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Paternity and preeclampsia

G Barrientos, A Uceda, A Sgariglia, G Giardina, S M Blois, J E Toblli
OBJECTIVE: Severe forms of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, like early-onset preeclampsia (PE), are often linked with abnormal placentation. Genetic factors contributed by the father may be important for placental development, and previous studies support the existence of a paternal component for PE and fetal growth restriction. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of arterial hypertension as a paternal factor on placental development and fetal growth in normal female rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kelsey R Bounds, M Karen Newell-Rogers, Brett M Mitchell
The maternal innate immune system plays an important role both in normal pregnancy as well as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia (PE). We propose four pathways that involve excessive innate immunity that lead to most forms of PE. Pre-existing endothelial dysfunction plus pregnancy leads to an excessive innate immune response resulting in widespread inflammation, placental and renal dysfunction, vasoconstriction, and PE. Placental dysfunction due to shallow trophoblast invasion, inadequate spiral artery remodeling, and/or low placental perfusion initiates an innate immune response leading to excessive inflammation, endothelial and renal dysfunction, and PE...
2015: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Susan J Fisher
The causes of preeclampsia remain one of the great medical mysteries of our time. This syndrome is thought to occur in 2 stages with abnormal placentation leading to a maternal inflammatory response. Specific regions of the placenta have distinct pathologic features. During normal pregnancy, cytotrophoblasts emigrate from the chorionic villi and invade the uterus, reaching the inner third of the myometrium. This unusual process is made even more exceptional by the fact that the placental cells are hemiallogeneic, coexpressing maternal and paternal genomes...
October 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hiroshi Kobayashi
PURPOSE: Much work has been carried out to investigate the genetic and epigenetic basis of endometriosis and proposed that endometriosis has been described as an epigenetic disease. The purpose of this study was to extract the imprinting genes that are associated with endometriosis development. METHODS: The information on the imprinting genes can be accessed publicly from a web-based interface at RESULTS: In the current version, the database contains 150 human imprinted genes derived from the literature...
2014: EXCLI journal
A B Janssen, S J Tunster, N Savory, A Holmes, J Beasley, S A R Parveen, R J A Penketh, R M John
UNLABELLED: Imprinted genes, which are monoallelically expressed by virtue of an epigenetic process initiated in the germline, are known to play key roles in regulating fetal growth and placental development. Numerous studies are investigating the expression of these imprinted genes in the human placenta in relation to common complications of pregnancy such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. This study aimed to determine whether placental sampling protocols or other factors such as fetal sex, gestational age and mode of delivery may influence the expression of imprinted genes predicted to regulate placental signalling...
August 2015: Placenta
Gustaaf Albert Dekker
Preeclampsia still ranks as one of obstetrics major problems. Clinicians typically encounter preeclampsia as maternal disease with variable degrees of fetal involvement. More and more the unique immunogenetic maternal-paternal relationship is appreciated, and as such also the specific 'genetic conflict' that is characteristic of haemochorial placentation. From that perspective preeclampsia can also been seen as a disease of an individual couple with primarily maternal and fetal manifestations. Factors that are unique to a specific couple would include the length and type of sexual relationship, the maternal (decidual natural killer cells) acceptation of the invading cytotrophoblast (paternal HLA-C), and seminal levels of transforming growth factor-b and probably other cytokines...
July 2014: Pregnancy Hypertension
C Linscheid, E Heitmann, P Singh, E Wickstrom, L Qiu, H Hodes, T Nauser, M G Petroff
INTRODUCTION: Maternal T-cells reactive towards paternally inherited fetal minor histocompatibility antigens are expanded during pregnancy. Placental trophoblast cells express at least four fetal antigens, including human minor histocompatibility antigen 1 (HA-1). We investigated oxygen as a potential regulator of HA-1 and whether HA-1 expression is altered in preeclamptic placentas. METHODS: Expression and regulation of HA-1 mRNA and protein were examined by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, using first, second, and third trimester placentas, first trimester placental explant cultures, and term purified cytotrophoblast cells...
August 2015: Placenta
V Katsi, I Felekos, C Siristatidis, S Kasioni, A Drakontaidis, G Farmakides, T Makris, C Aggeli, P Nihoyannopoulos, D Tousoulis, I Kallikazaros
Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, with incidence rates ranging between 2 and 5 % in the Western World. The exact causes of the disease remain largely unknown, because of the complex pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the process. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic parameters have been implicated by various authors as culprits for the pathogenesis of PE. Recent reports in the literature highlight the paternal role. Still, the exact extent and mechanism remain elusive...
August 2015: Current Hypertension Reports
Valborg Baste, Gunnhild Oftedal, Ole Jacob Møllerløkken, Kjell Hansson Mild, Bente E Moen
BACKGROUND: Research about prenatal exposure to electromagnetic fields from cell phones among expectant parents and reproductive outcome is limited. The aim of this article is to investigate the association between pregnancy outcome and parental cell phone exposure in a large prospective study. METHODS: The study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted during the decade 1999-2009. In that study, pregnant women were recruited before a routine ultrasound examination during gestational week 15; they answered a questionnaire at that time and again around gestational week 30...
July 2015: Epidemiology
X Y Liang, X Chen, Y Z Jin, X O Chen, Q Z Chen
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and significance of the imprinted gene PEG10 (paternally expressed gene 10) in preeclampsia placental tissue. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to evaluate mRNA and protein expression and distribution of PEG10 in placental tissues obtained from 22 preeclampsia patients (8 patients with mild preeclampsia, 14 cases of severe preeclampsia). At the same time, 22 cases of normal pregnant women served as controls...
2014: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Edwina H Yeung, Candace Robledo, Nansi Boghossian, Cuilin Zhang, Pauline Mendola
Although cardiovascular disease has traditionally been viewed as a condition of aging individuals, increasing focus has turned to its developmental origins. Since birthweight has been related to cardiovascular disease risk, research into factors such as gravid conditions that affect fetal growth have grown. Associations between maternal diabetes and childhood obesity from sibling studies suggest a causal role but prospective studies of gestational diabetes remain mixed. Preeclampsia and increased offspring blood pressure has been consistently observed but evidence for other cardiovascular outcomes is lacking...
March 1, 2014: Current Epidemiology Reports
Matthew T Rätsep, Allison M Felker, Vanessa R Kay, Leandra Tolusso, Alexander P Hofmann, B Anne Croy
Mammalian pregnancy involves tremendous de novo maternal vascular construction to adequately support conceptus development. In early mouse decidua basalis (DB), maternal uterine natural killer (uNK) cells oversee this process directing various aspects during the formation of supportive vascular networks. The uNK cells recruited to early implantation site DB secrete numerous factors that act in the construction of early decidual vessels (neoangiogenesis) as well as in the alteration of the structural components of newly developing and existing vessels (pruning and remodeling)...
February 2015: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
M Gielen, G Hageman, D Pachen, C Derom, R Vlietinck, M P Zeegers
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the postnatal period, little is known about telomere length (TL) during prenatal life. The decrease in placental TL remains unknown, although intra uterine growth retardation and preeclampsia are associated with shorter placental TL. The aim of this study is to assess the decrease of placental TL during the third trimester of gestation and to explore the role of potential "growth influencing factors". METHODS: The study sample consisted of 329 live-born twins from the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey...
October 2014: Placenta
David A Clark
According to Mark Twain, "It ain't what you don't know that gets you into trouble. It's what you know for sure that just ain't so." Four items believed by reproductive immunologists are analyzed. (1) In a semiallogeneic (outbred) mating, maternofetal tolerance is required to prevent immune rejection manifesting as infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. (2) Regulation of natural killer (NK) cells at the fetomaternal interface by interaction with fetal trophoblast paternal class I MHC is obligatory for pregnancy success...
October 2014: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Jessica LaRocca, Alexandra M Binder, Thomas F McElrath, Karin B Michels
Genomic imprinting leads to parent-of-origin specific gene expression and is determined by epigenetic modification of genes. The paternally expressed gene insulin-like growth-factor 2 (IGF2) is located about ~100kb from the maternally expressed non-coding gene H19 on human chromosome 11, and both genes play major roles in embryonic and placental growth. Given adverse gestational environments can influence DNA methylation patterns in extra-embryonic tissues, we hypothesized that prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alters H19 and IGF2 methylation in placenta...
August 2014: Environmental Research
Burcuartunc Ulkumen, Dilekbenk Silfeler, Kenan Sofuoglu, Ibrahim Silfeler, Vedat Dayicioglu
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association between infertility etiology in ICSI pregnancies and preeclampsia; besides, we aimed to discuss the effect of the paternal factor in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that preeclampsia is more common in ICSI pregnancies with male factor. It is known that maternal exposure to paternal sperm cells over a time period has a protective effect against preeclampsia. Male partners with azospermia have no sperm cells in their seminal fluid, whose female partners will not be able to develop some protective immunity against preeclampsia...
January 2014: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Noriyoshi Watanabe, Takeo Fujiwara, Tomo Suzuki, Seung Chik Jwa, Kosuke Taniguchi, Yuji Yamanobe, Kazuto Kozuka, Haruhiko Sago
BACKGROUND: Although an increased risk of preeclampsia in pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) has been reported, it remains unknown whether IVF is associated with preeclampsia. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether IVF is associated with preeclampsia in pregnant women using propensity score matching analysis. METHODS: This study included 3,084 pregnant women who visited the National Center for Child Health and Development before 20 weeks of gestation without hypertension or renal disease and delivered a singleton after 22 weeks of gestation between 2009 and 2011...
2014: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Heather A Boyd, Hassaan Tahir, Jan Wohlfahrt, Mads Melbye
Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia...
December 1, 2013: American Journal of Epidemiology
Audrey F Saftlas, Linda Rubenstein, Kaitlin Prater, Karisa K Harland, Elizabeth Field, Elizabeth W Triche
A growing body of literature suggests that prior and prolonged exposure to paternal antigens in seminal fluid induces maternal tolerance to the allogeneic fetus, protecting it from rejection and facilitating successful implantation and placentation. In this case-control study of nulliparous women, we test the hypothesis that increased exposure to paternal seminal fluid via the vaginal or oral route will confer a reduced risk of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia cases (n=258) and normotensive controls (n=182) were selected from live births to Iowa women over the period August 2002 to April 2005...
March 2014: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Elizabeth W Triche, Karisa K Harland, Elizabeth H Field, Linda M Rubenstein, Audrey F Saftlas
Whereas histocompatibility is critical for transplantation, HLA histoincompatibility is associated with successful pregnancy. Literature on HLA sharing and preeclampsia has been inconsistent; most studies focused on maternal-paternal rather than maternal-fetal sharing. This study examines whether maternal-fetal histocompatibility is associated with preeclampsia, and whether effects vary by semen exposure history. This case-control study of nulliparous women was designed to examine associations among HLA sharing, semen exposure, and preeclampsia...
March 2014: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
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