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Tsui-Wei Choong, Jie He, Sing K Lee, Ian C Dodd
Temperate crops cannot grow well in the tropics without rootzone cooling. As cooling increased production costs, this experiment aimed to study the growth of various Lactuca genotypes and propose possible ways of reducing these costs, without compromising productivity. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) of lettuce and its parental lines (L. serriola and L. sativa "Salinas") were grown aeroponically in a tropical greenhouse under 24°C cool (C) or warm fluctuating 30-36°C ambient (A) rootzone temperature (RZT)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Sandhya Srikanth, Tsui Wei Choong, An Yan, Jie He, Zhong Chen
Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ya-ming Xu, Daniel P Bunting, Manping X Liu, Hema A Bandaranayake, A A Leslie Gunatilaka
When cultivated under aeroponic growth conditions, Physalis crassifolia produced 11 new withanolides (1-11) and seven known withanolides (12-18) including those obtained from the wild-crafted plant. The structures of the new withanolides were elucidated by the application of spectroscopic techniques, and the known withanolides were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported. Withanolides 1-11 and 16 were evaluated for their potential anticancer activity using five tumor cell lines...
April 22, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Xu Zhao, Yan-zhi Liu, Tian-lai Li, Zhou-ping Sun
The root system of tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Liaoyuanduoli) was treated with CO2 enrichment by aeroponical culture for 60 days. The experiment showed that the chlorophyll content and leaf area of tomato plant were significantly lower under 2500 µL . L-1 or above CO2 condition of root zones than under 370 µL . L-1 CO2 condition. At the same time the Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+ -ATPase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) of plant leaf were significantly reduced while the PEPC of root increased significantly, which resulted in the significant decreases of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration of plant leaves...
July 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Cheng Peng, Yi Wang, Lijuan Sun, Chen Xu, Lijuan Zhang, Jiyan Shi
Root border cells (RBCs) serve plants in their initial line of defense against stress from the presence of heavy metals in the soil. In this research, light microscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combined with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) with a nanoscale spatial resolution were used to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) upon the RBCs, as well as its distribution and speciation within the RBCs of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under aeroponic culture...
March 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Zhi Li, Daniel Phillip, Benjamin Neuhäuser, Waltraud X Schulze, Uwe Ludewig
Plants increase their root surface with root hairs to improve the acquisition of nutrients from the soil. The unicellular character of root hairs and their position at the root surface make them an attractive system to investigate adaptive processes of rhizodermal cells that are in direct contact with the soil solution. In young maize seedlings, roots are densely covered with root hairs, although nutrient reserves in the seed are sufficient to support seedling growth rates for a few days. We used a label-free quantitative proteomics approach to study protein abundance adjustments in 4 day old root hairs grown in aeroponic culture in the presence and absence of several macro- and micronutrients...
August 7, 2015: Journal of Proteome Research
Dietmar Schwarz, Andrew J Thompson, Hans-Peter Kläring
Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape, and color. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar "Heinz 1706" (≈900 Mb), and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb) were sequenced...
2014: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pooja Mehandru, N S Shekhawat, Manoj K Rai, Vinod Kataria, H S Gehlot
The present study explores the potential of aeroponic system for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis (Paimpa) a rare, threatened and endemic edible species, Leptadenia reticulata (Jeewanti), a threatened liana used as promoter of health and Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merill, a valuable medicinal climber. Experiments were conducted to asses the effect of exogenous auxin (naphthalene acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-acetic acid) and auxin concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5gl(-1)) on various root morphological traits of cuttings in the aeroponic chamber...
July 2014: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
E M Kithsiri Wijeratne, Patricia Espinosa-Artiles, Raphael Gruener, A A Leslie Gunatilaka
Four new nor-spiro-azaphilones, thielavialides A-D (1- 4), a new bis-spiro-azaphilone, thielavialide E (5), together with pestafolide A (6), were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain, Thielavia sp. PA0001, occurring in the healthy leaf tissue of aeroponically grown Physalis alkekengi. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were established on the basis of their MS and NMR data. Possible biosynthetic pathways to thielavialides A-E (1- 5) from pestafolide A (6), some involving a Favorskii-like rearrangement, are proposed...
June 27, 2014: Journal of Natural Products
Suman Chandra, Shabana Khan, Bharathi Avula, Hemant Lata, Min Hye Yang, Mahmoud A Elsohly, Ikhlas A Khan
A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil...
2014: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
A G Jarstfer, P Farmer-Koppenol, D M Sylvia
Applications of high levels of MgSO4 resulted in reduced root colonization and sporulation by Glomus sp. (INVAM isolate FL329) with sweet potato and onion in aeroponic and sand culture, respectively. Onion shoot-Mg concentrations were elevated when a nutrient solution containing 2.6 or 11.7 mM MgSO4 was applied. Magnesium application depressed tissue-Ca levels. With lower Ca in the tissue, colonization was reduced from > 30% of root length to < 10%, and sporulation from > 1200 to ca. 200 spores per plant, 10 weeks after transplantation and the start of nutrient application...
February 1998: Mycorrhiza
Amelie C M Gaudin, Sarah A McClymont, Sameh S M Soliman, Manish N Raizada
BACKGROUND: There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture...
2014: BMC Genetics
Yi-Ling Liu, Zhou-Ping Sun, Tian-Lai Li, Feng-Ying Gu, Yu He
By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the effects of elevated rhizosphere CO2 concentration on the leaf photosynthesis and the fruit yield and quality of muskmelon during its anthesis-fruiting period. In the fruit development period of muskmelon, as compared with those in the control (350 microL CO2 x L (-1)), the leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) in treatments 2500 and 5000 microL CO2 x L(-1) decreased to some extents, but the stomatal limitation value (Ls) increased significantly, and the variation amplitudes were larger in treatment 5000 microL CO2 x L(-1) than in treatment 2500 microL CO2 x L(-1)...
October 2013: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Zhenzhen Qiao, Marc Libault
Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because -omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i.e., uptake of water and various nutrients; primary site of infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes), the root hair cell is an attractive single cell model to study root cell response to various stresses and treatments...
2013: Frontiers in Plant Science
Miaozhen Cai, Ning Wang, Chenghua Xing, Fangmei Wang, Kun Wu, Xing Du
The root cap and root border cells (RBCs) of most plant species produced pectinaceous mucilage, which can bind metal cations. In order to evaluate the potential role of root mucilage on aluminum (Al) resistance, two soybean cultivars differing in Al resistance were aeroponic cultured, the effects of Al on root mucilage secretion, root growth, contents of mucilage-bound Al and root tip Al, and the capability of mucilage to bind Al were investigated. Increasing Al concentration and exposure time significantly enhanced mucilage excretion from both root caps and RBCs, decreased RBCs viability and relative root elongation except roots exposed to 400 μM Al for 48 h in Al-resistant cultivar...
December 2013: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Geum-Soog Kim, Seung-Eun Lee, Hyung-Jun Noh, Hyuck Kwon, Sung-Woo Lee, Seung-Yu Kim, Yong-Bum Kim
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural bioactive products such as Manda enzyme (T1), Yangmyeongwon (T2), effective microorganisms (T3), and Kelpak (T4) on the growth and ginsenoside contents of Panax ginseng cultured in an aeroponic system using a two-layer vertical type of nutrient bath under natural light conditions. The growth of ginseng plants showed specific characteristics according to the positions in which they were cultured due to the difference of light transmittance and temperature in the upper and lower layers during aeroponic culture in a two-layer vertical type of system...
October 2012: Journal of Ginseng Research
Martha M Vaughan, Qiang Wang, Francis X Webster, Dave Kiemle, Young J Hong, Dean J Tantillo, Robert M Coates, Austin T Wray, Whitnee Askew, Christopher O'Donnell, James G Tokuhisa, Dorothea Tholl
Secondary metabolites are major constituents of plant defense against herbivore attack. Relatively little is known about the cell type-specific formation and antiherbivore activities of secondary compounds in roots despite the substantial impact of root herbivory on plant performance and fitness. Here, we describe the constitutive formation of semivolatile diterpenes called rhizathalenes by the class I terpene synthase (TPS) 08 in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. The primary enzymatic product of TPS08, rhizathalene A, which is produced from the substrate all-trans geranylgeranyl diphosphate, represents a so far unidentified class of tricyclic diterpene carbon skeletons with an unusual tricyclic spiro-hydrindane structure...
March 2013: Plant Cell
Amram Eshel, José M Grünzweig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study is a first step in a multi-stage project aimed at determining allometric relationships among the tropical tree organs, and carbon fluxes between the various tree parts and their environment. Information on canopy-root interrelationships is needed to improve understanding of above- and below-ground processes and for modelling of the regional and global carbon cycle. Allometric relationships between the sizes of different plant parts will be determined. METHODS: Two tropical forest species were used in this study: Ceiba pentandra (kapok), a fast-growing tree native to South and Central America and to Western Africa, and Khaya anthotheca (African mahogany), a slower-growing tree native to Central and Eastern Africa...
July 2013: Annals of Botany
Gisele A M Torres, Stephanie Pflieger, Fabienne Corre-Menguy, Christelle Mazubert, Caroline Hartmann, Christine Lelandais-Brière
Drought is a major constraint for the production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). To identify molecular responses to water deficit, we performed a differential display RT-PCR (DDRT) analysis using roots of bean plants grown aeroponically and submitted to dehydration. This allowed us to visualise 1200 DDRT bands, 8.7% of which showed a clear regulation by dehydration, and to clone 42 cDNAs, called PvD1 to PvD42. Among them, 20 early-dehydration-responsive cDNAs were selected by reverse northern that were induced or repressed before detectable water status changes and induction of ABA-regulated genes...
September 2006: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Charles Hachez, Dmitry Veselov, Qing Ye, Hagen Reinhardt, Thorsten Knipfer, Wieland Fricke, François Chaumont
Although it is widely accepted that aquaporins are involved in the regulation of root water uptake, the role of specific isoforms in this process is poorly understood. The mRNA expression and protein level of specific plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analysed in Zea mays in relation to cell and root hydraulic conductivity. Plants were analysed during the day/night period, under different growth conditions (aeroponics/hydroponics) and in response to short-term osmotic stress applied through polyethylene glycol (PEG)...
January 2012: Plant, Cell & Environment
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