POD was purified as the homotetramer of the subunit whose molecular weight was 30,000. The deduced amino acid sequence of POD was homologous with a class II aldolase that has been regarded as the Zn((II))-dependent enzyme catalyzing aldol reactions. The recombinant protein showed weak POD activity, and was activated by reconstitution with Fe((II))...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056367/bacterial-community-structure-in-simultaneous-nitrification-denitrification-and-organic-matter-removal-process-treating-saline-mustard-tuber-wastewater-as-revealed-by-16s-rrna-sequencing
#13
Jiale Wang, Benzhou Gong, Wei Huang, Yingmu Wang, Jian Zhou
A simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and organic matter removal (SNDOR) process in sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was established to treat saline mustard tuber wastewater (MTWW) in this study. An average COD removal efficiency of 86.48% and total nitrogen removal efficiency of 86.48% were achieved at 30gNaClL(-1) during 100days' operation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated by PacBio SMRT DNA sequencing (V1-V9) to analyze the microbial community structures and its variation from low salinity at 10gNaClL(-1) to high salinity at 30gNaClL(-1)...
December 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050624/toxicity-assessment-of-binary-metal-mixtures-copper-zinc-to-nitrification-in-soilless-culture-with-the-extended-biotic-ligand-model
#14
Aiju Liu, JinXin Li, Menghong Li, Xiao Yin Niu, Jun Wang
Metals are always found in the environment as mixtures rather than as solitary elements. Only a limited number of studies have developed appropriate models that incorporate bioavailability to estimate the toxicity of heavy-metal mixtures. In the present study, we explored the applicability of two extended biotic ligand model (BLM) approaches-BLM-f mix and BLM-toxicity unit (TU)-to predict and interpret mixture toxicity with the assumption that interactions between metal ions obey the BLM theory. Exposure assays of single and mixed metals were performed with inoculums of an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium SD5 isolated from soil...
January 3, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038400/quantification-of-nitrous-oxide-n2o-emissions-and-soluble-microbial-product-smp-production-by-a-modified-aob-nob-n2o-smp-model
#15
MinJeong Kim, Guangxue Wu, ChangKyoo Yoo
A modified AOB-NOB-N2O-SMP model able to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soluble microbial product (SMP) production during wastewater treatment is proposed. The modified AOB-NOB-N2O-SMP model takes into account: (1) two-step nitrification by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), (2) N2O production by AOB denitrification under oxygen-limited conditions and (3) SMP production by microbial growth and endogenous respiration. Validity of the modified model is demonstrated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data from lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs)...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034430/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-re-circulated-bio-filter-as-a-pretreatment-process-for-petroleum-refinery-wastewater
#16
Xiaoli Dai, Chunmao Chen, Guangxu Yan, Yu Chen, Shaohui Guo
Conventional biological treatment process is not very efficient for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) that contains high-concentration of organic contaminants. Prior to biological treatment, an additional pretreatment process for PRW is required for the effluent to meet the discharge standards. While re-circulated bio-filter (RBF) has been applied as a pretreatment process in several PRW treatment plants, its effects have not been comprehensively evaluated. In this study, the parameters of operation, the changes in pollution indexes and contaminant composition in an engineered RBF have been investigated...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031806/intensified-plant-n-and-c-pool-with-more-available-nitrogen-under-experimental-warming-in-an-alpine-meadow-ecosystem
#17
Fei Peng, Xian Xue, Quangang You, Manhou Xu, Xiang Chen, Jian Guo, Tao Wang
Nitrogen (N) availability is projected to increase in a warming climate. But whether the more available N is immobilized by microbes (thus stimulates soil carbon (C) decomposition), or is absorbed by plants (thus intensifies C uptake) remains unknown in the alpine meadow ecosystem. Infrared heaters were used to simulate climate warming with a paired experimental design. Soil ammonification, nitrification, and net mineralization were obtained by in situ incubation in a permafrost region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP)...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018307/variable-effects-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-on-selected-biochemical-processes-mediated-by-soil-microorganisms
#18
Mariusz Cycoń, Sławomir Borymski, Bartłomiej Żołnierczyk, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently used group of pharmaceuticals. The high consumption and the uncontrolled disposal of unused drugs into municipal waste or their deposit in landfills can result in an increased concentration of these compounds in soils. Moreover, these drugs can affect the microbial activity. However, there is a lack of knowledge about these effects or it is very limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the impact of selected commercially available NSAIDs, i...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013461/simultaneous-sulfide-removal-nitrification-and-electricity-generation-in-a-microbial-fuel-cell-equipped-with-an-oxic-cathode
#19
Renbing Bao, Shaohui Zhang, Li Zhao, Liuxiang Zhong
With sulfide as an anodic electron donor and ammonium as a cathodic substrate, the feasibility of simultaneous sulfide removal, nitrification, and electricity generation was investigated in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with an oxic cathode. Successful simultaneous sulfide removal, nitrification, and electricity generation in this MFC were achieved in 35 days, with the sulfide and ammonium removal percent of 92.7 ± 1.4 and 96.4 ± 0.3%, respectively. The maximum power density increased, but the internal resistance decreased with the increase of feeding sulfide concentration from 62...
December 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012865/simultaneous-nitrification-denitrification-and-stable-sludge-water-separation-achieved-in-a-conventional-activated-sludge-process-with-severe-filamentous-bulking
#20
Xueyu Zhang, Shaokui Zheng, Xuze Xiao, Lu Wang, Yunjun Yin
This study investigated the long-term treatment performance of a conventional activated sludge (AS) process operating at a microaerobic DO level (0.5-1.0mg·L(-1)) in the aeration tank and a long settling time of >10h in the clarification tank for sewage treatment. The microaerobic DO conditions led to severe sludge bulking. However, good sludge/water separation and excellent pollutant removal performance (COD, 95±2%; NH4(+)-N, 99±1%; and TN, 69±6%) were stably achieved in the microaerobic AS system during its 150days of continuous operation...
December 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
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