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Semen and preeclampsia

Audrey F Saftlas, Linda Rubenstein, Kaitlin Prater, Karisa K Harland, Elizabeth Field, Elizabeth W Triche
A growing body of literature suggests that prior and prolonged exposure to paternal antigens in seminal fluid induces maternal tolerance to the allogeneic fetus, protecting it from rejection and facilitating successful implantation and placentation. In this case-control study of nulliparous women, we test the hypothesis that increased exposure to paternal seminal fluid via the vaginal or oral route will confer a reduced risk of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia cases (n=258) and normotensive controls (n=182) were selected from live births to Iowa women over the period August 2002 to April 2005...
March 2014: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Elizabeth W Triche, Karisa K Harland, Elizabeth H Field, Linda M Rubenstein, Audrey F Saftlas
Whereas histocompatibility is critical for transplantation, HLA histoincompatibility is associated with successful pregnancy. Literature on HLA sharing and preeclampsia has been inconsistent; most studies focused on maternal-paternal rather than maternal-fetal sharing. This study examines whether maternal-fetal histocompatibility is associated with preeclampsia, and whether effects vary by semen exposure history. This case-control study of nulliparous women was designed to examine associations among HLA sharing, semen exposure, and preeclampsia...
March 2014: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Sinuhe Hahn, Stavros Giaglis, Irene Hoesli, Paul Hasler
The intention of this review is to provide an overview of the potential role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in mammalian reproduction. Neutrophil NETs appear to be involved in various stages of the reproductive cycle, starting with fertility and possibly ending with fetal loss. The first suggestion that NETs may play a role in pregnancy-related disorders was in preeclampsia, where vast numbers were detected in the intervillous space of affected placentae. The induction of NETosis involved an auto-inflammatory component, mediated by the increased release of placental micro-debris in preeclampsia...
2012: Frontiers in Immunology
Shigeru Saito, Tomoko Shima, Akitoshi Nakashima
During pregnancy, semiallograftic fetus is allowed to grow without being rejected by the maternal immune system. Recent data show that paternal antigen specific- or male antigen HY specific-regulatory T cells (Treg) increase during pregnancy. Seminal plasma is necessary for the accumulation of Treg cells in uterine draining lymph modes just before implantation, and in uterus just after implantation. It has been reported that decreased number of Treg cells in peripheral blood or pregnant uterus in abortion or preeclampsia...
2012: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
Gus Dekker, Pierre Yves Robillard, Claire Roberts
Preeclampsia is often considered as simply a maternal disease with variable degrees of fetal involvement. More and more the unique immunogenetic maternal-paternal relationship is appreciated, and also the specific 'genetic conflict' that is characteristic of haemochorial placentation. From that perspective, pre-eclampsia can be seen as a disease of an individual couple with primarily maternal and fetal manifestations. The maternal and fetal genomes perform different roles during development. Heritable paternal, rather than maternal, imprinting of the genome is necessary for normal trophoblast development...
May 2011: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Gus Dekker, Nares Sukcharoen
Preeclampsia still ranks as one of obstetrics major problems. Clinicians typically encounter preeclampsia as maternal disease with variable degrees of fetal involvement. More and more the unique immunogenetic maternal - paternal relationship is appreciated, and as such also the specific 'genetic conflict' that is characteristic of haemochorial placentation. Factors influencing the unique maternal-fetal (paternal) interaction probably include the length and type of sexual relationship, the maternal (decidual natural killer cells) acceptation of the invading cytotrophoblast (paternal HLA-C), and seminal levels of transforming growth factor-b and probably other cytokines...
October 2004: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Ee Min Kho, Lesley M E McCowan, Robyn A North, Claire T Roberts, Eliza Chan, Michael A Black, Rennae S Taylor, Gustaaf A Dekker
The aim of this study was to determine if women with preeclampsia or delivering small for gestational age (SGA) babies are more likely to have a short duration of sexual relationship compared with those who have uncomplicated pregnancies. In a prospective cohort study, 2507 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies were interviewed at 15+/-1 weeks gestation about the duration of their sexual relationship with the biological father. Short duration of sexual relationship (< or =6 months, < or =3 months, or first intercourse) was compared between women with preeclampsia (N=131) or SGA babies (N=263) and those with uncomplicated pregnancies (N=1462)...
October 2009: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Roberta B Ness, David A Grainger
Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations argue that MRPs are critically important to reproductive success. Yet the impact of male reproductive proteins on obstetrical outcomes in women is largely unstudied...
June 2008: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gus Dekker
The etiology of preeclampsia is often considered to be purely maternal, i.e. maternal constitutional factors that impair maternal cardiovascular/endothelial mechanisms normally required to cope with the specific pregnancy demands, being primarily a generalised inflammatory response and a hyperdynamic circulation. Recent data strongly indicate an important role for the male partner in the causation of this common pregnancy disorder. The aim of this review is to discuss the relevant literature and to explain how paternal, relational and sexual factors play an important role in the etiology of preeclampsia...
October 2002: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
C A Koelman, A B Coumans, H W Nijman, I I Doxiadis, G A Dekker, F H Claas
The involvement of immune mechanisms in the aetiology of preeclampsia is often suggested. Normal pregnancy is thought to be associated with a state of tolerance to the foreign antigens of the fetus, whereas in preeclamptic women this immunological tolerance might be hampered. The present study shows that oral sex and swallowing sperm is correlated with a diminished occurrence of preeclampsia which fits in the existing idea that a paternal factor is involved in the occurrence of preeclampsia. Because pregnancy has many similarities with transplantation, we hypothesize that induction of allogeneic tolerance to the paternal HLA molecules of the fetus may be crucial...
March 2000: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
G A Dekker, P Y Robillard, T C Hulsey
Genuine preeclampsia is a disease of first pregnancies. The protective effect of multiparity, however, is lost with change of partner. Also, exposure to semen provides protection against developing preeclampsia. Analogous to altered paternity, artificial donor insemination and oocyte donation are reported to result in a substantial increase of preeclampsia. Thus, epidemiologic studies strongly suggest that immune maladaptation is involved in the etiology of preeclampsia. Although the exact etiology of preeclampsia remains unknown, the conclusions derived from epidemiologic studies may have consequences for practicing physicians: 1) according to the primipaternity concept, a multiparous women with a new partner should be approached as being a primigravid women; 2) artificial donor insemination and oocyte donation are associated with an increased risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders; 3) a more or less prolonged period of sperm exposure provides a partial protection against pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders...
June 1998: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
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