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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757446/playing-with-extremes-origins-and-evolution-of-exaggerated-female-forelegs-in-south-african-rediviva-bees
#1
Belinda Kahnt, Graham A Montgomery, Elizabeth Murray, Michael Kuhlmann, Anton Pauw, Denis Michez, Robert J Paxton, Bryan N Danforth
Despite close ecological interactions between plants and their pollinators, only some highly specialised pollinators adapt to a specific host plant trait by evolving a bizarre morphology. Here we investigated the evolution of extremely elongated forelegs in females of the South African bee genus Rediviva (Hymenoptera: Melittidae), in which long forelegs are hypothesised to be an adaptation for collecting oils from the extended spurs of their Diascia host flowers. We first reconstructed the phylogeny of the genus Rediviva using seven genes and inferred an origin of Rediviva at around 29MYA (95% HPD=19...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743765/higher-degradation-of-l-cys-by-o-acetylserine-thiolyases-in-sarcocornia-than-salicornia
#2
Assylay Kurmanbayeva, Aizat Bekturova, Sudhakar Srivastava, Aigerim Soltabayeva, Mohammad Suhail Khan, Octavio Salazar, Nina V Fedoroff, Armine Asatryan, Yvonne Ventura, Moshe Sagi
Salicornia and Sarcocornia are almost identical halophytes whose edible succulent shoots hold promise for commercial production in saline water. Enhanced sulfur nutrition may be beneficial to crops naturally grown on high sulfate. However, little is known about sulfate nutrition in halophytes. Here we show that Salicornia europaea (ecotype RN) exhibits a significant increase in biomass and organic-S accumulation in response to supplemental sulfate, while Sarcocornia fruticosa (ecotype VM) does not, instead exhibiting increased sulfate accumulation...
July 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693591/aphrodisiac-potentials-of-the-ethanol-extract-of-aloe-barbadensis-mill-root-in-male-wistar-rats
#3
Joseph O Erhabor, MacDonald Idu
BACKGROUND: Aloe barbadensis (AB) is a short stemmed succulent medicinal herb that is being used by locals in Nigeria to enhance libido. Therefore this study evaluates the aphrodisiac potential and acute toxicological effect of A. barbadensis (AB) root in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Aphrodisiac potential was determined following the oral administration of graded doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of A. barbadensis root. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and distilled water served as positive and negative controls respectively...
July 11, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626039/the-role-of-idioblasts-in-leaf-water-relations-of-tropical-rhododendron
#4
Tatpong Tulyananda, Erik T Nilsen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although much is known about the anatomy of idioblasts, the relationship of leaf idioblasts to leaf physiology is poorly known. Our goal was to understand the relationship between idioblast abundance and leaf water relations. Tropical epiphytic and shrub Rhododendron species were the model system. METHODS: Leaf succulence and idioblast metrics of 61 plants representing 17 species were compared with stomatal and water relation metrics. Correlation, ANOVA, and regression were used to understand which water relation traits were best aligned with the proportion of the leaf occupied by idioblasts for epiphytic and shrub species...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618315/simulation-of-green-roof-runoff-under-different-substrate-depths-and-vegetation-covers-by-coupling-a-simple-conceptual-and-a-physically-based-hydrological-model
#5
Konstantinos X Soulis, John D Valiantzas, Nikolaos Ntoulas, George Kargas, Panayiotis A Nektarios
In spite of the well-known green roof benefits, their widespread adoption in the management practices of urban drainage systems requires the use of adequate analytical and modelling tools. In the current study, green roof runoff modeling was accomplished by developing, testing, and jointly using a simple conceptual model and a physically based numerical simulation model utilizing HYDRUS-1D software. The use of such an approach combines the advantages of the conceptual model, namely simplicity, low computational requirements, and ability to be easily integrated in decision support tools with the capacity of the physically based simulation model to be easily transferred in conditions and locations other than those used for calibrating and validating it...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610371/water-beetles-from-the-bokkeveld-plateau-a-semi-arid-hotspot-of-freshwater-biodiversity-in-the-northern-cape-of-south-africa
#6
David T Bilton
The Bokkeveld Plateau in the Northern Cape of South Africa supports a complex transition zone between the fynbos and succulent karoo biomes on the margins of Namaqualand. A combination of regular winter rainfall, geology and strong rainfall gradients mean that the region supports a diverse and highly endemic flora. Recent sampling of aquatic beetles in the Bokkeveld demonstrates that this region also has a diverse freshwater fauna, including a number of apparent endemics. Five new species of Hydraenidae (Pterosthetops chrysomallus sp...
May 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551236/variability-of-traits-and-bioactive-compounds-in-the-fruit-and-pulp-of-six-mamey-apple-mammea-americana-l-accessions
#7
Armelle Péroumal, Sandra Adenet, Katia Rochefort, Louis Fahrasmane, Guylène Aurore
Our objective was to compare fruit morphology, physico-chemistry and bioactive compounds content of the edible pulp of six Mammea americana accessions. The results showed that this fruit was rather big, weighing on average 600 to 1100g depending on the accession, and spherical to oblate-shaped. The pulp represented between 50 and 70% of the weight of the whole fruit. The pulp adhered only partially to the seeds in 5 of the 6 accessions studied, while the last one exhibited full adherence. The fresh pulp was acidic, sweet, succulent and crunchy...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528617/grotesque-face-secondary-to-immunotherapy-cure-circumvallating-to-curse
#8
Keshavamurthy Vinay, Tarun Narang, Sunil Dogra, Uma N Saikia
A 45-year-old woman presented with multiple, slightly painful, reddish, nodular facial lesions that had developed at the site of Mycobacterium w vaccine injections given for her facial warts 4 weeks prior. She had not received a sensitization dose of Mycobacterium w vaccine, and all of the inflamed lesions were injected at the same time. On examination, approximately 20 erythematous, succulent nodules of variable size were noted over the cheeks and forehead (Figure 1). Some of these lesions had purulent discharge due to secondary infection...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527799/effect-of-yeast-supplementation-on-performance-rumination-time-and-rumen-ph-of-dairy-cows-in-commercial-farm-environments
#9
V Ambriz-Vilchis, N S Jessop, R H Fawcett, M Webster, D J Shaw, N Walker, A I Macrae
The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of live yeast supplementation (Vistacell MUCL 39855, AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) on performance, rumination time, and rumen pH on dairy cows in commercial farm environments. Three trials were carried out, the trials lasted 12 (trial 1), 15 (trial 2), and 19 wk (trial 3). In each trial, 14 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to 2 groups that received (trial 1) a standard diet plus yeast, (trial 2) an acidogenic diet plus yeast, and (trial 3) grazing pasture plus yeast...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497409/a-rapid-and-reliable-method-for-total-protein-extraction-from-succulent-plants-for-proteomic-analysis
#10
Fernando Lledías, Felipe Hernández, Viridiana Rivas, Abisaí García-Mendoza, Gladys I Cassab, Jorge Nieto-Sotelo
Crassulacean acid metabolism plants have some morphological features, such as succulent and reduced leaves, thick cuticles, and sunken stomata that help them prevent excessive water loss and irradiation. As molecular constituents of these morphological adaptations to xeric environments, succulent plants produce a set of specific compounds such as complex polysaccharides, pigments, waxes, and terpenoids, to name a few, in addition to uncharacterized proteases. Since all these compounds interfere with the analysis of proteins by electrophoretic techniques, preparation of high quality samples from these sources represents a real challenge...
August 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480127/towards-providing-solutions-to-the-air-quality-crisis-in-the-mexico-city-metropolitan-area-carbon-sequestration-by-succulent-species-in-green-roofs
#11
Margarita Collazo-Ortega, Ulises Rosas, Jerónimo Reyes-Santiago
INTRODUCTION: In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding the monitoring of carbon sequestration by green roofs. Large-scale naturation, such as the implementation of green roofs, provides a way to partially mitigate the increased carbon dioxide output in urban areas...
March 31, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395583/isolation-and-identification-of-compounds-from-kalanchoe-pinnata-having-human-alphaherpesvirus-and-vaccinia-virus-antiviral-activity
#12
Matthew Cryer, Kyle Lane, Mary Greer, Rex Cates, Scott Burt, Merritt Andrus, Jiping Zou, Paul Rogers, Marc D H Hansen, Jillybeth Burgado, Subbian Satheshkumar Panayampalli, Craig W Day, Donald F Smee, Brent F Johnson
CONTEXT: Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) is a succulent plant that is known for its traditional antivirus and antibacterial usage. OBJECTIVE: This work examines two compounds identified from the K. pinnata plant for their antivirus activity against human alphaherpesvirus (HHV) 1 and 2 and vaccinia virus (VACV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Compounds KPB-100 and KPB-200 were isolated using HPLC and were identified using NMR and MS. Both compounds were tested in plaque reduction assay of HHV-2 wild type (WT) and VACV...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372927/effects-of-different-preservation-methods-on-inter-simple-sequence-repeat-issr-and-random-amplified-polymorphic-dna-rapd-molecular-markers-in-botanic-samples
#13
Xiaolong Wang, Lin Li, Jiaxin Zhao, Fangliang Li, Wei Guo, Xia Chen
To evaluate the effects of different preservation methods (stored in a -20°C ice chest, preserved in liquid nitrogen and dried in silica gel) on inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) or random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses in various botanical specimens (including broad-leaved plants, needle-leaved plants and succulent plants) for different times (three weeks and three years), we used a statistical analysis based on the number of bands, genetic index and cluster analysis. The results demonstrate that methods used to preserve samples can provide sufficient amounts of genomic DNA for ISSR and RAPD analyses; however, the effect of different preservation methods on these analyses vary significantly, and the preservation time has little effect on these analyses...
April 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369497/secrets-of-succulence
#14
Jamie Males
Succulent plants are iconic components of the florae of many terrestrial ecosystems, but despite having caused fascination and prompted investigation for centuries, they still harbour many secrets in terms of physiological function and evolution. Tackling these mysteries is important, as this will not only provide insights into the dynamics and details of the convergent evolution of a major adaptive syndrome, but also inform efforts to conserve endangered biodiversity and utilize the unique physiological characteristics of succulents for biofuel and biomass production...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367156/plant-growth-and-photosynthetic-characteristics-of-mesembryanthemum-crystallinum-grown-aeroponically-under-different-blue-and-red-leds
#15
Jie He, Lin Qin, Emma L C Chong, Tsui-Wei Choong, Sing Kong Lee
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is a succulent, facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. Plant growth and photosynthetic characteristics were studied when M. crystallinum plants were grown indoor under light emitting diodes (LED)-lighting with adequate water supply. Plants were cultured aeroponically for a 16-h photoperiod at an equal photosynthetic photon flux density of 350 μmol m(-2) s(-1) under different red:blue LED ratios: (1) 100:0 (0B); (2) 90:10 (10B); (3) 80:20 (20B); (4) 70:30 (30B); (5) 50:50 (50B); and (6)100:0 (100B)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346742/leaf-economic-and-hydraulic-divergences-underpin-ecological-differentiation-in-the-bromeliaceae
#16
Jamie Males, Howard Griffiths
Leaf economic and hydraulic theory have rarely been applied to the ecological differentiation of speciose herbaceous plant radiations. The role of character trait divergences and network reorganisation in the differentiation of the functional types in the megadiverse Neotropical Bromeliaceae was explored by quantifying a range of leaf economic and hydraulic traits in 50 diverse species. Functional types, which are defined by combinations of C3 or CAM photosynthesis, terrestrial or epiphytic habits, and non-specialised, tank-forming or atmospheric morphologies, segregated clearly in trait space...
March 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331618/movement-of-leopard-tortoises-in-response-to-environmental-and-climatic-variables-in-a-semi-arid-environment
#17
Martyn Drabik-Hamshare, Colleen T Downs
BACKGROUND: Tortoises (Testudinidae) occur in a wide range of environments, providing important ecosystem functions, such as seed dispersal and refuge in the form of burrows. Tortoise movement has previously been shown to be related to resource availability, reproductive status and local environmental conditions. However, understanding of the variables that drive their movement remains comparatively low. We investigated aspects of movement in leopard tortoises Stigmochelys pardalis-the largest and most abundant tortoise species in sub-Saharan Africa-in response to environmental, climatic and individual variables in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323330/insights-on-the-evolutionary-origin-of-detarioideae-a-clade-of-ecologically-dominant-tropical-african-trees
#18
Manuel de la Estrella, Félix Forest, Jan J Wieringa, Marie Fougère-Danezan, Anne Bruneau
African tropical forests are generally considered less diverse than their Neotropical and Asian counterparts. By contrast, the Detarioideae is much more diverse in Africa than in South America and Asia. To better understand the evolution of this contrasting diversity pattern, we investigated the biogeographical and ecological origin of this subfamily, testing whether they originated in dry biomes surrounding the Tethys Seaway as currently hypothesized for many groups of Leguminosae. We constructed the largest time-calibrated phylogeny for the subfamily to date, reconstructed ancestral states for geography and biome/habitat, estimated diversification and extinction rates, and evaluated biome/habitat and geographic shifts in Detarioideae...
June 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236481/biomass-assessment-of-microbial-surface-communities-by-means-of-hyperspectral-remote-sensing-data
#19
Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Max Paul, Alexandra Tamm, Jennifer Caesar, Burkhard Büdel, Paula Escribano, Joachim Hill, Bettina Weber
Dryland vegetation developed morphological and physiological strategies to cope with drought. However, as aridity increases, vascular plant coverage gets sparse and microbially-dominated surface communities (MSC), comprising cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotropic bacteria, archaea and fungi, gain relevance. Nevertheless, the relevance of MSC net primary productivity has only rarely been considered in ecosystem scale studies, and detailed information on their contribution to the total photosynthetic biomass reservoir is largely missing...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216559/aloe-vera-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#20
REVIEW
Shekh Rahman, Princeton Carter, Narayan Bhattarai
Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
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