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"lymphocyte", "insulin resistance", "inflammation"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738856/acute-changes-in-blood-lipid-profiles-and-metabolic-risk-factors-in-collegiate-elite-taekwondo-athletes-after-short-term-de-training-a-prospective-insight-for-athletic-health-management
#1
Yu-Chi Sung, Yi-Hung Liao, Chung-Yu Chen, Yu-Liang Chen, Chun-Chung Chou
BACKGROUND: This study used a short-term de-training model to mimic the physiological weight changes during the early retirement stage in Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. This study investigates whether the negative changes in body composition, blood lipid profiles, and metabolic biomarkers occur in elite collegiate TKD athletes when experiencing a two-months de-training period. METHODS: Fourteen collegiate Division Ι elite TKD athletes (age: 21.1 ± 0.2 years, BMI: 22...
July 24, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699612/relationship-between-immune-parameters-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children
#2
Jun-Qi Shi, Wen-Xia Shen, Xiang-Zhi Wang, Ke Huang, Chao-Chun Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between immune parameters and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Zhejiang Province, China on July to September 2015. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 117 obese children and 209 healthy non-obese children were studied as the obese and control groups. Depending on the severity of NAFLD, the obese group was divided into subgroups 1 (without NAFLD), 2 (with simple fatty liver) and 3 (with steatohepatitis)...
July 11, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679588/adipocyte-mtorc1-deficiency-promotes-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-via-oxidative-stress-and-de-novo-ceramide-synthesis
#3
Patricia Chimin, Maynara L Andrade, Thiago Belchior, Vivian A Paschoal, Juliana Magdalon, Alex S Yamashita, Erique Castro, Angela Castoldi, Adriano B Chaves-Filho, Marcos Y Yoshinaga, Sayuri Miyamoto, Niels O Camara, William T Festuccia
Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is increased in adipose tissue of obese, insulin resistant mice, but its role in the regulation of tissue inflammation is unknown. We investigated herein the effects of adipocyte mTORC1 deficiency on adipose tissue inflammation and glucose homeostasis. For this, mice with adipocyte raptor deletion and controls fed a chow or a high-fat diet were evaluated for body mass, adiposity, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation. Despite reducing adiposity, adipocyte mTORC1 deficiency promoted hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation (increased infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils and B lymphocytes, crown-like structure density, TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP1 expression, IL-1β protein content, lipid peroxidation and de novo ceramide synthesis)...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491871/the-imbalance-of-b-lymphocyte-subsets-in-subjects-with-different-glucose-tolerance-relationship-with-metabolic-parameter-and-disease-status
#4
Chao Deng, Yufei Xiang, Tingting Tan, Zhihui Ren, Chuqing Cao, Bingwen Liu, Gan Huang, Xiangbing Wang, Zhiguang Zhou
B lymphocytes are involved in inflammation and are related to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated the phenotype and frequency of B-lymphocyte subsets in subjects recently diagnosed with T2D (n = 60), impaired glucose regulation (IGR, n = 73), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 169) by flow cytometry. T2D subjects had an increased percentage of CD19(+)CD23(+) (B-2) cells and a decreased percentage of CD19(+)CD23(-) (B-1) cells attributing to CD19(+)CD23(-)CD5(-) (B-1b) cells, but not CD19(+)CD23(-)CD5(+) (B-1a) cells, compared to NGT and IGR subjects...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466852/temporal-and-tissue-specific-requirements-for-t-lymphocyte-il-6-signalling-in-obesity-associated-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#5
Elaine Xu, Mafalda M A Pereira, Ismene Karakasilioti, Sebastian Theurich, Mona Al-Maarri, Gunter Rappl, Ari Waisman, F Thomas Wunderlich, Jens C Brüning
Low-grade inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance through the activation of tissue-infiltrating immune cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a crucial regulator of T cells and is increased in obesity. Here we report that classical IL-6 signalling in T cells promotes inflammation and insulin resistance during the first 8 weeks on a high-fat diet (HFD), but becomes dispensable at later stages (after 16 weeks). Mice with T cell-specific deficiency of IL-6 receptor-α (IL-6Rα(T-KO)) exposed to a HFD display improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and inflammation in liver and EWAT after 8 weeks...
May 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251163/role-of-t-lymphocytes-in-type-2-diabetes-and-diabetes-associated-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Chang Xia, Xiaoquan Rao, Jixin Zhong
Although a critical role of adaptive immune system has been confirmed in driving local and systemic inflammation in type 2 diabetes and promoting insulin resistance, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. Inflammatory regulation has been focused on innate immunity especially macrophage for a long time, while increasing evidence suggests T cells are crucial for the development of metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance since 2009. There was growing evidence supporting the critical implication of T cells in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192375/adipose-tissue-b2-cells-promote-insulin-resistance-through-leukotriene-ltb4-ltb4r1-signaling
#7
Wei Ying, Joshua Wollam, Jachelle M Ofrecio, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Dalila El Ouarrat, Yun Sok Lee, Da Young Oh, Pingping Li, Olivia Osborn, Jerrold M Olefsky
Tissue inflammation is a key component of obesity-induced insulin resistance, with a variety of immune cell types accumulating in adipose tissue. Here, we have demonstrated increased numbers of B2 lymphocytes in obese adipose tissue and have shown that high-fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) insulin resistance is mitigated in B cell-deficient (Bnull) mice. Adoptive transfer of adipose tissue B2 cells (ATB2) from wild-type HFD donor mice into HFD Bnull recipients completely restored the effect of HFD to induce insulin resistance...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187313/il-20-contributes-to-low-grade-inflammation-and-weight-gain-in-the-psammomys-obesus
#8
Helena Cucak, Lise Høj Thomsen, Alexander Rosendahl
The metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated in gene deficient animals, e.g. db/db mice, to include a systemic inflammation leading to insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). To determine the importance of inflammation in obesity and diabetes, in a normal non-genetically modified species, an intervention study with neutralizing anti-IL-20 antibodies was conducted in the spontaneous T2D model Psammomys obesus. All IL-20 receptor chains were expressed on protein level in the Psammomys obesus. Neutralization of IL-20 did not modulate blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin levels or lymphocyte numbers after five weeks treatment although a trend to reduced weight gain rate was observed upon anti-IL-20 treatment...
April 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045404/liver-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#9
Yukinori Koyama, David A Brenner
Chronic liver inflammation leads to fibrosis and cirrhosis, which is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States. Hepatocyte steatosis is a component of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Hepatic steatosis may be benign or progress to hepatocyte injury and the initiation of inflammation, which activates immune cells. While Kupffer cells are the resident macrophage in the liver, inflammatory cells such as infiltrating macrophages, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and DCs all contribute to liver inflammation...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939445/changes-in-adipose-tissue-cellular-composition-during-obesity-and-aging-as-a-cause-of-metabolic-dysregulation
#10
Kari Martyniak, Michal M Masternak
Adipose tissue represents complex endocrine organ containing several different cellular populations including adipocytes, pre-adipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. It is well establishing that these populations are not static but alter during obesity and aging. Changes in cellular populations alter inflammatory status and other common metabolic complications arise, therefore adipose tissue cellular composition helps dictate its endocrine and regulatory function. During excessive weight gain in obese individuals and as we age there is shift towards increase populations of inflammatory macrophages with a decrease of regulatory T cell...
August 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
February 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832860/adiponectin-administration-prevents-weight-gain-and-glycemic-profile-changes-in-diet-induced-obese-immune-deficient-rag1-mice-lacking-mature-lymphocytes
#12
Xiaowen Liu, Nikolaos Perakakis, Huizhi Gong, John P Chamberland, Mary T Brinkoetter, Ole-Petter R Hamnvik, Christos S Mantzoros
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance and diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipokine that regulates inflammatory responses. The aim of our study was to investigate whether any effects of adiponectin against obesity and insulin-resistance may depend on the adaptive immune system. METHODS: We treated high-fat-diet fed Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes with adiponectin over 7weeks and investigated alterations in their metabolic outcome and inflammatory state...
December 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692982/mtorc1-inhibition-with-rapamycin-exacerbates-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-obese-mice-and-dissociates-macrophage-phenotype-from-function
#13
Vivian A Paschoal, Mariane T Amano, Thiago Belchior, Juliana Magdalon, Patricia Chimin, Maynara L Andrade, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Érique Castro, Alex S Yamashita, José Cesar Rosa Neto, Niels O Câmara, William T Festuccia
Genetic- and diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance are associated with an increase in mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 activity in adipose tissue. We investigated herein the effects of pharmacological mTORC1 inhibition in the development of adipose tissue inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, as well as in the polarization, metabolism and function of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). For this, C57BL/6J mice fed with a standard chow diet or a HFD (60% of calories from fat) and treated with either vehicle (0...
February 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628106/hepatocyte-glutathione-peroxidase-1-deficiency-improves-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-and-decreases-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#14
Troy L Merry, Melanie Tran, Garron T Dodd, Salvatore P Mangiafico, Florian Wiede, Supreet Kaur, Catriona L McLean, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Tony Tiganis
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In obesity oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Our aim was to examine the precise contributions of hepatocyte-derived H2O2 to liver pathophysiology. METHODS: Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 1 is an antioxidant enzyme that is abundant in the liver and converts H2O2 to water. We generated Gpx1 (lox/lox) mice to conditionally delete Gpx1 in hepatocytes (Alb-Cre;Gpx1 (lox/lox)) and characterised mice fed chow, high-fat or choline-deficient amino-acid-defined (CDAA) diets...
September 15, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463519/eight-week-training-cessation-suppresses-physiological-stress-but-rapidly-impairs-health-metabolic-profiles-and-aerobic-capacity-in-elite-taekwondo-athletes
#15
Yi-Hung Liao, Yu-Chi Sung, Chun-Chung Chou, Chung-Yu Chen
Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415762/highlights-regarding-host-predisposing-factors-to-recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-chronic-stress-and-reduced-antioxidant-capacity
#16
Luciene Akimoto-Gunther, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Gisele Takahachi, Mary Mayumi T Irie, Sônia Miyamoto, Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Terezinha I Estivalet Svidzinsk
We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411590/metabolic-inflammation-associated-il-17a-causes-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Ana L Gomes, Ana Teijeiro, Stefan Burén, Krishna S Tummala, Mahmut Yilmaz, Ari Waisman, Jean-Philippe Theurillat, Cristian Perna, Nabil Djouder
Obesity increases hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risks via unknown mediators. We report that hepatic unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor (URI) couples nutrient surpluses to inflammation and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a common cause of HCC. URI-induced DNA damage in hepatocytes triggers inflammation via T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes and interleukin 17A (IL-17A). This induces white adipose tissue neutrophil infiltration mediating insulin resistance (IR) and fatty acid release, stored in liver as triglycerides, causing NASH...
July 11, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207558/adrenomedullin-2-improves-early-obesity-induced-adipose-insulin-resistance-by-inhibiting-the-class-ii-mhc-in-adipocytes
#18
Song-Yang Zhang, Ying Lv, Heng Zhang, Song Gao, Ting Wang, Juan Feng, Yuhui Wang, George Liu, Ming-Jiang Xu, Xian Wang, Changtao Jiang
MHC class II (MHCII) antigen presentation in adipocytes was reported to trigger early adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the benefits of MHCII inhibition in adipocytes remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that human plasma polypeptide adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2) levels were negatively correlated with HOMA of insulin resistance in obese human. Adipose-specific human ADM2 transgenic (aADM2-tg) mice were generated. The aADM2-tg mice displayed improvements in high-fat diet-induced early adipose insulin resistance...
August 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172975/hepatic-lipase-inactivation-decreases-atherosclerosis-in-insulin-resistance-by-reducing-light-lymphotoxin-%C3%AE-receptor-pathway
#19
Irene Andrés-Blasco, Ángela Vinué, Andrea Herrero-Cervera, Sergio Martínez-Hervás, Laura Nuñez, Laura Piqueras, Juan F Ascaso, Maria Jesús Sanz, Deborah Jane Burks, Herminia González-Navarro
Coexistence of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Genetic studies in diabetes have linked Hepatic Lipase (HL) to an enhanced risk of CVD while others indicate a role of HL in inflammatory cells. Thus, we explored the role of HL on atherosclerosis and inflammation in a mouse model of MetS/IR, (apoE-/-Irs2+/- mice) and in patients with MetS and IR. HL-deficiency in apoE-/-Irs2+/- mice reduced atheroma size, plaque vulnerability, leukocyte infiltration and macrophage proliferation...
August 1, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133873/lower-omental-t-regulatory-cell-count-is-associated-with-higher-fasting-glucose-and-lower-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-adults-with-obesity
#20
Lauren E Gyllenhammer, Jonathan Lam, Tanya L Alderete, Hooman Allayee, Omid Akbari, Namir Katkhouda, Michael I Goran
OBJECTIVE: T-lymphocytes are potential initiators and regulators of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, but there is limited human data on omental AT. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T cells, particularly Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, in human subcutaneous (subQ) and omental AT and type 2 diabetes risk. METHODS: SubQ and deep subQ (DsubQ) abdominal and omental AT biopsies were collected from 44 patients (body mass index, BMI ≥25) undergoing elective abdominal surgery...
June 2016: Obesity
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