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Elisabete Maciel, Ana Lillebø, Pedro Domingues, Elisabete da Costa, Ricardo Calado, M Rosário M Domingues
Some halophytes are currently used as gourmet plant ingredients for human consumption. The polar lipidome of the succulent organs of Salicornia ramosissima (fresh branch tips) and Halimione portulacoides (leaves) were characterized in-depth, with more than two hundred lipid species being identified in both halophytes. The lipid species identified were distributed over five classes of phospholipids, three classes of glycolipids and one class of glycosphingolipids. Despite the existence of some species-specific differences between the polar lipidome, phospholipids and glycolipids show a high content of n-3 fatty acids in both S...
June 11, 2018: Phytochemistry
Masayuki Nakamura, Takashi Fujikawa, Daichi Nakamori, Hisashi Iwai
Colletotrichum sansevieriae is an ascomycete fungus causing anthracnose disease on plants in the genus Sansevieria . Here, we report the draft genome sequence of isolate Sa-1-2 of this fungus. The genome size is >51 Mb, and the assembly consists of 8647 contigs and contains 13,664 predicted protein-coding genes. Pathogenicity factors such as plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and effector proteins were also predicted. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship of isolates from different Colletotrichum spp...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Olga Rozentsvet, Viktor Nesterov, Elena Bogdanova, Аnatoly Kosobryukhov, Svetlana Subova, Galina Semenova
Structural and molecular parameters of photosynthetic apparatus in plants with different strategies for the accumulation of salts were investigated. CO2 gas exchange rate, content of pigments, mesostructure, chloroplast ultrastructure and the biochemical composition of the membrane structural components in leaves were measured. The objects of the study were euhalophytes (Salicornia perennans, Suaeda salsa, Halocnemum strobilaceum), crynohalophyte (Limonium gmelinii), glycohalophyte (Artemisia santonica). Euhalophytes S...
June 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Charles H Stirton, Abubakar Bello, A Muthama Muasya
Psoralea forbesiae C.H.Stirt., A.Bello & Muasya is a new species of Psoraleeae, Fabaceae. Psoralea forbesiae is endemic to the Swartberg Mountains and is a tall densely branched re-sprouting shrub up to 2.5 m, with bluish-green stems and with most parts covered in small crater-like glands, leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, linear-oblong, pale bluish-green, semi-conduplicate, somewhat succulent, glabrous, crowded at the end of bare branches on older stems or distributed along short branches on young shoots, petiolate...
2018: PhytoKeys
Pragati Choudhri, Muniya Rani, Rajender S Sangwan, Ravinder Kumar, Anil Kumar, Vinod Chhokar
BACKGROUND: Aloe vera is a perennial, succulent, drought-resistant plant that exhibits many pharmacological characteristics such as wound healing ability against skin burns, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-asthmatic and much more. Despite great medicinal worth, little genomic information is available on Aloe vera. This study is an initiative to explore the full-scale functional genomics of Aloe vera by generating whole transcriptome sequence database, using Illumina HiSeq technology and its progressive annotation specifically with respect to the metabolic specificity of the plant...
June 1, 2018: BMC Genomics
Riyadh Muhaidat, Athena D McKown, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Zakariya Bani Domi, Osama Otoum
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tetraena simplex is an independently evolved C4 species in the Zygophylloideae (Zygophyllaceae) and a characteristic forb of saline flats in hot and sandy desert habitats. During early ontogeny, the species had a morphological shift from planar cotyledons (dorsiventral symmetry) to terete, succulent leaves (radial symmetry). We tested whether this shift had a corresponding change in internal Kranz anatomy and tissue patterning. METHODS: For a comprehensive characterization of C4 photosynthesis across early ontogeny in T...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Wilfried Dimpfel, Richard Franklin, Nigel Gericke, Leonie Schombert
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sceletium tortuosum (Mesembryanthemaceae), a succulent plant indigenous to South Africa. is consumed in the form of teas, decoctions and tinctures and is sometimes smoked and used as snuff. In recent years, Sceletium has received a great deal of commercial interest for relieving stress in healthy people, and for treating a broad range of psychological, psychiatric and inflammatory conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The whole extract (Zembrin®) was tested ex vivo in the hippocampus slice preparation after one week of daily oral administration of 5 and 10 mg/kg...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jian-Qiang Zhang, Da-Lv Zhong, Wei-Jie Song, Ruo-Wei Zhu, Wei-Yue Sun
How geological events and climate oscillations in the Pleistocene glaciation shaped the geographic distribution of genetic variation of species on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and its adjacent areas has been extensively studied. However, little studies have investigated whether closely related species in the same genus with similar physiological and life history traits responded similarly to the glacial climatic oscillations. If this is not the case, we would expect that the population histories of studied species were not driven by extrinsic environmental changes alone...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marco A Bologna, Valentina Amore, Monica Pitzalis
The blister beetle (Coleoptera: Meloidae) fauna of Namibia is studied. The species are arranged within a catalogue containing information on their general distribution, including a list of localities and brief taxonomic remarks. Zoogeographic and ecological analyses were carried out and a photographic appendix, with images and maps of almost all Namibian species, is included. According to a chorological analysis, the Namibian blister beetle fauna appears to be zoogeographically distinct because of the dominance of western southern African elements...
January 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Anurag A Agrawal, Aliya Ali, M Daisy Johnson, Amy P Hastings, Dylan Burge, Marjorie G Weber
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pachypodium (Apocynaceae) is a genus of iconic stem-succulent and poisonous plants endemic to Madagascar and southern Africa. We tested hypotheses about the mode of action and macroevolution of toxicity in this group. We further hypothesized that while monarch butterflies are highly resistant to cardenolide toxins (a type of cardiac glycoside) from American Asclepias, they may be negatively affected by Pachypodium defenses, which evolved independently. METHODS: We grew 16 of 21 known Pachypodium spp...
April 2018: American Journal of Botany
Hao Wang, Wenbo Wang, Yi Song, Lei Cai, Zhendong Dai
Gekko geckos are capable to crawl on the steep even on upside-down surfaces. Such movement, especially at great altitude, puts them at high risks of incidentally dropping down and inevitable body or head impactions, though they may trigger air-righting reaction (ARR) to attenuate the landing shocks. However, the air-righting ability (ARA) in Gekko geckos is not fully developed. The implementation of ARR in some geckos is quite slow; and for those without tails, the ARR is even unobservable. Since ARA is compromised in Gekko geckos , there must be some other mechanisms responsible for protecting them from head injuries during falls...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
K L Patrick, S D Johnson, K J Duffy
Plant species that are effective colonisers of transient habitats are expected to have a capacity for uniparental reproduction and show flexibility in pollination systems. Such traits may enable populations to be established from a small number of founding individuals without these populations succumbing to reductions in fecundity arising from pollinator limitation. We tested these predictions for Aloe thraskii (Xanthorrhoeaceae), a succulent treelet that colonises shifting coastal dunes and has both bird and bee pollinators...
March 30, 2018: Plant Biology
Ao-Lei He, Shu-Qi Niu, Qi Zhao, Yong-Sheng Li, Jing-Yi Gou, Hui-Juan Gao, Sheng-Zhou Suo, Jin-Lin Zhang
Drought and soil salinity reduce agricultural output worldwide. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance plant growth and augment plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Haloxylon ammodendron , a C4 perennial succulent xerohalophyte shrub with excellent drought and salt tolerance, is naturally distributed in the desert area of northwest China. In our previous work, a bacterium strain numbered as M30-35 was isolated from the rhizosphere of H. ammodendron in Tengger desert, Gansu province, northwest China...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Joaquina María García-Martín, Juan Mosquera, Carlos Lado
A new plasmodiocarpic and sporocarpic species of myxomycete in the genus Physarum is described and illustrated. This new species appeared on decayed leaves and remains of succulent plants (Agave, Opuntia, Yucca) growing in arid zones. It differs from all other species in the genus in having polyhedral spores linked in chains like a string of beads, a unique feature within all known myxomycetes. Apart from detailed morphological data, partial sequences of both the small-subunit ribosomal RNA and elongation factor 1-alpha genes, generated from four isolates collected in two distant regions, i...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Guoyin Zheng, Fengfeng Mo, Chen Ling, Hao Peng, Wei Gu, Min Li, Zhe Chen
Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Zheng Zhang, Christopher Szota, Tim D Fletcher, Nicholas S G Williams, Joerg Werdin, Claire Farrell
Green roofs are increasingly being considered a promising engineered ecosystem for reducing stormwater runoff. Plants are a critical component of green roofs and it has been suggested that plants with high water use after rainfall, but which are also drought tolerant, can improve rainfall retention on green roofs. However, there is little evidence to show how plants with different water use strategies will affect green roof retention performance, either in monocultures or in mixed plantings. This study tested how monocultures and a mixture of herbaceous species (Dianella admixta, Lomandra longifolia and Stypandra glauca) affected rainfall retention on green roofs...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Long Zhao, Zongze Yang, Qiaobing Guo, Shun Mao, Shaoqiang Li, Fasheng Sun, Huan Wang, Chunwu Yang
Halophytes are remarkable plants that can tolerate extremely high-salinity conditions, and have different salinity tolerance mechanisms from those of glycophytic plants. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms of salinity tolerance of an extreme halophyte, Kochia sieversiana (Pall.) C. A. M, using RNA sequencing and physiological tests. The results showed that moderate salinity stimulated the growth and water uptake of K. sieversiana and, even under 480-mM salinity condition, K. sieversiana maintained an extremely high water content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zaida Zarely Ojeda-Pérez, Juan Francisco Jiménez-Bremont, Pablo Delgado-Sánchez
Opuntia plants grow naturally in areas where temperatures are extreme and highly variable in the day during the entire year. These plants survive through different adaptations to respond to adverse environmental conditions. Despite this capability, it is unknown how CAM photosynthetic activity and growth in Opuntia plantlets is affected by constant heat or cold. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the short-term effect of high (40°C) and low (4°C) continuous temperatures on the photosynthetic efficiency, the organic acid content (malic acid) and the relative growth rate (RGR) in seven-month-old Opuntia streptacantha plantlets during 5, 10, and 15 days...
2017: PloS One
Fernando Lledías, Felipe Hernández, Viridiana Rivas, Abisaí García-Mendoza, Gladys I Cassab, Jorge Nieto-Sotelo
The original version of this article unfortunately contains a mistake. The authors have inadvertently incorrectly listed the concentration of TCA in the acetone/TCA/β-ME solution in the materials and methods section of this paper. The TCA concentration in Sects. 2.3.2 and 2.3.5 should be 10% TCA, making the solution acetone/10% TCA/0.07% β-ME. It is now corrected with this erratum.
December 2017: Protein Journal
Abigail J Moore, Jurriaan M De Vos, Lillian P Hancock, Eric Goolsby, Erika J Edwards
Hybrid enrichment is an increasingly popular approach for obtaining hundreds of loci for phylogenetic analysis across many taxa quickly and cheaply. The genes targeted for sequencing are typically single-copy loci, which facilitate a more straightforward sequence assembly and homology assignment process. However, this approach limits the inclusion of most genes of functional interest, which often belong to multi-gene families. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of including large gene families in hybrid enrichment protocols for phylogeny reconstruction and subsequent analyses of molecular evolution, using a new set of bait sequences designed for the "portullugo" (Caryophyllales), a moderately sized lineage of flowering plants (~ 2200 species) that includes the cacti and harbors many evolutionary transitions to C$_{\mathrm{4}}$ and CAM photosynthesis...
May 1, 2018: Systematic Biology
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