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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912423/models-for-analyzing-zero-inflated-and-overdispersed-count-data-an-application-to-cigarette-and-marijuana-use
#1
Brian Pittman, Eugenia Buta, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie S O'Malley, Thomas Liss, Ralitza Gueorguieva
Introduction: This paper describes different methods for analyzing counts and illustrates their use on cigarette and marijuana smoking data. Methods: The Poisson, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), hurdle Poisson (HUP), negative binomial (NB), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) and hurdle negative binomial (HUNB) regression models are considered. The different approaches are evaluated in terms of the ability to take into account zero-inflation (extra zeroes) and overdispersion (variance larger than expected) in count outcomes, with emphasis placed on model fit, interpretation, and choosing an appropriate model given the nature of the data...
April 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911909/dentoalveolar-effects-produced-by-different-appliances-on-early-treatment-of-anterior-open-bite-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Paulo Henrique Rossato, Thais Maria Freire Fernandes, Flávia Diane Assis Urnau, Ana Cláudia de Castro, Ferreira Conti, Renato Rodrigues de Almeida, Paula Vanessa Pedron Oltramari-Navarro
OBJECTIVES: To compare different appliances for early anterior open bite (AOB) correction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a parallel, randomized clinical trial. A prospective sample of patients with AOB was recruited consecutively. Eligibility criteria included angle class I malocclusion with AOB equal to or greater than 1 mm. Participants were allocated by simple randomization to 4 groups: bonded spurs, chin cup, fixed palatal crib, and removable palatal crib...
June 18, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911663/-effectiveness-of-an-intervention-to-improve-breastfeeding-knowledge-and-attitudes-among-adolescents
#3
Mª Carmen Hernández Pérez, N Marta Díaz-Gómez, Ana Mª Romero Manzano, José Miguel Díaz Gómez, Verónica Rodríguez Pérez, Alejandro Jiménez Sosa
OBJECTIVE: Breastfeeding constitutes a priority in Public Health due to the multiple benefits it offers. The decision to breastfeed is usually made before pregnancy, and therefore it is important to include adolescents in breastfeeding promotion programs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme to improve knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding among teenager. METHODS: Pretest-posttest randomized controlled study, carried out in 2008 in Tenerife...
June 18, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911006/reference-ranges-and-physiologic-variations-of-left-e-e-ratio-in-healthy-adults-clinical-and-echocardiographic-correlates
#4
Antonello D'Andrea, Olga Vriz, Francesco Ferrara, Rosangela Cocchia, Marianna Conte, Marco Di Maio, Caterina Driussi, Raffaella Scarafile, Francesca Martone, Simona Sperlongano, Giampaolo Tocci, Rodolfo Citro, Pio Caso, Eduardo Bossone, Paolo Golino
Background: Transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic examination is commonly performed to define the diastolic ventricular function since it is widely available, noninvasive, and inexpensive with respect to other diagnostic imaging modalities. However, data regarding age- and gender-matched reference values are scanty and sometimes conflicting. This study aims to explore the physiologic variations of left ventricular (LV) E/e ' ratio as assessed in a large cohort of healthy adults and to investigate clinical and echocardiographic correlates...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909788/more-than-just-statics-temporal-dynamics-of-intrinsic-brain-activity-predicts-the-suicidal-ideation-in-depressed-patients
#5
Jiao Li, Xujun Duan, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with high risk of suicide. Conventional neuroimaging works showed abnormalities of static brain activity and connectivity in MDD with suicidal ideation (SI). However, little is known regarding alterations of brain dynamics. More broadly, it remains unclear whether temporal dynamics of the brain activity could predict the prognosis of SI. METHODS: We included MDD patients (n = 48) with and without SI and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (n = 30) who underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907231/socioeconomics-affecting-quality-outcomes-in-asian-trauma-patients-within-the-united-states
#6
Krista L Haines, Suresh Agarwal, Hee Soo Jung
INTRODUCTION: Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders are often considered as a uniform group when examining race in health outcomes. However, the generally favorable economic outcomes in this group belie significant socioeconomic variance between its heterogeneous subgroups. This study evaluates the impact of socioeconomic status on the health outcomes of Asian trauma patients. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 52,704 Asians who presented to trauma centers were registered with the National Trauma Data Bank with known disposition...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906664/computed-tomographic-pelvimetry-in-english-bulldogs
#7
Tetyda P Dobak, George Voorhout, Johannes C M Vernooij, Susanne A E B Boroffka
English bulldogs have been reported to have a high incidence of dystocia and caesarean section is often performed electively in this breed. A narrow pelvic canal is the major maternal factor contributing to obstructive dystocia. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the pelvic dimensions of 40 clinically healthy English bulldogs using computed tomography pelvimetry. A control group consisting of 30 non-brachycephalic dogs that underwent pelvic computed tomography was retrospectively collected from the patient archive system...
May 31, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906290/changes-in-body-composition-bone-metabolism-strength-and-skill-specific-performance-resulting-from-16-weeks-of-hift
#8
Yuri Feito, Wade Hoffstetter, Paul Serafini, Gerald Mangine
High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a training modality, characterized by multimodal exercises performed at high-intensity. Little is known about the training adaptations that occur as a prolonged training program. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body composition, bone metabolism, strength, and skill-specific performance over 16-weeks of HIFT. Twenty-six recreationally active adult males (n = 9; 34.2 ± 9.1 y; 91.5 ± 17.7 kg; 178.5 ± 5.4 cm) and females (n = 17 = 36.4 ± 7.9 y; 91...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901253/altered-serum-levels-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-male-chronic-schizophrenia-patients-with-tardive-dyskinesia
#9
Fei Ye, Qiongqiong Zhan, Wenhuan Xiao, Weiwei Sha, Xiaobin Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Many research indicate that the tardive dyskinesia (TD) is generally linked with long-term antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a critical role in the protection of catecholaminergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic neurons. Thus, we examined the serum GDNF levels in schizophrenia patients with TD (WTD) and without TD (NTD) and compared with healthy controls (HC), respectively. METHODS: Totally 75 males with schizophrenia were recruited into this study...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897963/factors-affecting-psychological-well-being-evidence-from-two-nationally-representative-surveys
#10
G Oskrochi, Ahmed Bani-Mustafa, Y Oskrochi
Financial status is thought to be an important determinant of psychological well-being. We investigate this relationship, and the effect of other factors, using a parametric mixed modelling approach for panel data, controlling the problem of unobservable heterogeneity. Two nationally representative surveys, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and the Understanding Society Survey (USS), were used to construct a unified data set which measured psychological well-being and associated factors using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895873/cognitive-appraisals-and-emotional-status-following-a-spinal-cord-injury-in-post-acute-rehabilitation
#11
Rebecca Eaton, Kevin Jones, Jane Duff
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factor structure of the ADAPSS-short form (ADAPSS-SF) in an acutely injured SCI population and to assess the relationship between cognitive appraisals made in the initial phase of rehabilitation and the experience of anxiety and depression. SETTING: National Spinal Injuries Centre, UK. METHOD: Participants were acutely injured patients admitted to the NSIC over 35 months...
June 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895009/stability-of-cellular-immune-parameters-over-12-weeks-in-patients-with-major-depression-or-somatoform-disorder-and-in-healthy-controls
#12
Daniela Krause, Theresa M Stapf, Verena B Kirnich, Anika Hennings, Sabine Riemer, Agnieszka Chrobok, Daniel R Fries, Francisco Pedrosa Gil, Winfried Rief, Markus J Schwarz, Ralf Schmidmaier
OBJECTIVE: Cellular immune status in major depression (MD) patients differs from that in somatoform disorder (SFD) patients and healthy controls (HC). It is still questionable whether the patterns of immune parameters remain stable over time. Therefore, we studied lymphocyte and monocyte cell counts and neopterin levels in peripheral blood of MD and SFD patients and HC over 12 weeks and tested for correlations between biochemical and psychometric parameters. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with MD, 27 with SFD, and 51 HC were recruited...
June 12, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892337/parental-history-of-type-2-diabetes-is-associated-with-lower-resting-energy-expenditure-in-normoglycemic-subjects
#13
Ebenezer A Nyenwe, Cherechi C Ogwo, Ibiye Owei, Jim Y Wan, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Objective: Resting energy expenditure (REE) is linked to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). REE and T2DM are inherited traits. Therefore, we investigated the effect of parental T2DM on REE in normoglycemic subjects. Methods: Eighty-seven subjects with parental T2DM and 83 subjects without parental T2DM were matched in age, gender, race, BMI, weight and waist circumference. Subjects underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test; REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888945/the-satisfaction-with-life-scale-adapted-for-children-measurement-invariance-across-gender-and-over-time
#14
Martin Guhn, Tavinder K Ark, Scott D Emerson, Kimberly A Schonert-Reichl, Anne M Gadermann
This paper examined measurement invariance (MI), both across gender and over time, of the Satisfaction With Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C). Adapted from the adult SWLS, the SWLS-C is a self-report measure for children and adolescents to assess their life satisfaction. The sample comprised elementary school students in British Columbia, Canada (n = 4,026) who responded to the SWLS-C in Grade 4 (M(age) = 9.3, SD = 0.6; 48.9% girls) and approximately 3 years later in Grade 7. We examined MI regarding gender, time, and both gender and time (i...
June 11, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884155/self-directed-learning-readiness-of-indian-medical-students-a-mixed-method-study
#15
Kalyani Premkumar, Elizabeth Vinod, Solomon Sathishkumar, Anna B Pulimood, Valerie Umaefulam, P Prasanna Samuel, Tara A John
BACKGROUND: Self-directed learning (SDL) is defined as learning on one's own initiative, with the learner having primary responsibility for planning, implementing, and evaluating the effort. Medical education institutions promote SDL, since physicians need to be self-directed learners to maintain lifelong learning in the ever-changing world of medicine and to obtain essential knowledge for professional growth. The purpose of the study was to measure the self-directed learning readiness of medical students across the training years, to determine the perceptions of students and faculty on factors that promote and deter SDL and to identify the role of culture and curriculum on SDL at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India...
June 8, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880964/nash-leading-cause-of-liver-transplant-in-women-updated-analysis-of-indications-for-liver-transplant-and-ethnic-and-gender-variances
#16
Mazen Noureddin, Aarshi Vipani, Catherine Bresee, Tsuyoshi Todo, Irene K Kim, Naim Alkhouri, Veronica Wendy Setiawan, Tram Tran, Walid S Ayoub, Shelly C Lu, Andrew S Klein, Vinay Sundaram, Nicholas N Nissen
OBJECTIVES: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) was previously the leading indication for liver transplant (LT) in the United States. However, since 2014 the use of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has decreased the chronic HCV burden, while the prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has risen substantially through the last decade. Both gender and ethnic disparities in indications for LT have been shown in the past but no data on this have been reported since the implementation of DAAs...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879967/the-association-of-readiness-for-interprofessional-learning-with-empathy-motivation-and-professional-identity-development-in-medical-students
#17
Cora L F Visser, Janneke A Wilschut, Ulviye Isik, Stéphanie M E van der Burgt, Gerda Croiset, Rashmi A Kusurkar
BACKGROUND: The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale is among the first scales developed for measurement of attitude towards interprofessional learning (IPL). However, the conceptual framework of the RIPLS still lacks clarity. We investigated the association of the RIPLS with professional identity, empathy and motivation, with the intention of relating RIPLS to other well-known concepts in healthcare education, in an attempt to clarify the concept of readiness. METHODS: Readiness for interprofessional learning, professional identity development, empathy and motivation of students for medical school, were measured in all 6 years of the medical curriculum...
June 7, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879022/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-patients-with-chronic-pain-implications-of-gender-differences-in-empathy
#18
Jae-A Lim, Soo-Hee Choi, Won Joon Lee, Joon Hwan Jang, Jee Youn Moon, Yong Chul Kim, Do-Hyung Kang
Chronic pain is defined as persistent or recurrent pain lasting longer than 3 months; the severity of pain can be rated in terms of intensity, pain-related distress, and functional impairment. Researches have shown an association between psychosocial factors, such as empathic ability, and the severity of pain. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most common psychologic intervention for individuals with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CBT on empathy in chronic pain patients, examining especially gender differences...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878796/linking-big-five-personality-traits-to-sexuality-and-sexual-health-a-meta-analytic-review
#19
Mark S Allen, Emma E Walter
This meta-analytic review addresses whether the major dimensions of trait personality relate to components of human sexuality. A comprehensive literature search identified 137 studies that met inclusion criteria (761 effect sizes; total n = 420,595). Pooled mean effects were computed using inverse-variance weighted random effects meta-analysis. Mean effect sizes from 100 separate meta-analyses provided evidence that personality relates to theoretically predicted components of sexuality and sexual health. Neuroticism was positively related to sexual dissatisfaction (r+ = ...
June 7, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876669/choroidal-thickness-changes-in-non-treated-eyes-of-patients-with-diabetes-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#20
Hajnalka Horváth, Illés Kovács, Gábor László Sándor, Cecília Czakó, Klaudia Mallár, Zsuzsanna Récsán, Anikó Somogyi, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, Mónika Ecsedy
AIMS: To measure choroidal thickness (CT) in diabetic eyes and its correlation with metabolic status and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study using swept-source optical coherence tomography. CT maps of 96 treatment naïve eyes of 48 patients with diabetes were compared to 46 eyes of 23 healthy controls. CT changes and their relation to diabetes, age, gender, disease duration, hypertension (HT), hemoglobin A1c level, type and severity of DR were evaluated...
June 6, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
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