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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915460/zinc-supplementation-for-the-prevention-of-pneumonia-in-children-aged-2-months-to-59-months
#1
REVIEW
Zohra S Lassi, Anoosh Moin, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than five years of age. Most deaths occur during infancy and in low-income countries. Daily zinc supplements have been reported to prevent acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and reduce child mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in the prevention of pneumonia in children aged two to 59 months...
December 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915395/effect-of-potassium-citrate-supplement-on-stone-recurrence-before-or-after-lithotripsy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Maurício Carvalho, Bruna Olandoski Erbano, Eduardo Yukio Kuwaki, Halyson Pinheiro Pontes, Jonathan Wei Ting Wen Liu, Luis Henrique Boros, Marcelo Oliveira Asinelli, Cristina Pellegrino Baena
This meta-analysis summarizes the available evidence on the effectiveness of citrate supplement for preventing the recurrence of nephrolithiasis in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Electronic searches were conducted using Medline-PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, BVS (Scielo, Lilacs), and Google Scholar literature databases. The authors worked in pairs to select studies that met the following criteria: randomized controlled trials that were conducted in adults and assessed the effect of potassium citrate supplement before or after SWL therapy for urolithiasis...
December 3, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915321/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-preparations-in-the-treatment-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-balancing-risks-and-benefits
#3
Deepak Chawla, Brian A Darlow
NEED AND PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The standard of management of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is laser ablation of the peripheral retina. Intra-vitreal injection of anti- vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies has emerged as an alternative modality of treatment of ROP. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on benefits and risks of using anti-VEGF antibodies for management of ROP. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials were searched for studies evaluating role of anti-VEGF agents in ROP...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915319/retinopathy-of-prematurity-clinical-features-classification-natural-history-management-and-outcome
#4
Parag K Shah, Vishma Prabhu, Ratnesh Ranjan, Venkatapathy Narendran, Narendran Kalpana
CONTEXT: Retinopathy of prematurity is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. Proper understanding of the classification and treatment methods is a must in tackling this disease. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Literature search with PubMed was conducted covering the period 1940-2015 with regards to retinopathy of prematurity, retrolental fibroplasia, its natural history, classification and treatment. RESULTS: The clinical features, screening and staging of retinopathy of prematurity according to International classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP) has been included with illustrations...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915317/initiating-retinopathy-of-prematurity-screening-before-discharge-from-the-neonatal-care-unit-effect-on-enrolment-in-rural-india
#5
Anand Vinekar, Chaitra Jayadev, Shwetha Mangalesh, Mathew Kurian, Mangat Dogra, Noel Bauer, Bhujang Shetty
OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefits of initiating Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) screening at first contact with the admitted infant prior to hospital discharge ('early screening') with screening performed between 21 and 28 days after birth ('conventional screening') in rural India. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Two Level II neonatal intensive care units (NICU), from two district headquarters in Karnataka state. PARTICIPANTS: Participants: 329 infants admitted in the two NICUs...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915308/self-directed-learning-readiness-of-asian-students-students-perspective-on-a-hybrid-problem-based-learning-curriculum
#6
Lukas D Leatemia, Astrid P Susilo, Henk van Berkel
Objectives: To identify the student's readiness to perform self-directed learning and the underlying factors influencing it on the hybrid problem based learning curriculum. Methods: A combination of quantitative and qualitative studies was conducted in five medical schools in Indonesia. In the quantitative study, the Self Directed Learning Readiness Scale was distributed to all students in all batches, who had experience with the hybrid problem based curriculum...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915306/a-consort-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#7
Brian L Jones, Malcolm D Richardson, Patricia M Ingram, Samir G Agrawal
There is no assessment of the reporting quality of antifungal randomized, controlled trials (RCT), upon which guidelines for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematological malignancy are based. Trial reports were identified through Trip, Cochrane, Medline, and Embase database searches. Report quality was assessed using the 25-item CONSORT checklist and a rating scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). The primary endpoint was quality as assessed by mean group-scores among papers published at the time of the most recent IA treatment guidelines...
December 3, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915271/changes-in-renal-gene-expression-associated-with-induced-ochratoxicosis-in-chickens-activation-and-deactivation-of-transcripts-after-varying-durations-of-exposure
#8
Cynthia P Zeferino, Kevin D Wells, Ana Silvia A M T Moura, George E Rottinghaus, David R Ledoux
Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) can lead to changes in global gene expression. This study investigated the individual expression of genes turned on and off in renal cells of chicks after different durations of exposure to dietary OTA. One hundred and eighty day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (3 levels of OTA: 0, 1 and 2 mg OTA/kg diet and 3 time periods: 7, 14 and 21 d). Birds were allocated to 36 pens (4 replicate pens of 5 birds each per treatment)...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915270/chemoprevention-of-spontaneous-ovarian-cancer-in-the-domestic-hen
#9
E H Mocka, R A Stern, O J Fletcher, K E Anderson, J N Petitte, P E Mozdziak
The hen is an attractive animal model for in vivo testing of agents that thwart ovarian carcinogenesis because ovarian cancer in the domestic hen features clinical and molecular alterations that are similar to ovarian cancer in humans, including a high incidence of p53 mutations. The objective of the study was to test the potential ovarian cancer chemopreventive effect of the p53 stabilizing compound CP-31398 on hens that spontaneously present the ovarian cancer phenotype. Beginning at 79 wk of age, 576 egg-laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were randomized to diets containing different amounts of CP-31398 for 94 wk, 5 d, comprising a control group (C) (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 0 ppm (mg/kg) of CP-31398; a low-dose treatment (LDT) group (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 100 ppm of CP-31398; a moderate-dose treatment (MDT) group (n = 144) which was fed a diet containing 200 ppm of CP-31398; and a high-dose treatment (HDT) group (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 300 ppm of CP-31398...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915269/effect-of-ph-on-the-interaction-of-volatile-compounds-with-the-myofibrillar-proteins-of-duck-meat
#10
Q L Yang, X W Lou, Y Wang, D D Pan, Y Y Sun, J X Cao
In order to clarify the influence of curing agents on the flavor of duck, the effect of pH on the surface hydrophobicity, secondary structures, and adsorption capacity of myofibrillar proteins to alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters was assessed using Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, and other methodologies. The hydrophobicity decreased as pH increased from 5.0 to 8.0; β-turn turned into α-helix and random coil as pH increased from 5.0 to 7.0, while α-helix and random coil turned into β-sheet and β-turn as pH increased from 7...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915268/equations-of-prediction-for-abdominal-fat-in-brown-egg-laying-hens-fed-different-diets
#11
C Souza, J J B Jaimes, C E Gewehr
The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915261/evaluation-of-a-community-based-intervention-to-improve-routine-childhood-vaccination-uptake-among-migrants-in-urban-slums-of-ludhiana-india
#12
Paramita Sengupta, Anoop Ivan Benjamin, Puja R Myles, Bontha V Babu
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effectiveness of community-based interventions in improving vaccination uptake in migrant populations is limited. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention to improve access to and uptake of childhood vaccinations among urban slum-dwelling migrant communities in Ludhiana, India. METHODS: A mixed-methods evaluation was conducted involving a post-intervention comparison of vaccination uptake in six randomly selected intervention and control slum communities...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915238/pontine-changes-in-metabolites-and-axonal-fibres-of-rats-following-four-week-alcohol-exposure-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-at-7-0-t
#13
Jianming Luo, Zhiwei Shen, Guang Chen, Dian Wang, Xiaojun Yu
AIMS: We characterized the metabolite content and axonal fibre changes in the rat pontine, in vivo, using (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner following chronic alcohol administration to explore new indicators for the early diagnosis and treatment of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the EtOH and control groups (water group)...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915232/quantitative-profiling-of-selective-sox-pou-pairing-on-hundreds-of-sequences-in-parallel-by-coop-seq
#14
Yiming K Chang, Yogesh Srivastava, Caizhen Hu, Adam Joyce, Xiaoxiao Yang, Zheng Zuo, James J Havranek, Gary D Stormo, Ralf Jauch
Cooperative binding of transcription factors is known to be important in the regulation of gene expression programs conferring cellular identities. However, current methods to measure cooperativity parameters have been laborious and therefore limited to studying only a few sequence variants at a time. We developed Coop-seq (cooperativity by sequencing) that is capable of efficiently and accurately determining the cooperativity parameters for hundreds of different DNA sequences in a single experiment. We apply Coop-seq to 12 dimer pairs from the Sox and POU families of transcription factors using 324 unique sequences with changed half-site orientation, altered spacing and discrete randomization within the binding elements...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-towards-self-organized-criticality
#15
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915207/fixed-distance-walk-tests-at-comfortable-and-fast-speed-potential-tools-for-the-functional-assessment-of-coronary-patients
#16
Marie-Doriane Morard, Delphine Besson, Davy Laroche, Alexandre Naaïm, Vincent Gremeaux, Jean-Marie Casillas
OBJECTIVES: There is ambiguity concerning the walk tests available for functional assessment of coronary patients, particularly for the walking speed. This study explores the psychometric properties of two walking tests, based on fixed-distance tests, at comfortable and fast velocity, in stabilized patients at the end of a cardiac rehabilitation program. METHODS: At a three-day interval 58 coronary patients (mean age of 64.85±6.03 years, 50 men) performed three walk tests, the first two at a comfortable speed in a random order (6-minute walk test - 6MWT - and 400-metre comfortable walk test - 400mCWT) and the third at a brisk speed (200-metre fast walk test - 200mFWT)...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915188/combined-cluster-and-discriminant-analysis-an-efficient-chemometric-approach-in-diesel-fuel-characterization
#17
Márton Novák, Dóra Palya, Zsolt Bodai, Zoltán Nyiri, Norbert Magyar, József Kovács, Zsuzsanna Eke
Combined cluster and discriminant analysis (CCDA) as a chemometric tool in compound specific isotope analysis of diesel fuels was studied. The stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) of n-alkanes in diesel fuel can be used to characterize or differentiate diesels originating from different sources. We investigated 25 diesel fuel samples representing 20 different brands. The samples were collected from 25 different service stations in 11 European countries over a 2 year period. The n-alkane fraction of diesel fuels was separated using solid-state urea clathrate formation combined with silica gel fractionation...
November 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915176/mining-identification-and-function-analysis-of-micrornas-and-target-genes-in-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l
#18
Tingting Zhang, Shuhao Hu, Caixia Yan, Chunjuan Li, Xiaobo Zhao, Shubo Wan, Shihua Shan
In the present investigation, a total of 60 conserved peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) microRNA (miRNA) sequences, belonging to 16 families, were identified using bioinformatics methods. There were 392 target gene sequences, identified from 58 miRNAs with Target-align software and BLASTx analyses. Gene Ontology (GO) functional analysis suggested that these target genes were involved in mediating peanut growth and development, signal transduction and stress resistance. There were 55 miRNA sequences, verified employing a poly (A) tailing test, with a success rate of up to 91...
November 24, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915159/public-speaking-avoidance-as-a-treatment-moderator-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#19
Bita Mesri, Andrea N Niles, Andre Pittig, Richard T LeBeau, Ethan Haik, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have both garnered empirical support for the effective treatment of social anxiety disorder. However, not every patient benefits equally from either treatment. Identifying moderators of treatment outcome can help to better understand which treatment is best suited for a particular patient. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals who met criteria for social anxiety disorder were assessed as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing 12 weeks of CBT and ACT...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915077/how-do-government-regulations-influence-the-ability-to-practice-chinese-herbal-medicine-in-western-countries
#20
Tom Fleischer, Yi-Chang Su, Sunny Jui-Shan Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The regulation policies of substances used in Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), have a direct influence on the ability of health providers to practice in the clinic. AIM OF THE STUDY: We set out to assess the truth behind the assumption that practice of CHM in the west is constrained by the regulations imposed by authorities in western countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the first part of our study we surveyed and compiled lists of banned and restricted Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) from six countries: USA, UK, Germany, Israel, Canada and Australia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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