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Ya-Ming Xu, E M Kithsiri Wijeratne, Alan D Brooks, Poonam Tewary, Li-Jiang Xuan, Wen-Qiong Wang, Thomas J Sayers, A A Leslie Gunatilaka
Eleven withanolides including six previously undescribed compounds, 16β-hydroxyixocarpanolide, 24,25-dihydroexodeconolide C, 16,17-dehydro-24-epi-dioscorolide A, 17-epi-philadelphicalactone A, 16-deoxyphiladelphicalactone C, and 4-deoxyixocarpalactone A were isolated from aeroponically grown Physalis philadelphica. Structures of these withanolides were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic (HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR, ECD) data and comparison with published data for related withanolides. Cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated against a panel of five human tumor cell lines (LNCaP, ACHN, UO-31, M14 and SK-MEL-28), and normal (HFF) cells...
May 15, 2018: Phytochemistry
Udit Sharma, Vinod Kataria, N S Shekhawat
Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst., a drought resistant halophyte tree, is an agroforestry species which can be used for reclamation of waterlogged saline and marginal lands. Due to very low seed viability and unsuitable conditions for seed germination, the tree is becoming rare in Indian Thar desert. Present study concerns the evaluation of aeroponics technique for vegetative propagation of T. aphylla . Effect of various exogenous auxins (indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, naphthalene acetic acid) at different concentrations (0...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Anna Zdyb, Marco G Salgado, Kirill N Demchenko, Wolfram G Brenner, Małgorzata Płaszczyca, Michael Stumpe, Cornelia Herrfurth, Ivo Feussner, Katharina Pawlowski
Jasmonic acid (JA), its derivatives and its precursor cis-12-oxo phytodienoic acid (OPDA) form a group of phytohormones, the jasmonates, representing signal molecules involved in plant stress responses, in the defense against pathogens as well as in development. Elevated levels of JA have been shown to play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza and in the induction of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In this study, the gene families of two committed enzymes of the JA biosynthetic pathway, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and allene oxide cyclase (AOC), were characterized in the determinate nodule-forming model legume Lotus japonicus JA levels were to be analysed in the course of nodulation...
2018: PloS One
Ibraimo Teleha Chabite, Zhang Lei, Yao Ningning, Fu Qiang, Yu Haiye
In aeroponic cultivation the nutrient solution is an essential component to achieve good production results. And nitrogen is the main constituent element of the nutrient solution and essential element in plant nutrition. Therefore, the management and monitoring nutrient solution and existing nitrogen is fundamental. The experiment shows that three modes of replacing the nutrient solution and three initial pH values and their interaction significantly influenced the fresh weight and dry matter of lettuce. The highest values of fresh and dry weight were recorded in the fifth treatment where there is an interaction between pH 6 and the mode of replacing half of the nutrient solution...
2017: Journal of Food Science and Engineering
Ya-Ming Xu, E M Kithsiri Wijeratne, Ashley L Babyak, Hanna R Marks, Alan D Brooks, Poonam Tewary, Li-Jiang Xuan, Wen-Qiong Wang, Thomas J Sayers, A A Leslie Gunatilaka
Investigation of aeroponically grown Physalis peruviana resulted in the isolation of 11 new withanolides, including perulactones I-L (1-4), 17-deoxy-23β-hydroxywithanolide E (5), 23β-hydroxywithanolide E (6), 4-deoxyphyperunolide A (7), 7β-hydroxywithanolide F (8), 7β-hydroxy-17-epi-withanolide K (9), 24,25-dihydro-23β,28-dihydroxywithanolide G (10), and 24,25-dihydrowithanolide E (11), together with 14 known withanolides (12-25). The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by the analysis of their spectroscopic data, and 12-25 were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Chris Blok, Brian E Jackson, Xianfeng Guo, Pieter H B de Visser, Leo F M Marcelis
Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jie He, Lin Qin, Emma L C Chong, Tsui-Wei Choong, Sing Kong Lee
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is a succulent, facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. Plant growth and photosynthetic characteristics were studied when M. crystallinum plants were grown indoor under light emitting diodes (LED)-lighting with adequate water supply. Plants were cultured aeroponically for a 16-h photoperiod at an equal photosynthetic photon flux density of 350 μmol m(-2) s(-1) under different red:blue LED ratios: (1) 100:0 (0B); (2) 90:10 (10B); (3) 80:20 (20B); (4) 70:30 (30B); (5) 50:50 (50B); and (6)100:0 (100B)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tsui-Wei Choong, Jie He, Sing K Lee, Ian C Dodd
Temperate crops cannot grow well in the tropics without rootzone cooling. As cooling increased production costs, this experiment aimed to study the growth of various Lactuca genotypes and propose possible ways of reducing these costs, without compromising productivity. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) of lettuce and its parental lines (L. serriola and L. sativa "Salinas") were grown aeroponically in a tropical greenhouse under 24°C cool (C) or warm fluctuating 30-36°C ambient (A) rootzone temperature (RZT)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Sandhya Srikanth, Tsui Wei Choong, An Yan, Jie He, Zhong Chen
Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ya-ming Xu, Daniel P Bunting, Manping X Liu, Hema A Bandaranayake, A A Leslie Gunatilaka
When cultivated under aeroponic growth conditions, Physalis crassifolia produced 11 new withanolides (1-11) and seven known withanolides (12-18) including those obtained from the wild-crafted plant. The structures of the new withanolides were elucidated by the application of spectroscopic techniques, and the known withanolides were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. Withanolides 1-11 and 16 were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity using five tumor cell lines...
April 22, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Xu Zhao, Yan-zhi Liu, Tian-lai Li, Zhou-ping Sun
The root system of tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Liaoyuanduoli) was treated with CO2 enrichment by aeroponical culture for 60 days. The experiment showed that the chlorophyll content and leaf area of tomato plant were significantly lower under 2500 µL . L-1 or above CO2 condition of root zones than under 370 µL . L-1 CO2 condition. At the same time the Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+ -ATPase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) of plant leaf were significantly reduced while the PEPC of root increased significantly, which resulted in the significant decreases of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration of plant leaves...
July 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Cheng Peng, Yi Wang, Lijuan Sun, Chen Xu, Lijuan Zhang, Jiyan Shi
Root border cells (RBCs) serve plants in their initial line of defense against stress from the presence of heavy metals in the soil. In this research, light microscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combined with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) with a nanoscale spatial resolution were used to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) upon the RBCs, as well as its distribution and speciation within the RBCs of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under aeroponic culture...
March 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Zhi Li, Daniel Phillip, Benjamin Neuhäuser, Waltraud X Schulze, Uwe Ludewig
Plants increase their root surface with root hairs to improve the acquisition of nutrients from the soil. The unicellular character of root hairs and their position at the root surface make them an attractive system to investigate adaptive processes of rhizodermal cells that are in direct contact with the soil solution. In young maize seedlings, roots are densely covered with root hairs, although nutrient reserves in the seed are sufficient to support seedling growth rates for a few days. We used a label-free quantitative proteomics approach to study protein abundance adjustments in 4 day old root hairs grown in aeroponic culture in the presence and absence of several macro- and micronutrients...
August 7, 2015: Journal of Proteome Research
Dietmar Schwarz, Andrew J Thompson, Hans-Peter Kläring
Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape, and color. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar "Heinz 1706" (≈900 Mb), and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb) were sequenced...
2014: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pooja Mehandru, N S Shekhawat, Manoj K Rai, Vinod Kataria, H S Gehlot
The present study explores the potential of aeroponic system for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis (Paimpa) a rare, threatened and endemic edible species, Leptadenia reticulata (Jeewanti), a threatened liana used as promoter of health and Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merill, a valuable medicinal climber. Experiments were conducted to asses the effect of exogenous auxin (naphthalene acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-acetic acid) and auxin concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5gl(-1)) on various root morphological traits of cuttings in the aeroponic chamber...
July 2014: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
E M Kithsiri Wijeratne, Patricia Espinosa-Artiles, Raphael Gruener, A A Leslie Gunatilaka
Four new nor-spiro-azaphilones, thielavialides A-D (1- 4), a new bis-spiro-azaphilone, thielavialide E (5), together with pestafolide A (6), were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain, Thielavia sp. PA0001, occurring in the healthy leaf tissue of aeroponically grown Physalis alkekengi. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were established on the basis of their MS and NMR data. Possible biosynthetic pathways to thielavialides A-E (1- 5) from pestafolide A (6), some involving a Favorskii-like rearrangement, are proposed...
June 27, 2014: Journal of Natural Products
Suman Chandra, Shabana Khan, Bharathi Avula, Hemant Lata, Min Hye Yang, Mahmoud A Elsohly, Ikhlas A Khan
A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil...
2014: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
A G Jarstfer, P Farmer-Koppenol, D M Sylvia
Applications of high levels of MgSO4 resulted in reduced root colonization and sporulation by Glomus sp. (INVAM isolate FL329) with sweet potato and onion in aeroponic and sand culture, respectively. Onion shoot-Mg concentrations were elevated when a nutrient solution containing 2.6 or 11.7 mM MgSO4 was applied. Magnesium application depressed tissue-Ca levels. With lower Ca in the tissue, colonization was reduced from > 30% of root length to < 10%, and sporulation from > 1200 to ca. 200 spores per plant, 10 weeks after transplantation and the start of nutrient application...
February 1998: Mycorrhiza
Amelie C M Gaudin, Sarah A McClymont, Sameh S M Soliman, Manish N Raizada
BACKGROUND: There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture...
2014: BMC Genetics
Yi-Ling Liu, Zhou-Ping Sun, Tian-Lai Li, Feng-Ying Gu, Yu He
By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the effects of elevated rhizosphere CO2 concentration on the leaf photosynthesis and the fruit yield and quality of muskmelon during its anthesis-fruiting period. In the fruit development period of muskmelon, as compared with those in the control (350 microL CO2 x L (-1)), the leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) in treatments 2500 and 5000 microL CO2 x L(-1) decreased to some extents, but the stomatal limitation value (Ls) increased significantly, and the variation amplitudes were larger in treatment 5000 microL CO2 x L(-1) than in treatment 2500 microL CO2 x L(-1)...
October 2013: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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