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M Anza, L Epelde, U Artetxe, J M Becerril, C Garbisu
In the north of Spain, Cortaderia selloana plants have invaded ecosystems of high ecological value. Control of this species is carried out with the application of glyphosate-based formulations. The aim of this work was to determine, under microcosm conditions, the short-term (2 months) effects of the application of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup®) on C. selloana rhizosphere microbial communities. To this purpose, before and after the application of Roundup®, several parameters that provide information on the biomass, activity and diversity of rhizosphere fungal and bacterial communities (enzyme activities, basal and substrate-induced respiration, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, nitrification potential rate, ergosterol content and community-level profiles with Biolog™ plates and ARISA) were determined...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Wei Huang, Jiyuan Wu, Huiqin Yang, Yin Xiong, Rui Jiang, Tianpen Cui, Duyun Ye
Abnormal features of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-derived neutrophils, promoted aberrant immune response, have inspired new studies of the induction of autoimmunity and the development of organ damage in SLE. In this study, we explore the effect of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) on the aberrant nitrification features in pristane-induced lupus. SLE patients and mice with pristane-induced lupus develop autoantibodies associated with MFG-E8 overproduction. However, the deletion of MFG-E8 leads to uncontrolled early pulmonary and peritoneal inflammation and tissue damage in mice with pristane-induced lupus...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Juan Lin, Yufang Zhong, Hua Fan, Chaofeng Song, Chao Yu, Yue Gao, Xiong Xiong, Chenxi Wu, Jiantong Liu
In this work, sediments were treated with calcium nitrate, aluminum sulfate, ferric sulfate, and Phoslock®, respectively. The impact of treatments on internal phosphorus release, the abundance of nitrogen cycle-related functional genes, and the growth of submerged macrophytes were investigated. All treatments reduced total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in interstitial water, and aluminum sulfate was most efficient. Aluminum sulfate also decreased TP and SRP in overlying water. Treatments significantly changed P speciations in the sediment...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
F Stenström, J la Cour Jansen
Bioaugmentation of nitrifiers from a side-stream treatment is an efficient method for boosting the mainstream process at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Although this technology has been known for several years, the number of full-scale applications for it is limited. For a WWTP approaching its critical nitrogen load capacity, the benefits are doubled if the introduced side-stream treatment for digester supernatant is combined with bioaugmentation. Not only is the nitrogen load to the mainstream process decreased by 10-25%, but the mainstream process is also boosted with nitrifiers, increasing the nitrifying capacity...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kun Zhong, Yi-Yong Luo, Zheng-Song Wu, Qiang He, Xue-Bin Hu, Qi-Wu Jie, Yan-Ting Li, Shao-Jie Wang
A vertical flow constructed wetland was combined with a biological aerated filter to develop an ecological filter, and to obtain the optimal operating parameters: The hydraulic loading was 1.55 m(3)/(m(2)·d), carbon-nitrogen ratio was 10, and gas-water ratio was 6. The experimental results demonstrated considerable removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in wastewater by the ecological filter, with average removal rates of 83...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Wenjing Chen, Xiaohu Dai, Dawen Cao, Sha Wang, Xiaona Hu, Wenru Liu, Dianhai Yang
The partial nitrification (PN) performance and the microbial community variations were evaluated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for 172 days, with the stepwise elevation of ammonium concentration. Free ammonia (FA) and low dissolved oxygen inhibition of nitrite-oxidized bacteria (NOB) were used to achieve nitritation in the SBR. During the 172 days operation, the nitrogen loading rate of the SBR was finally raised to 3.6 kg N/m(3)/d corresponding the influent ammonium of 1500 mg/L, with the ammonium removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate were 94...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Salar Haghighatafshar, Britt-Marie Wilén, Andreas Thunberg, Marinette Hagman, Annika Nyberg, Jonas Grundestam, Maria Mases, Jes la Cour Jansen
Vacuum degassing of activated sludge was tested at eight different Swedish wastewater treatment plants with laboratory-scale equipment in batch mode in order to evaluate its efficiency on improvement of sludge compaction and settling properties. The results show that the efficiency of the degassing technique is mainly dependent on the initial sludge volume index (SVI) of the target sludge which was found to be related to its process configuration. Facilities with full activated sludge based nitrogen removal processes, including both nitrification and denitrification, had high SVIs (>300 mL g(-1)) and were strongly affected by vacuum degassing with reduction of SVI up to 30%...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Technology
Peter W Ganzlin, Michael J Gundale, Rachel E Becknell, Cory C Cleveland
Decades of fire suppression following extensive timber harvesting have left much of the forest in the intermountain western United States exceedingly dense, and forest restoration techniques (i.e., thinning and prescribed fire) are increasingly being used in an attempt to mitigate the effects of severe wildfire, to enhance tree growth and regeneration, and to stimulate soil nutrient cycling. While many of the short-term effects of forest restoration have been established, the long-term effects on soil biogeochemical and ecosystem processes are largely unknown...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Afshin Pourmokhtarian, Charles T Driscoll, John L Campbell, Katharine Hayhoe, Anne M K Stoner
Assessments of future climate change impacts on ecosystems typically rely on multiple climate model projections, but often utilize only one downscaling approach trained on one set of observations. Here, we explore the extent to which modeled biogeochemical responses to changing climate are affected by the selection of the climate downscaling method and training observations used at the montane landscape of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. We evaluated three downscaling methods: the delta method (or the change factor method), monthly quantile mapping (Bias Correction-Spatial Disaggregation, or BCSD), and daily quantile regression (Asynchronous Regional Regression Model, or ARRM)...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Xiang Liu, Quan Wang, Zhiming Qi, Jiangang Han, Lanhai Li
In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have reported that soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions can be reduced by adding biochar. However, the effect of biochar amendment on soil N2O emissions during freeze-thaw cycle (FTC) is still unknown. In this laboratory study, biochar (0%, 2% and 4%, w/w) was added into a cultivated sandy loam soil and then treated with 15 times of FTC (each FTC consisted of freeze at -5/-10 °C for 24 h and thaw at 5/10 °C for 24 h), to test whether biochar can mitigate soil N2O emissions during FTC, and estimate the relationships between N2O emissions and soil inorganic nitrogen contents/microbial biomass content/enzyme activities...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rongle Xu, Yaobo Fan, Yuansong Wei, Yawei Wang, Nan Luo, Min Yang, Xing Yuan, Rong Yu
Both internal carbon source and some external carbon sources were used to improve the nutrient removal in Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic-Membrane Bioreactor (A(2)/O-MBRs), and their technical and cost analysis was investigated. The experimental results showed that the nutrient removals were improved by all the carbon source additions. The total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency were higher in the experiments with external carbon source additions than that with internal carbon source addition. It was found that pathways of nitrogen and phosphorus transform were different dependent on different carbon source additions by the mass balance analysis...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Yun-Feng Duan, Xian-Wang Kong, Andreas Schramm, Rodrigo Labouriau, Jørgen Eriksen, Søren O Petersen
: Grassland cultivation can mobilize large pools of N in the soil, with a potential for N leaching and N2O emissions. Spraying with the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) before cultivation was simulated with soil columns where residue distribution corresponded to ploughing or rotovation, to study effects of soil-residue contact on N transformations. DMPP was sprayed on above-ground parts of ryegrass and white clover before incorporation. During a 42-day incubation, soil mineral N dynamics, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), nitrifier and denitrifier populations, and N2O emissions were investigated...
October 14, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Zachary B Freedman, Rima A Upchurch, Donald R Zak
Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer use has increased the amount of biologically available N entering terrestrial ecosystems. Nonetheless, our understanding of how anthropogenic N may alter the physiological mechanisms by which soil microorganisms cycle N in soil is still developing. Here, we applied shotgun metagenomics to a replicated long-term field experiment to determine how two decades of experimental N deposition, at a rate expected by mid-century, has affected the genetic potential of the soil microbial community to cycle N in soils...
2016: PloS One
Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Muhammad Sabir, Munir Ozturk, Mohd Sayeed Akhtar, Faridah Hanum Ibrahim, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad
Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer...
October 13, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
M G Mostofa Amin, Christina Østerballe Pedersen, Anita Forslund, Tamie L Veith, Mette Laegdsmand
Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Haiman Wang, Jia Liu, Weihua He, Youpeng Qu, Da Li, Yujie Feng
A tide-type biocathode microbial electrochemical system (TBMES) employing intermittent air accessible method was constructed for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal. The nitrification and denitrification processes occurred in cathode chamber were enhanced by raising frequency of catholyte feeding-draining process and lowering external resistance. At external resistance of 5Ω and frequency of 8cph, the TBMES removed 99.3±0.3% of COD and 57.7±1.1% of total nitrogen when treating synthetic medium with COD/N ratio of 3...
September 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Xin Wen, Jian Zhou, Yancheng Li, Xiaoxia Qing, Qiang He
In this study, a novel process combined simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) with denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) was proposed for advanced nitrogen removal. Firstly simulating sewage was introduced to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for organic matter removal and anaerobic phosphorus release (stage 1). Then effluent of stage 1 with low COD was discharged to a sequencing biofilm batch reactor (SBBR) for partial nitrification, anammox and partial denitrification (stage 2)...
October 5, 2016: Bioresource Technology
N Fiorentino, V Ventorino, C Rocco, V Cenvinzo, D Agrelli, L Gioia, I Di Mola, P Adamo, O Pepe, M Fagnano
Phytoremediation is a cost-effective "green technology" that uses plants to improve the soil properties of polluted sites, preventing the dispersion of pollutants and reducing the mobility of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) through their adsorption and accumulation by roots or precipitation within the root zone. Being highly tolerant to pollutants and other abiotic stresses, giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a suitable biomass crop for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. We report the results of a two-year open-air lysimeter study aimed at assessing the adaptability of giant reed to grow on industrial substrates polluted by Pb and Zn and at testing commercial humic acids from leonardite as improvers of plant performance...
October 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
A D Samarajeewa, J R Velicogna, J I Princz, R M Subasinghe, R P Scroggins, L A Beaudette
Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are widely used in a range of consumer products as a result of their antimicrobial properties. Given the broad spectrum of uses, AgNPs have the potential for being released to the environment. As a result, environmental risks associated with AgNPs need to be assessed to aid in the development of regulatory guidelines. Research was performed to assess the effects of AgNPs on soil microbial activity and diversity in a sandy loam soil with an emphasis on using a battery of microbial tests involving multiple endpoints...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Lan Wang, Ping Zheng, Ghulam Abbas, Yajuan Xing, Wei Li, Ru Wang, Liangwei Deng, Yunhui Lei, Dan Zheng, Yunhong Zhang
Nitrification is an acidifying process that requires the addition of external alkalinity because of the alkaliphilic nature of the most ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. In this study, aerobic activated sludge was used as inoculum in an internal loop air-lift reactor, which resulted in successful enrichment of acid-tolerant nitrifying (ACIN) sludge at pH 6.0 by sequential addition of tea orchard soil suspension. The results showed that ACIN sludge had a remarkable acid tolerant capability with a volumetric ammonia conversion rate of 1...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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