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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689829/meloidae-of-namibia-coleoptera-taxonomy-and-faunistics-with-biogeographic-and-ecological-notes
#1
Marco A Bologna, Valentina Amore, Monica Pitzalis
The blister beetle (Coleoptera: Meloidae) fauna of Namibia is studied. The species are arranged within a catalogue containing information on their general distribution, including a list of localities and brief taxonomic remarks. Zoogeographic and ecological analyses were carried out and a photographic appendix, with images and maps of almost all Namibian species, is included. According to a chorological analysis, the Namibian blister beetle fauna appears to be zoogeographically distinct because of the dominance of western southern African elements...
January 15, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683473/toxicity-of-the-spiny-thick-foot-pachypodium
#2
Anurag A Agrawal, Aliya Ali, M Daisy Johnson, Amy P Hastings, Dylan Burge, Marjorie G Weber
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pachypodium (Apocynaceae) is a genus of iconic stem-succulent and poisonous plants endemic to Madagascar and southern Africa. We tested hypotheses about the mode of action and macroevolution of toxicity in this group. We further hypothesized that while monarch butterflies are highly resistant to cardenolide toxins (a type of cardiac glycoside) from American Asclepias, they may be negatively affected by Pachypodium defenses, which evolved independently. METHODS: We grew 16 of 21 known Pachypodium spp...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670666/passive-cushiony-biomechanics-of-head-protection-in-falling-geckos
#3
Hao Wang, Wenbo Wang, Yi Song, Lei Cai, Zhendong Dai
Gekko geckos are capable to crawl on the steep even on upside-down surfaces. Such movement, especially at great altitude, puts them at high risks of incidentally dropping down and inevitable body or head impactions, though they may trigger air-righting reaction (ARR) to attenuate the landing shocks. However, the air-righting ability (ARA) in Gekko geckos is not fully developed. The implementation of ARR in some geckos is quite slow; and for those without tails, the ARR is even unobservable. Since ARA is compromised in Gekko geckos , there must be some other mechanisms responsible for protecting them from head injuries during falls...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602204/high-levels-of-fecundity-in-small-and-isolated-populations-of-a-self-compatible-aloe-pollinated-by-opportunistic-birds-and-bees
#4
Kirsten L Patrick, Steven D Johnson, Karl J Duffy
Plant species that are effective colonizers of transient habitats are expected to have a capacity for uniparental reproduction and show flexibility in pollination systems. Such traits may enable populations to be established from a small number of founding individuals without these populations succumbing to reductions in fecundity arising from pollinator limitation. We tested these predictions for Aloe thraskii (Xanthorrhoeaceae), a succulent treelet that colonizes shifting coastal dunes and has both bird and bee pollinators...
March 30, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401742/induced-salt-tolerance-of-perennial-ryegrass-by-a-novel-bacterium-strain-from-the-rhizosphere-of-a-desert-shrub-haloxylon-ammodendron
#5
Ao-Lei He, Shu-Qi Niu, Qi Zhao, Yong-Sheng Li, Jing-Yi Gou, Hui-Juan Gao, Sheng-Zhou Suo, Jin-Lin Zhang
Drought and soil salinity reduce agricultural output worldwide. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance plant growth and augment plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Haloxylon ammodendron, a C4 perennial succulent xerohalophyte shrub with excellent drought and salt tolerance, is naturally distributed in the desert area of northwest China. In our previous work, a bacterium strain numbered as M30-35 was isolated from the rhizosphere of H. ammodendron in Tengger desert, Gansu province, northwest China...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360042/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-new-succulenticolous-physarum-myxomycetes-amoebozoa-with-unique-polygonal-spores-linked-in-chains
#6
Joaquina María García-Martín, Juan Mosquera, Carlos Lado
A new plasmodiocarpic and sporocarpic species of myxomycete in the genus Physarum is described and illustrated. This new species appeared on decayed leaves and remains of succulent plants (Agave, Opuntia, Yucca) growing in arid zones. It differs from all other species in the genus in having polyhedral spores linked in chains like a string of beads, a unique feature within all known myxomycetes. Apart from detailed morphological data, partial sequences of both the small-subunit ribosomal RNA and elongation factor 1-alpha genes, generated from four isolates collected in two distant regions, i...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343942/portulaca-oleracea-l-alleviates-liver-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#7
Guoyin Zheng, Fengfeng Mo, Chen Ling, Hao Peng, Wei Gu, Min Li, Zhe Chen
Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306165/influence-of-plant-composition-and-water-use-strategies-on-green-roof-stormwater-retention
#8
Zheng Zhang, Christopher Szota, Tim D Fletcher, Nicholas S G Williams, Joerg Werdin, Claire Farrell
Green roofs are increasingly being considered a promising engineered ecosystem for reducing stormwater runoff. Plants are a critical component of green roofs and it has been suggested that plants with high water use after rainfall, but which are also drought tolerant, can improve rainfall retention on green roofs. However, there is little evidence to show how plants with different water use strategies will affect green roof retention performance, either in monocultures or in mixed plantings. This study tested how monocultures and a mixture of herbaceous species (Dianella admixta, Lomandra longifolia and Stypandra glauca) affected rainfall retention on green roofs...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225608/transcriptomic-profiling-and-physiological-responses-of-halophyte-kochia-sieversiana-provide-insights-into-salt-tolerance
#9
Long Zhao, Zongze Yang, Qiaobing Guo, Shun Mao, Shaoqiang Li, Fasheng Sun, Huan Wang, Chunwu Yang
Halophytes are remarkable plants that can tolerate extremely high-salinity conditions, and have different salinity tolerance mechanisms from those of glycophytic plants. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms of salinity tolerance of an extreme halophyte, Kochia sieversiana (Pall.) C. A. M, using RNA sequencing and physiological tests. The results showed that moderate salinity stimulated the growth and water uptake of K. sieversiana and, even under 480-mM salinity condition, K. sieversiana maintained an extremely high water content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059203/continuous-high-and-low-temperature-induced-a-decrease-of-photosynthetic-activity-and-changes-in-the-diurnal-fluctuations-of-organic-acids-in-opuntia-streptacantha
#10
Zaida Zarely Ojeda-Pérez, Juan Francisco Jiménez-Bremont, Pablo Delgado-Sánchez
Opuntia plants grow naturally in areas where temperatures are extreme and highly variable in the day during the entire year. These plants survive through different adaptations to respond to adverse environmental conditions. Despite this capability, it is unknown how CAM photosynthetic activity and growth in Opuntia plantlets is affected by constant heat or cold. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the short-term effect of high (40°C) and low (4°C) continuous temperatures on the photosynthetic efficiency, the organic acid content (malic acid) and the relative growth rate (RGR) in seven-month-old Opuntia streptacantha plantlets during 5, 10, and 15 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052020/erratum-to-a-rapid-and-reliable-method-for-total-protein-extraction-from-succulent-plants-for-proteomic-analysis
#11
Fernando Lledías, Felipe Hernández, Viridiana Rivas, Abisaí García-Mendoza, Gladys I Cassab, Jorge Nieto-Sotelo
The original version of this article unfortunately contains a mistake. The authors have inadvertently incorrectly listed the concentration of TCA in the acetone/TCA/β-ME solution in the materials and methods section of this paper. The TCA concentration in Sects. 2.3.2 and 2.3.5 should be 10% TCA, making the solution acetone/10% TCA/0.07% β-ME. It is now corrected with this erratum.
December 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029339/targeted-enrichment-of-large-gene-families-for-phylogenetic-inference-phylogeny-and-molecular-evolution-of-photosynthesis-genes-in-the-portullugo-clade-caryophyllales
#12
Abigail J Moore, Jurriaan M de Vos, Lillian P Hancock, Eric Goolsby, Erika J Edwards
Hybrid enrichment is an increasingly popular approach for obtaining hundreds of loci for phylogenetic analysis across many taxa quickly and cheaply. The genes targeted for sequencing are typically single-copy loci, which facilitate a more straightforward sequence assembly and homology assignment process. However, this approach limits the inclusion of most genes of functional interest, which often belong to multi-gene families. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of including large gene families in hybrid enrichment protocols for phylogeny reconstruction and subsequent analyses of molecular evolution, using a new set of bait sequences designed for the "portullugo" (Caryophyllales), a moderately sized lineage of flowering plants (∼2200 species) that includes the cacti and harbors many evolutionary transitions to C4 and CAM photosynthesis...
September 25, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967074/palladium-103-plaque-radiation-therapy-for-ciliary-body-melanoma-through-a-functioning-glaucoma-filtering-bleb
#13
Arif H K Pathan, Alexander Barash, Lawrence B Tena, Paul T Finger
PURPOSE: To provide a clinical description of the long-term outcome of a 103Pd plaque-irradiated ciliary body melanoma with extrascleral extension while attempting to preserve a subadjacent glaucoma filtering bleb. METHODS: A 75-year-old woman with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma for 17 years, 16 years status post argon laser trabeculoplasty, and 15 years status post trabeculectomy in the left eye, was diagnosed with an ipsilateral ciliary body melanoma with visible extrascleral extension...
September 23, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945104/intake-feeding-behaviour-digestibility-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-meat-quality-of-lambs-fed-different-levels-of-semi-purified-glycerine-in-the-diet
#14
Leticia Costa de Rezende, Natália da Silva Heimbach, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira Ítavo, Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo, Maria da Graça Morais, Ricardo Carneiro Brumatti, Gumercindo Loriano Franco, Hélène Veronique Petit, Lucia Maria Zeoula, Jonilson Araújo da Silva, Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva, Gleice Kelli Ayardes de Melo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of semi-purified glycerine in the diet of feedlot lambs on feeding behaviour, nutrient intake and digestibility, carcass characteristics, meat quality and in vitro degradability. Thirty-two Dorper × (Texel × Suffolk) crossbred intact male lambs (22.2 ± 5.51 kg) were fed glycerine (90% purity) at 0, 120, 240 or 360 g/kg dry matter (DM) in a total mixed ration with a roughage to concentrate ratio of 40:60 for 84 d. In vitro degradability was not affected by glycerine supplementation...
September 25, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938779/physical-and-chemical-characteristics-of-meat-from-broilers-raised-in-4-different-rearing-systems-stored-under-freezing-for-up-to-12-months
#15
A Giampietro-Ganeco, C M Owens, J L M Mello, R A Souza, F B Ferrari, P A Souza, H Borba
This study evaluated the effects of freezing (-18°C) for 12 mo on attributes related to the texture of breast, drumstick, and thigh from broilers raised in 4 different rearing systems. Five-hundred carcasses of male broilers raised in 4 rearing systems (Antibiotic-free, Cobb 500, n = 125; Free-range, Hubbard ISA, n = 125; Conventional, Cobb 500, n = 125; Organic, Cobb 500, n = 125) were divided into breast, drumstick, and thigh and stored under freezing (-18°C) for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Breast, drumstick, and thigh meat from broilers raised in all studied rearing systems showed reduction (P < 0...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917388/improvised-hand-injury-treatment-using-traditional-veterinary-medicine-in-ethiopia
#16
Raf Aerts, Eva J J November, Maissa Rayyan
In remote wilderness environments, local people with traditional knowledge of medicinal plants are potentially important first-line health care providers. We present a case of a 31-year-old man who fell off a horse while trekking through a remote mountain landscape in Ethiopia and sustained blunt force trauma to the hand. A local mountain hut keeper examined the patient's hand and used heated leaves of the succulent plant Kalanchoe petitiana to treat a suspected metacarpal fracture. As first responder in a low-resource setting, the hut keeper relied on his traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine to improvise a treatment for a human injury in a remote mountain environment...
December 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914360/adaptive-variation-in-vein-placement-underpins-diversity-in-a-major-neotropical-plant-radiation
#17
Jamie Males
Vein placement has been hypothesised to control leaf hydraulic properties, but the ecophysiological significance of variation in vein placement in the angiosperms has remained poorly understood. The highly diverse Neotropical Bromeliaceae offers an excellent system for exploring understudied relationships between leaf vein placement, physiological functions, and species ecology. To test key hypotheses regarding the links between vein placement, functional type divergences, and ecological diversity in the Bromeliaceae, I characterised the ratio of interveinal distance (IVD) to vein-epidermis distance (VED) in 376 species, representing all major functional types and 10% of the species diversity in the family, as well as bioclimatic properties and key leaf traits for subsets of species...
November 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898660/succulent-plants
#18
Howard Griffiths, Jamie Males
The peculiar morphologies of succulent plants have been variously considered as grotesque monstrosities and exotic curiosities, but succulents have always been perceived as unique. The succulent syndrome is considered to be one of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution across the plant kingdom. Common to all succulents is the presence of large cells for water storage. However, cellular succulence can occur in any vegetative plant organ, with the level of succulence in roots, stems, and leaves being subject to a certain degree of evolutionary coordination...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871459/facultative-cam-photosynthesis-crassulacean-acid-metabolism-in-four-species-of-calandrinia-ephemeral-succulents-of-arid-australia
#19
Joseph A M Holtum, Lillian P Hancock, Erika J Edwards, Klaus Winter
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was demonstrated in four small endemic Australian terrestrial succulents from the genus Calandrinia (Montiaceae) viz. C. creethiae, C. pentavalvis, C. quadrivalvis and C. reticulata. CAM was substantiated by measurements of CO2 gas-exchange and nocturnal acidification. In all species, the expression of CAM was overwhelmingly facultative in that nocturnal H(+) accumulation was greatest in droughted plants and zero, or close to zero, in plants that were well-watered, including plants that had been droughted and were subsequently rewatered, i...
October 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852053/opposite-trends-in-the-genus-monsonia-geraniaceae-specialization-in-the-african-deserts-and-range-expansions-throughout-eastern-africa
#20
Sara García-Aloy, Isabel Sanmartín, Gudrun Kadereit, Daniel Vitales, Ana María Millanes, Cristina Roquet, Pablo Vargas, Marisa Alarcón, Juan José Aldasoro
The African Austro-temperate Flora stands out by its important species richness. A distinctive element of this flora is Monsonia (Geraniaceae), mostly found in the Namib-Karoo but also in the Natal-Drakensberg, the Somalian Zambezian and the Saharo-Arabian regions. Here, we reconstruct the evolution and biogeographic history of Monsonia based on nuclear and plastid markers, and examine the role of morphological and niche evolution in its diversification using species distribution modeling and macroevolutionary models...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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