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Kathrin Pallauf, Gerald Rimbacha, Petra Maria Ruppa, Dawn China, Insa Wolf
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol may possess life-prolonging and health-benefitting properties, some of which may resemble the effect of caloric restriction (CR). CR appears to prolong the lifespan of model organisms in some studies and may benefit human health. However, for humans, restricting food intake for an extended period of time seems impracticable and substances imitating the beneficial effects of CR without having to reduce food intake could improve health in an aging and overweight population...
October 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
L Lopes, S Póvoas, J Mota, A D Okely, M J Coelho-E-Silva, D P Cliff, V P Lopes, R Santos
Available data on the associations between motor competence (MC) and flexibility are limited and result inconclusive. This study aims to examine the relationship between flexibility and MC in children. The sample comprised 596 Portuguese children (47.1% girls) aged 9.7 ± 0.6 years. Motor competence was evaluated with the body coordination test, Körperkoordination Test für Kinder. Cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run), muscular strength (curl-up and push-up tests), and flexibility (back-saver sit and reach and trunk-lift tests) were evaluated using the Fitnessgram Test Battery...
October 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Ted Brown, Yuki Murdolo
BACKGROUND/AIM: The academic success and degree completion of tertiary students depends on their academic performance (AP), commonly measured by the percentage grades for the units they complete. No research has examined whether occupational therapy students' approaches to study are predictive of their AP. This study investigated whether approaches to study were predictive of the AP among a group of Australian undergraduate occupational therapy students. METHODS: A total of 376 undergraduate occupational therapy students completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST)...
October 26, 2016: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Jessica A Zagory, Jamie Golden, Kathleen Holoyda, Natalie Demeter, Nam X Nguyen
The optimal management of pilonidal disease in the pediatric population is still debated. We conducted a retrospective review of patients 21 years old and younger who underwent surgical management for pilonidal disease between 2009 and 2013 at a single pediatric institution. Sixty patients (41.7% male) were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 15.0 years (range, 13-20). Twelve (20%) had a prior drainage procedure for pilonidal abscess before the definitive operative treatment. After excision to the presacral fascia, 36 (60%) had primary closure, 17 (28...
October 2016: American Surgeon
K Nicole Jones, Melanie E Brewster
In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism)...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Katie M de Almondes, Mônica V Costa, Leandro F Malloy-Diniz, Breno S Diniz
Aim: In this manuscript, we report data on the association between executive functions screened by Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test and Digit Span with self-reported depressive symptoms and sleep complaints in non-demented older adults. Methods: A total sample of 95 non-demented older adults performed Geriatric Depression Scale short version, Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test, Digit Span, and clinical interview. We split participants in groups stratified by age according to: young-old (60-69 years of age), old-old (70-79 years), and oldest-old (>80 years) and compared these three groups on the sociodemographic characteristics and executive functions performance...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ruca Maass, Christian A Kloeckner, Bengt Lindstrøm, Monica Lillefjell
Neighborhood social capital has repeatedly been linked to favorable health-outcomes and life satisfaction. However, it has been questioned whether it's impact on health has been over-rated. We aim to investigate relationships between neighborhood social capital and self-rated health (SRH) and life satisfaction (LS) respectively, both directly and indirectly mediated via Sense of Coherence and self-esteem. Based on a cross-sectional population-survey (N=865) in a medium size Norwegian municipality, we specified a structural equation model (SEM) including the above-listed variables, while controlling for gender, age, education, income, and employment status...
October 19, 2016: Health & Place
Daniel C Jupiter
Covariates in regression analyses allow us to understand how independent variables of interest impact our dependent outcome variable. Often, we consider fixed effects covariates (e.g., gender or diabetes status) for which we examine subjects at each value of the covariate. We examine both men and women and, within each gender, examine both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Occasionally, however, we consider random effects covariates for which we do not examine subjects at every value. For example, we examine patients from only a sample of hospitals and, within each hospital, examine both diabetic and nondiabetic patients...
November 2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Nicholas Clarke, Deirdre McNamara, Patricia M Kearney, Colm A O'Morain, Nikki Shearer, Linda Sharp
This study aimed to investigate the effects of sex and deprivation on participation in a population-based faecal immunochemical test (FIT) colorectal cancer screening programme. The study population included 9785 individuals invited to participate in two rounds of a population-based biennial FIT-based screening programme, in a relatively deprived area of Dublin, Ireland. Explanatory variables included in the analysis were sex, deprivation category of area of residence and age (at end of screening). The primary outcome variable modelled was participation status in both rounds combined (with "participation" defined as having taken part in either or both rounds of screening)...
October 17, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Wan-Chun Lu, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Yu-Chen Kao, Chin-Bin Yeh, Terry B J Kuo, Chuan-Chia Chang, Hsin-An Chang
BACKGROUND: Reduced health-related quality of life in the physical domain (HRQOLphysical) has been reported to increase risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still unclear. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) that connects the body and mind is a biologically plausible candidate to investigate this mechanism. The aim of our study is to examine whether the HRQOLphysical independently contributes to heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects ANS activity...
October 21, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Jessica S Waldrop, Kaitlyn R Erb, Matthew J Grawitch
This study investigated the inherent complexities of the work-life interface (WLI) by examining the relationship between resource allocation (i.e., time and energy dedicated to a particular domain) and perceived interference of individual life domains. Much of the research on the WLI is based on the assumption that a linear pattern best describes the relationship between resource allocation and the interference caused by various life domains; however, this study examined the possibility that curvilinear relationships may be a more appropriate representation...
October 20, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Curtis A Fedorchuk, Matthew McCoy, Douglas F Lightstone, David A Bak, Jacque Moser, Brett Kubricht, John Packer, Dustin Walton, Jose Binongo
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the impact of isometric contraction of anterior cervical muscles on cervical lordosis. METHODS: 29 volunteers were randomly assigned to an anterior head translation (n=15) or anterior head flexion (n=14) group. Resting neutral lateral cervical x-rays were compared to x-rays of sustained isometric contraction of the anterior cervical muscles producing anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. RESULTS: Paired sample t-tests indicate no significant difference between pre and post anterior head translation or anterior head flexion...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Andrew P Jaciw, Li Lin, Boya Ma
BACKGROUND: Prior research has investigated design parameters for assessing average program impacts on achievement outcomes with cluster randomized trials (CRTs). Less is known about parameters important for assessing differential impacts. OBJECTIVES: This article develops a statistical framework for designing CRTs to assess differences in impact among student subgroups and presents initial estimates of critical parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN: Effect sizes and minimum detectable effect sizes for average and differential impacts are calculated before and after conditioning on effects of covariates using results from several CRTs...
October 18, 2016: Evaluation Review
Jing-Jing Wang, Tom Baranowski, Patrick W C Lau, Tzu-An Chen, Shu-Ge Zhang
This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8-13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Deydre S Teyhen, Scott W Shaffer, Robert J Butler, Stephen L Goffar, Kyle B Kiesel, Daniel I Rhon, Robert E Boyles, Daniel J McMillian, Jared N Williamson, Phillip J Plisky
: Performance on movement tests helps to predict injury risk in a variety of physically active populations. Understanding baseline measures for normal is an important first step. OBJECTIVES: Determine differences in physical performance assessments and describe normative values for these tests based on military unit type. METHODS: Assessment of power, balance, mobility, motor control, and performance on the Army Physical Fitness Test were assessed in a cohort of 1,466 soldiers...
October 2016: Military Medicine
James W Varni, Robert J Shulman, Mariella M Self, Shehzad A Saeed, Ashish S Patel, Samuel Nurko, Deborah A Neigut, Miguel Saps, James P Franciosi, Jolanda M Denham, George M Zacur, Chelsea Vaughan Dark, Cristiane B Bendo, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. METHODS: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 260 families of patients with IBD. Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, food and drink limits, gas and bloating, constipation, blood in stool, and diarrhea were identified as clinically important symptom differentiators from healthy controls based on prior findings, and subsequently tested for bivariate and multivariate linear associations with overall HRQOL (Generic Core Scales)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Yang Liu, Anniwaer Yasheng, Kang Chen, Chuangxin Lan, Hamulati Tusong, Lili Ou, Yeping Liang, Hans-Göran Tiselius, Guohua Zeng, Wenqi Wu
The Objective of this study is to analyze the difference in renal stone composition between Uyghur and Han children with urolithiasis in China and possible reasons. From May 2011 to September 2013, we analyzed the stone compositions of 274 Chinese children with urolithiasis, including 151 Uyghur children from Xinjiang Province and 123 Han children from Guangdong Province. All the stone components were determined by Infrared spectroscopy and the main components were recorded. We also evaluated the data, including age, gender and geographic region of the patients...
October 15, 2016: Urolithiasis
James W Varni, Robert J Shulman, Mariella M Self, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Shehzad A Saeed, Ashish S Patel, Chelsea Vaughan Dark, Cristiane B Bendo, John F Pohl
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). METHODS: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 259 pediatric patients with functional constipation, functional abdominal pain (FAP), or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
October 14, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Tessa Westendorp, Jeanine A Verbunt, Imelda J M de Groot, Sylvia C Remerie, AnneMarie Ter Steeg, Rob J E M Smeets
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were, first, to determine the percentage of adolescents with chronic pain/fatigue successfully treated with rehabilitation treatment for chronic pain/fatigue and, second, to identify predictors for a successful rehabilitation treatment. METHODS: Treatment success is scored based on a combination of predefined clinically relevant changes in 4 outcome measures: level of pain/fatigue, school absence, physical functioning, and psychosocial functioning...
October 13, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Joshua Hayward, Felice N Jacka, Helen Skouteris, Lynne Millar, Claudia Strugnell, Boyd A Swinburn, Steven Allender
OBJECTIVE: Depression affects many Australian adolescents. Research points to the potential of lifestyle improvement for the population-level prevention of mental disorders. However, most studies examine single relationships without considering the combined contribution of lifestyle factors to variance in depression. This study examined associations between adolescent diet, physical activity and screen time behaviours and depressive symptomatology. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of year 8 and 10 students was recruited from 23 participating schools in 18 Victorian communities...
October 12, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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