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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395583/isolation-and-identification-of-compounds-from-kalanchoe-pinnata-having-human-alphaherpesvirus-and-vaccinia-virus-antiviral-activity
#1
Matthew Cryer, Kyle Lane, Mary Greer, Rex Cates, Scott Burt, Merritt Andrus, Jiping Zou, Paul Rogers, Marc D H Hansen, Jillybeth Burgado, Subbian Satheshkumar Panayampalli, Craig W Day, Donald F Smee, Brent F Johnson
CONTEXT: Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) is a succulent plant that is known for its traditional antivirus and antibacterial usage. OBJECTIVE: This work examines two compounds identified from the K. pinnata plant for their antivirus activity against human alphaherpesvirus (HHV) 1 and 2 and vaccinia virus (VACV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Compounds KPB-100 and KPB-200 were isolated using HPLC and were identified using NMR and MS. Both compounds were tested in plaque reduction assay of HHV-2 wild type (WT) and VACV...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372927/effects-of-different-preservation-methods-on-inter-simple-sequence-repeat-issr-and-random-amplified-polymorphic-dna-rapd-molecular-markers-in-botanic-samples
#2
Xiaolong Wang, Lin Li, Jiaxin Zhao, Fangliang Li, Wei Guo, Xia Chen
To evaluate the effects of different preservation methods (stored in a -20°C ice chest, preserved in liquid nitrogen and dried in silica gel) on inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) or random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses in various botanical specimens (including broad-leaved plants, needle-leaved plants and succulent plants) for different times (three weeks and three years), we used a statistical analysis based on the number of bands, genetic index and cluster analysis. The results demonstrate that methods used to preserve samples can provide sufficient amounts of genomic DNA for ISSR and RAPD analyses; however, the effect of different preservation methods on these analyses vary significantly, and the preservation time has little effect on these analyses...
March 31, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369497/secrets-of-succulence
#3
Jamie Males
Succulent plants are iconic components of the florae of many terrestrial ecosystems, but despite having caused fascination and prompted investigation for centuries, they still harbour many secrets in terms of physiological function and evolution. Tackling these mysteries is important, as this will not only provide insights into the dynamics and details of the convergent evolution of a major adaptive syndrome, but also inform efforts to conserve endangered biodiversity and utilize the unique physiological characteristics of succulents for biofuel and biomass production...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367156/plant-growth-and-photosynthetic-characteristics-of-mesembryanthemum-crystallinum-grown-aeroponically-under-different-blue-and-red-leds
#4
Jie He, Lin Qin, Emma L C Chong, Tsui-Wei Choong, Sing Kong Lee
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is a succulent, facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. Plant growth and photosynthetic characteristics were studied when M. crystallinum plants were grown indoor under light emitting diodes (LED)-lighting with adequate water supply. Plants were cultured aeroponically for a 16-h photoperiod at an equal photosynthetic photon flux density of 350 μmol m(-2) s(-1) under different red:blue LED ratios: (1) 100:0 (0B); (2) 90:10 (10B); (3) 80:20 (20B); (4) 70:30 (30B); (5) 50:50 (50B); and (6)100:0 (100B)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346742/leaf-economic-and-hydraulic-divergences-underpin-ecological-differentiation-in-the-bromeliaceae
#5
Jamie Males, Howard Griffiths
Leaf economic and hydraulic theory have rarely been applied to the ecological differentiation of speciose herbaceous plant radiations. The role of character trait divergences and network reorganisation in the differentiation of the functional types in the megadiverse Neotropical Bromeliaceae was explored by quantifying a range of leaf economic and hydraulic traits in 50 diverse species. Functional types, which are defined by combinations of C3 or CAM photosynthesis, terrestrial or epiphytic habits, and non-specialised, tank-forming or atmospheric morphologies, segregated clearly in trait space...
March 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331618/movement-of-leopard-tortoises-in-response-to-environmental-and-climatic-variables-in-a-semi-arid-environment
#6
Martyn Drabik-Hamshare, Colleen T Downs
BACKGROUND: Tortoises (Testudinidae) occur in a wide range of environments, providing important ecosystem functions, such as seed dispersal and refuge in the form of burrows. Tortoise movement has previously been shown to be related to resource availability, reproductive status and local environmental conditions. However, understanding of the variables that drive their movement remains comparatively low. We investigated aspects of movement in leopard tortoises Stigmochelys pardalis-the largest and most abundant tortoise species in sub-Saharan Africa-in response to environmental, climatic and individual variables in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323330/insights-on-the-evolutionary-origin-of-detarioideae-a-clade-of-ecologically-dominant-tropical-african-trees
#7
Manuel de la Estrella, Félix Forest, Jan J Wieringa, Marie Fougère-Danezan, Anne Bruneau
African tropical forests are generally considered less diverse than their Neotropical and Asian counterparts. By contrast, the Detarioideae is much more diverse in Africa than in South America and Asia. To better understand the evolution of this contrasting diversity pattern, we investigated the biogeographical and ecological origin of this subfamily, testing whether they originated in dry biomes surrounding the Tethys Seaway as currently hypothesized for many groups of Leguminosae. We constructed the largest time-calibrated phylogeny for the subfamily to date, reconstructed ancestral states for geography and biome/habitat, estimated diversification and extinction rates, and evaluated biome/habitat and geographic shifts in Detarioideae...
March 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236481/biomass-assessment-of-microbial-surface-communities-by-means-of-hyperspectral-remote-sensing-data
#8
Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Max Paul, Alexandra Tamm, Jennifer Caesar, Burkhard Büdel, Paula Escribano, Joachim Hill, Bettina Weber
Dryland vegetation developed morphological and physiological strategies to cope with drought. However, as aridity increases, vascular plant coverage gets sparse and microbially-dominated surface communities (MSC), comprising cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotropic bacteria, archaea and fungi, gain relevance. Nevertheless, the relevance of MSC net primary productivity has only rarely been considered in ecosystem scale studies, and detailed information on their contribution to the total photosynthetic biomass reservoir is largely missing...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216559/aloe-vera-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#9
REVIEW
Shekh Rahman, Princeton Carter, Narayan Bhattarai
Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182032/pharmacognostical-standardization-of-upodika-basella-alba-l-an-important-ayurvedic-antidiabetic-plant
#10
T R Shantha, P Patchaimal, M Prathapa Reddy, R Kishore Kumar, Devesh Tewari, Vandana Bharti, G Venkateshwarlu, A K Mangal, M M Padhi, K S Dhiman
OBJECTIVE: To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. RESULTS: Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem...
July 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171833/assessing-chilling-and-drought-tolerance-of-different-plant-genera-on-extensive-green-roofs-in-an-arid-climate-region-in-iran
#11
Navid Vahdati, Ali Tehranifar, Fatemeh Kazemi
The harsh and stressful growing environment of extensive green roofs especially in arid environments allows a limited range of plant species to survive. Therefore, achieving plantings to survive in such conditions is a significant challenge. This paper describes an experiment investigating plant selections for extensive green roofs based on chilling (cold season) and drought (warm season) conditions of Iran. Nine species were selected from the three major taxonomic and functional plant groups that are commonly used on extensive green roofs including grasses, groundcovers and sedums...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168122/catchments-catch-all-in-south-african-coastal-lowlands-topography-and-palaeoclimate-restricted-gene-flow-in-nymania-capensis-meliaceae-a-multilocus-phylogeographic-and-distribution-modelling-approach
#12
Alastair J Potts
BACKGROUND: This study investigates orbitally-forced range dynamics at a regional scale by exploring the evolutionary history of Nymania capensis (Meliaceae) across the deeply incised landscapes of the subescarpment coastal lowlands of South Africa; a region that is home to three biodiversity hotspots (Succulent Karoo, Fynbos, and Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspots). METHODS: A range of methods are used including: multilocus phylogeography (chloroplast and high- and low-copy nuclear DNA), molecular dating and species distribution modelling (SDM)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162763/sedum-dominated-green-roofs-in-a-semi-arid-region-increase-co2-concentrations-during-the-dry-season
#13
Har'el Agra, Tamir Klein, Amiel Vasl, Hadar Shalom, Gyongyver Kadas, Leon Blaustein
Green roofs are expected to absorb and store carbon in plants and soils and thereby reduce the high CO2 concentration levels in big cities. Sedum species, which are succulent perennials, are commonly used in extensive green roofs due to their shallow root system and ability to withstand long water deficiencies. Here we examined CO2 fixation and emission rates for Mediterranean Sedum sediforme on green-roof experimental plots. During late winter to early spring, we monitored CO2 concentrations inside transparent tents placed over 1m(2) plots and followed gas exchange at the leaf level using a portable gas-exchange system...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025673/wet-fractionation-of-the-succulent-halophyte-salicornia-sinus-persica-with-the-aim-of-low-input-water-saving-biorefining-into-bioethanol
#14
Ayah Alassali, Iwona Cybulska, Alejandro Ríos Galvan, Mette Hedegaard Thomsen
In this study Salicornia sinus-persica, a succulent halophyte was assessed for its potential to be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. For such succulent, salty, green biomasses, direct fractionation and fermentation allow for water preservation in the process. Fresh biomass of S. sinus-persica was collected and split into two fractions by wet fractionation; liquid (juice) and solid (pulp). Sugar contents were found to be 1.0-1.5% for the juice fraction and 50% (w/w) for the fresh pulp. Direct fermentation of the juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed no salt inhibition of the yeast and ethanol yields of ~70% were achieved...
February 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008679/zxakt1-is-essential-for-k-uptake-and-k-na-homeostasis-in-the-succulent-xerophyte-zygophyllum-xanthoxylum
#15
Qing Ma, Jing Hu, Xiang-Rui Zhou, Hui-Jun Yuan, Tanweer Kumar, Sheng Luan, Suo-Min Wang
The inward-rectifying K(+) channel AKT1 constitutes an important pathway for K(+) acquisition in plant roots. In glycophytes, excessive accumulation of Na(+) is accompanied by K(+) deficiency under salt stress. However, in the succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum, which exhibits excellent adaptability to adverse environments, K(+) concentration remains at a relatively constant level despite increased levels of Na(+) under salinity and drought conditions. In this study, the contribution of ZxAKT1 to maintaining K(+) and Na(+) homeostasis in Z...
December 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940332/evolutionary-history-of-a-keystone-pollinator-parallels-the-biome-occupancy-of-angiosperms-in-the-greater-cape-floristic-region
#16
Marinus L de Jager, Allan G Ellis
The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) in South Africa has been extensively investigated for its phenomenal angiosperm diversity. A key emergent pattern is the occurrence of older plant lineages in the southern Fynbos biome and younger lineages in the northern Succulent Karoo biome. We know practically nothing, however, about the evolutionary history of the animals that pollinate this often highly-specialized flora. In this study, we explore the evolutionary history of an important GCFR fly pollinator, Megapalpus capensis, and ask whether it exhibits broadly congruent genetic structuring and timing of diversification to flowering plants within these biomes...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891740/minocycline-successfully-treats-exaggerated-granulomatous-hypersensitivity-reaction-to-mw-immunotherapy
#17
Keshavamurthy Vinay, Tarun Narang, Uma N Saikia, Muthu Sendhil Kumaran, Sunil Dogra
Mycobacterium W (Mw) vaccine has been found to be effective in the treatment of leprosy and warts. Despite increasing use of Mw immunotherapy, data on its safety is limited. We report a series of eight patients who developed persisting injection site granulomatous reaction following Mw immunotherapy and were successfully treated with minocycline. Eight patients with persistent nodular swelling at the site of Mw injections were identified. Seven of them had received Mw immunotherapy for cutaneous warts and one for verrucous epidermal nevus...
November 28, 2016: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854435/-rhodiola-rosea-and-its-neuropsychotropic-effects
#18
Jan Juřica, Tereza Koupá
The paper reviews the neuropsychotropic effects of Rhodiola rosea, a succulent perennial plant which is native to dry, high-altitude regions of the northern hemisphere. The most valued part of the plant is its rhizome, which has a rose-like fragrance. In the available literature, there is a large number of mentions of its healing properties; nonetheless, only few of them are based on reliable scientific evidence. Of the neuropsychotropic effects, there are mentions of anxiolytic, antidepressant, neuroprotective and pro- cognitive properties and nonspecific "adaptogenic" effects...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821045/diversification-into-novel-habitats-in-the-africa-clade-of-dioscorea-dioscoreaceae-erect-habit-and-elephant-s-foot-tubers
#19
Olivier Maurin, A Muthama Muasya, Pilar Catalan, Eugene Z Shongwe, Juan Viruel, Paul Wilkin, Michelle van der Bank
BACKGROUND: Dioscorea is a widely distributed and highly diversified genus in tropical regions where it is represented by ten main clades, one of which diversified exclusively in Africa. In southern Africa it is characterised by a distinct group of species with a pachycaul or "elephant's foot" structure that is partially to fully exposed above the substrate. In contrast to African representatives of the genus from other clades, occurring mainly in forest or woodland, the pachycaul taxa and their southern African relatives occur in diverse habitats ranging from woodland to open vegetation...
November 8, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649680/ginkgo-biloba-exocarp-extracts-inhibits-angiogenesis-and-its-effects-on-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-vegf-signaling-pathway-in-lewis-lung-cancer
#20
Dongdong Han, Chengjie Cao, Ya Su, Jun Wang, Jian Sun, Huasheng Chen, Aihua Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A fruit of Ginkgo biloba L. also known as Ginkgo biloba, can be used for the treatment of cancer in Chinese traditional medicine. The scientific name of succulent skin, which is the episperm of Ginkgo nuts, is exocarp. Experiment shows that Ginkgo biloba exocarp extracts (GBEE) has the effects of immune promotion, cancer inhibition and etc. AIM OF STUDY: Study on the activity of GBEE against Lewis lung cancer (LLC) angiogenesis and its partial molecular mechanism...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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