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"lymphocyte", "insulin resistance", "inflammation"

Chang Xia, Xiaoquan Rao, Jixin Zhong
Although a critical role of adaptive immune system has been confirmed in driving local and systemic inflammation in type 2 diabetes and promoting insulin resistance, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. Inflammatory regulation has been focused on innate immunity especially macrophage for a long time, while increasing evidence suggests T cells are crucial for the development of metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance since 2009. There was growing evidence supporting the critical implication of T cells in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
Wei Ying, Joshua Wollam, Jachelle M Ofrecio, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Dalila El Ouarrat, Yun Sok Lee, Da Young Oh, Pingping Li, Olivia Osborn, Jerrold M Olefsky
Tissue inflammation is a key component of obesity-induced insulin resistance, with a variety of immune cell types accumulating in adipose tissue. Here, we have demonstrated increased numbers of B2 lymphocytes in obese adipose tissue and have shown that high-fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) insulin resistance is mitigated in B cell-deficient (Bnull) mice. Adoptive transfer of adipose tissue B2 cells (ATB2) from wild-type HFD donor mice into HFD Bnull recipients completely restored the effect of HFD to induce insulin resistance...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Helena Cucak, Lise Høj Thomsen, Alexander Rosendahl
The metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated in gene deficient animals, e.g. db/db mice, to include a systemic inflammation leading to insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). To determine the importance of inflammation in obesity and diabetes, in a normal non-genetically modified species, an intervention study with neutralizing anti-IL-20 antibodies was conducted in the spontaneous T2D model Psammomys obesus. All IL-20 receptor chains were expressed on protein level in the Psammomys obesus. Neutralization of IL-20 did not modulate blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin levels or lymphocyte numbers after five weeks treatment although a trend to reduced weight gain rate was observed upon anti-IL-20 treatment...
February 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Yukinori Koyama, David A Brenner
Chronic liver inflammation leads to fibrosis and cirrhosis, which is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States. Hepatocyte steatosis is a component of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Hepatic steatosis may be benign or progress to hepatocyte injury and the initiation of inflammation, which activates immune cells. While Kupffer cells are the resident macrophage in the liver, inflammatory cells such as infiltrating macrophages, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and DCs all contribute to liver inflammation...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Kari Martyniak, Michal M Masternak
Adipose tissue represents complex endocrine organ containing several different cellular populations including adipocytes, pre-adipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. It is well establishing that these populations are not static but alter during obesity and aging. Changes in cellular populations alter inflammatory status and other common metabolic complications arise, therefore adipose tissue cellular composition helps dictate its endocrine and regulatory function. During excessive weight gain in obese individuals and as we age there is shift towards increase populations of inflammatory macrophages with a decrease of regulatory T cell...
December 9, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
February 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Xiaowen Liu, Nikolaos Perakakis, Huizhi Gong, John P Chamberland, Mary T Brinkoetter, Ole-Petter R Hamnvik, Christos S Mantzoros
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance and diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipokine that regulates inflammatory responses. The aim of our study was to investigate whether any effects of adiponectin against obesity and insulin-resistance may depend on the adaptive immune system. METHODS: We treated high-fat-diet fed Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes with adiponectin over 7weeks and investigated alterations in their metabolic outcome and inflammatory state...
December 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Vivian A Paschoal, Mariane T Amano, Thiago Belchior, Juliana Magdalon, Patricia Chimin, Maynara L Andrade, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Érique Castro, Alex S Yamashita, José Cesar Rosa Neto, Niels O Câmara, William T Festuccia
Genetic- and diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance are associated with an increase in mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 activity in adipose tissue. We investigated herein the effects of pharmacological mTORC1 inhibition in the development of adipose tissue inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, as well as in the polarization, metabolism and function of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). For this, C57BL/6J mice fed with a standard chow diet or a HFD (60% of calories from fat) and treated with either vehicle (0...
February 2017: Immunobiology
Troy L Merry, Melanie Tran, Garron T Dodd, Salvatore P Mangiafico, Florian Wiede, Supreet Kaur, Catriona L McLean, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Tony Tiganis
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In obesity oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Our aim was to examine the precise contributions of hepatocyte-derived H2O2 to liver pathophysiology. METHODS: Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 1 is an antioxidant enzyme that is abundant in the liver and converts H2O2 to water. We generated Gpx1 (lox/lox) mice to conditionally delete Gpx1 in hepatocytes (Alb-Cre;Gpx1 (lox/lox)) and characterised mice fed chow, high-fat or choline-deficient amino-acid-defined (CDAA) diets...
September 15, 2016: Diabetologia
Yi-Hung Liao, Yu-Chi Sung, Chun-Chung Chou, Chung-Yu Chen
Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
Luciene Akimoto-Gunther, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Gisele Takahachi, Mary Mayumi T Irie, Sônia Miyamoto, Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Terezinha I Estivalet Svidzinsk
We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Ana L Gomes, Ana Teijeiro, Stefan Burén, Krishna S Tummala, Mahmut Yilmaz, Ari Waisman, Jean-Philippe Theurillat, Cristian Perna, Nabil Djouder
Obesity increases hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risks via unknown mediators. We report that hepatic unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor (URI) couples nutrient surpluses to inflammation and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a common cause of HCC. URI-induced DNA damage in hepatocytes triggers inflammation via T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes and interleukin 17A (IL-17A). This induces white adipose tissue neutrophil infiltration mediating insulin resistance (IR) and fatty acid release, stored in liver as triglycerides, causing NASH...
July 11, 2016: Cancer Cell
Song-Yang Zhang, Ying Lv, Heng Zhang, Song Gao, Ting Wang, Juan Feng, Yuhui Wang, George Liu, Ming-Jiang Xu, Xian Wang, Changtao Jiang
MHC class II (MHCII) antigen presentation in adipocytes was reported to trigger early adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the benefits of MHCII inhibition in adipocytes remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that human plasma polypeptide adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2) levels were negatively correlated with HOMA of insulin resistance in obese human. Adipose-specific human ADM2 transgenic (aADM2-tg) mice were generated. The aADM2-tg mice displayed improvements in high-fat diet-induced early adipose insulin resistance...
August 2016: Diabetes
Irene Andrés-Blasco, Ángela Vinué, Andrea Herrero-Cervera, Sergio Martínez-Hervás, Laura Nuñez, Laura Piqueras, Juan F Ascaso, Maria Jesús Sanz, Deborah Jane Burks, Herminia González-Navarro
Coexistence of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Genetic studies in diabetes have linked Hepatic Lipase (HL) to an enhanced risk of CVD while others indicate a role of HL in inflammatory cells. Thus, we explored the role of HL on atherosclerosis and inflammation in a mouse model of MetS/IR, (apoE-/-Irs2+/- mice) and in patients with MetS and IR. HL-deficiency in apoE-/-Irs2+/- mice reduced atheroma size, plaque vulnerability, leukocyte infiltration and macrophage proliferation...
August 1, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Lauren E Gyllenhammer, Jonathan Lam, Tanya L Alderete, Hooman Allayee, Omid Akbari, Namir Katkhouda, Michael I Goran
OBJECTIVE: T-lymphocytes are potential initiators and regulators of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, but there is limited human data on omental AT. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T cells, particularly Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, in human subcutaneous (subQ) and omental AT and type 2 diabetes risk. METHODS: SubQ and deep subQ (DsubQ) abdominal and omental AT biopsies were collected from 44 patients (body mass index, BMI ≥25) undergoing elective abdominal surgery...
June 2016: Obesity
Gökhan Okan, Adile Merve Baki, Eda Yorulmaz, Semra Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Pervin Vural
PURPOSE: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disease characterised by accentuated keratinocyte proliferation, hyperkeratinisation, leukocyte and T-lymphocyte chemotaxis, and neoangiogenesis. Chronic inflammation, imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and many angiogenic mediators has been implicated in the disease etiopathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether psoriasis is related to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and placental growth factor (PLGF) - mediators related to insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis...
2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
D Gozal, Z Qiao, I Almendros, J Zheng, A Khalyfa, B Shimpukade, T Ulven
BACKGROUND: Sleep fragmentation (SF), a frequent occurrence in multiple sleep and other diseases leads to increased food intake and insulin resistance via increased macrophage activation and inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT). Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) is reduced in pediatric sleep apnea patients and FFA4 agonists have been proposed in the treatment of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. METHODS: Male mice were subjected to SF exposures for 6 weeks, and treated during the last 2 weeks with either TUG891, a potent and selective FFA4 agonist, or vehicle (Veh)...
July 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Aysel Vehapoglu, Serdar Turkmen, Nilufer Goknar, Ömer Faruk Özer
OBJECTIVE: There are associations between some inflammatory and oxidative markers and obesity in adults, but whether prepubescent children of different weights also have such markers has not been studied. We investigated multiple inflammatory markers and levels of erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant enzymes in prepubescent children of different weights. METHODS: Children aged 2-11 years were divided into three groups: 80 were underweight, 90 were obese but otherwise healthy, and 80 were healthy age- and sex-matched children of normal-weight...
November 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Abdelilah Majdoubi, Osama A Kishta, Jacques Thibodeau
Type II diabetes regroups different physiological anomalies that ultimately lead to low-grade chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and loss of pancreatic β-cells. Obesity is one of the best examples of such a condition that can develop into Metabolic Syndrome, causing serious health problems of great socio-economic consequences. The pathological outcome of obesity has a genetic basis and depends on the delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory effectors of the immune system. The causal link between obesity and inflammation is well established...
June 2016: Cytokine
Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Miriam Ejarque, Carolina Serena, Xavier Duran, Marta Montori-Grau, Miguel Angel Rodríguez, Oscar Yanes, Catalina Núñez-Roa, Kelly Roche, Prasanth Puthanveetil, Lourdes Garrido-Sánchez, Enrique Saez, Francisco J Tinahones, Pablo M Garcia-Roves, Anna Ma Gómez-Foix, Alan R Saltiel, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
OBJECTIVE: Glycogen metabolism has emerged as a mediator in the control of energy homeostasis and studies in murine models reveal that adipose tissue might contain glycogen stores. Here we investigated the physio(patho)logical role of glycogen in human adipose tissue in the context of obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: We studied glucose metabolic flux of hypoxic human adipoctyes by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based metabolic approaches...
January 2016: Molecular Metabolism
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