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"lymphocyte", " islet cell function"

Elias Delgado, Marcos Perez-Basterrechea, Beatriz Suarez-Alvarez, Huimin Zhou, Eva Martinez Revuelta, Jose Maria Garcia-Gala, Silvia Perez, Maria Alvarez-Viejo, Edelmiro Menendez, Carlos Lopez-Larrea, Ruifeng Tang, Zhenlong Zhu, Wei Hu, Thomas Moss, Edward Guindi, Jesus Otero, Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that causes a deficit of pancreatic islet β cells. The complexities of overcoming autoimmunity in T1D have contributed to the challenges the research community faces when devising successful treatments with conventional immune therapies. Overcoming autoimmune T cell memory represents one of the key hurdles. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 1/phase 2 study, Caucasian T1D patients (N = 15) received two treatments with the Stem Cell Educator (SCE) therapy, an approach that uses human multipotent cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs)...
December 2015: EBioMedicine
Yong Zhao, Zhaoshun Jiang, Tingbao Zhao, Mingliang Ye, Chengjin Hu, Zhaohui Yin, Heng Li, Ye Zhang, Yalin Diao, Yunxiang Li, Yingjian Chen, Xiaoming Sun, Mary Beth Fisk, Randal Skidgel, Mark Holterman, Bellur Prabhakar, Theodore Mazzone
BACKGROUND: Inability to control autoimmunity is the primary barrier to developing a cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Evidence that human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs) can control autoimmune responses by altering regulatory T cells (Tregs) and human islet β cell-specific T cell clones offers promise for a new approach to overcome the autoimmunity underlying T1D. METHODS: We developed a procedure for Stem Cell Educator therapy in which a patient's blood is circulated through a closed-loop system that separates lymphocytes from the whole blood and briefly co-cultures them with adherent CB-SCs before returning them to the patient's circulation...
January 10, 2012: BMC Medicine
Nepton Soltani, Hongmin Qiu, Mila Aleksic, Yelena Glinka, Fang Zhao, Rui Liu, Yiming Li, Nina Zhang, Rabindranath Chakrabarti, Tiffany Ng, Tianru Jin, Haibo Zhang, Wei-Yang Lu, Zhong-Ping Feng, Gerald J Prud'homme, Qinghua Wang
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulitis and islet β-cell loss. Thus, an effective therapy may require β-cell restoration and immune suppression. Currently, there is no treatment that can achieve both goals efficiently. We report here that GABA exerts antidiabetic effects by acting on both the islet β-cells and immune system. Unlike in adult brain or islet α-cells in which GABA exerts hyperpolarizing effects, in islet β-cells, GABA produces membrane depolarization and Ca(2+) influx, leading to the activation of PI3-K/Akt-dependent growth and survival pathways...
July 12, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anne-Marie Lambeir, Christine Durinx, Simon Scharpé, Ingrid De Meester
Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV/CD26 (DPP IV) is a cell-surface protease belonging to the prolyloligopeptidase family. It selectively removes the N-terminal dipeptide from peptides with proline or alanine in the second position. Apart from its catalytic activity, it interacts with several proteins, for instance, adenosine deaminase, the HIV gp120 protein, fibronectin, collagen, the chemokine receptor CXCR4, and the tyrosine phosphatase CD45. DPP IV is expressed on a specific set of T lymphocytes, where it is up-regulated after activation...
June 2003: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
N S Kenyon, M Chatzipetrou, M Masetti, A Ranuncoli, M Oliveira, J L Wagner, A D Kirk, D M Harlan, L C Burkly, C Ricordi
Reported effects of anti-CD154 treatment on autoimmunity, alloreactivity, and inflammatory events mediated by macrophages and endothelial cells indicated that it might be an ideal agent for the prevention of intrahepatic islet allograft failure. This hypothesis was tested in MHC-mismatched rhesus monkeys. Transplantation of an adequate number of viable islets resulted in engraftment and insulin independence in six of six recipients treated with anti-CD154 (hu5c8) induction plus monthly maintenance therapy (post-operative day >125, >246, >266, >405, >419, >476)...
July 6, 1999: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M S Khatim, G M Bahr, K A Gumaa, K Behbehani
Natural human interleukin and the recombinant human IL-1 alpha and beta isomers were tested for effects on both fetal and adult rat isolated pancreatic islets. IL-1 alpha inhibited both replication and insulin secretion and decreased the insulin content of both islets. In contrast, the beta isomer did not affect fetal islets. It is concluded that the two isomers may have different avidities for the same receptors, or that receptors are expressed at different stages of differentiation.
May 1988: Diabetes Research
M Braga, M Cristallo, R De Franchis, A Mangiagalli, A Zerbi, D Agape, M Primignani, V Di Carlo
The occurrence of malnutrition and maldigestion was studied in nine patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy and sclerosis of the residual pancreatic stump with neoprene. The operation causes a complete loss of exocrine pancreatic function, but spares islet cell function. Upon discharge from the hospital, patients received pancreatin powder as a dietary enzyme supplement (18,000 lipase U/meal). Patients were again hospitalized 2 y after surgery for evaluation of nutritional status and digestive function (hospital checkup)...
1989: International Journal of Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology
S Helqvist, P N Bouchelouche, J Johannesen, J Nerup
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory (cytotoxic) effects on insulin-producing beta cells in isolated pancreatic islets. Since alteration in ion fluxes is crucial for endocrine cell activation and is a denominator of cell death, and since IL-1 was recently shown to increase the total sodium content in a murine pre-B-lymphocyte cell line, we investigated the effect of recombinant human IL-1 beta (rhIL-1 beta) on the cytosolic free sodium concentration (fNa+i) in rat islets. Furthermore, long-term rhIL-1 beta effects on islet cell function were studied during exposure of islets to amiloride, a blocker of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchange...
July 1990: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
I L Campbell, L Oxbrow, L C Harrison
In insulin dependent diabetes mellitis (IDDM) beta cell destruction is associated with infiltration of the pancreatic islets by T lymphocytes and macrophages. Cytokine products from the infiltrating immunocytes not only have powerful immunoregulatory actions but also are capable of impairing islet cell functions and have thus been postulated to assume a central role in mediating anti-beta cell immunity and beta cell destruction. In an effort to explore further the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of IDDM, we examined clinical, metabolic and pathological features of NOD/Wehi mice injected intraperitoneally with multiple doses of IFN-gamma and/or TNF-alpha...
April 1991: Journal of Autoimmunity
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