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"Cognitive activity" aging

Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo, Robin de Flores, Julie Gonneaud, Miranka Wirth, Valentin Ourry, William Callewaert, Brigitte Landeau, Stéphanie Egret, Florence Mézenge, Béatrice Desgranges, Gaël Chételat
Engagement in cognitive activity (CA) and physical activity (PA) during the lifespan may counteract brain atrophy later in life. Here, we investigated engagement in CA and PA during late adulthood in association with gray matter volume (GM) in normal older adults, with special focus on the hippocampus. Forty-five cognitively normal older individuals (mean age: 72) underwent T1-weighted MRI and self-reported CA and PA assessment. Whole brain voxel-wise multiple regression models were carried out to assess the relationships between CA, PA and GM volume adjusted by age and sex...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ilse Bloom, Mark Edwards, Karen A Jameson, Holly E Syddall, Elaine Dennison, Catharine R Gale, Janis Baird, Cyrus Cooper, Avan Aihie Sayer, Sian Robinson
BACKGROUND: poor diet quality is common among older people, but little is known about influences on food choice, including the role of psychosocial factors at this age. OBJECTIVE: to identify psychosocial correlates of diet quality in a community-dwelling population of men and women aged 59-73 years; to describe relationships with change in diet quality over 10 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort, Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS). SUBJECTS: HCS participants assessed at baseline (1998-2003: 1,048 men, 862 women); 183 men and 189 women re-assessed in 2011...
October 15, 2016: Age and Ageing
Tomoyuki Nagata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Kazuhiko Nakayama
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine psychosocial and clinico-demographic factors related to each symptomatic cluster (i.e., aggressiveness, psychosis, apathy/eating problems, and emotion/disinhibition) of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) needing interventional treatment against their agitation or psychotic symptoms. These clusters were classified from 12 Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) subscores in our previous study using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease (CATIE-AD) dataset...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Vicky Booth, Victoria Hood, Fiona Kearney
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a risk factor for falls. Older adults with cognitive impairment (such as dementia) have an increased risk of falling compared with age-matched individuals without a cognitive impairment. To reduce falls in this population, interventions could theoretically target and train both physical and cognitive abilities. Combining and addressing cognitive components in falls rehabilitation is a novel and emerging area of healthcare. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of combined cognitive and physical interventions on the risk of falls in cognitively impaired older adults...
May 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Philippa A Jackson, Vincent Pialoux, Dale Corbett, Lauren Drogos, Kirk I Erickson, Gail A Eskes, Marc J Poulin
The rise in incidence of age-related cognitive impairment is a global health concern. Ageing is associated with a number of changes in the brain that, collectively, contribute to the declines in cognitive function observed in older adults. Structurally, the ageing brain atrophies as white and grey matter volumes decrease. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote endothelial dysfunction thereby hampering cerebral perfusion and thus delivery of energy substrates and nutrients. Further, the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles contributes to neuronal loss...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Sónia Martins, José Artur Paiva, Mário R Simões, Lia Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium. METHODS: The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service...
August 9, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Michio Hashimoto, Shahdat Hossain, Abdullah Al Mamun, Kentaro Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki Arai
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, ω-3) is a highly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. It is concentrated in neuronal brain membranes, for which reason it is also referred to as a "brain food". DHA is essential for brain development and function. It plays an important role in improving antioxidant and cognitive activities of the brain. DHA deficiency occurs during aging and dementia, impairs memory and learning, and promotes age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). For about two decades, we have reported that oral administration of DHA increases spatial memory acquisition, stimulates neurogenesis, and protects against and reverses memory impairment in amyloid β peptide-infused AD rat models by decreasing amyloidogenesis and protects against age-related cognitive decline in the elderly...
July 17, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Peter German, David Saenz, Peter Szaniszlo, Leopoldo Aguilera-Aguirre, Lang Pan, Muralidhar L Hegde, Attila Bacsi, Gyorgy Hajas, Zsolt Radak, Xueqing Ba, Sankar Mitra, John Papaconstantinou, Istvan Boldogh
Age-associated changes in lung structure and function are some of the most important predictors of overall health, cognitive activities and longevity. Common to all aging cells is an increase in oxidatively modified DNA bases, primarily 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). It is repaired via DNA base excision repair pathway driven by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1-BER), whose role in aging has been the focus of many studies. This study hypothesizes that signaling and consequent gene expression during cellular response to OGG1-BER "wires" senescence/aging processes...
June 21, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Sigrid Mueller-Schotte, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Nienke Bleijenberg, Marieke J Schuurmans
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether visual function is associated with cognitive activity engagement and mild cognitive impairment in middle-aged and elderly individuals. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 individuals aged 50-89. The Florida Cognitive Activity Scale (FCAS) was used to assess cognitive activity engagement. Visual function was assessed by near visual acuity (nVA) and contrast sensitivity (CS), and both combined to obtain a visual function (VF) compound score...
September 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Amanda Tow, Roee Holtzer, Cuiling Wang, Alok Sharan, Sun Jin Kim, Aharon Gladstein, Yossef Blum, Joe Verghese
OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of cognitive reserve in reducing delirium incidence and severity in older adults undergoing surgery. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults (mean age 71.2, 65% women) undergoing elective orthopedic surgery (N = 142). MEASUREMENTS: Incidence (Confusion Assessment Method) and severity (Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale) of postoperative delirium were the primary outcomes...
June 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Åsa Hammar, Emanuel Neto, Leila Clemo, Gunnhild J Hjetland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Rebecca Elliott
The present pilot study investigated neuronal correlates of executive functioning in patients previously diagnosed with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to examine a partially remitted and remitted MDD patient group with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a cognitive activation paradigm in order to probe aspects of response inhibition, attention shift, and working memory. Twenty MDD patients and 19 healthy controls, matched for age and sex, participated in the study...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
Emmah Baque, Lee Barber, Leanne Sakzewski, Roslyn N Boyd
OBJECTIVE: To compare efficacy of a web-based multimodal training programme, 'Move it to improve it' (Mitii(TM)), to usual care on gross motor capacity and performance for children with an acquired brain injury. DESIGN: Randomized waitlist controlled trial. SETTING: Home environment. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 60 independently ambulant children (30 in each group), minimum 12 months post-acquired brain injury were recruited and randomly allocated to receive either 20 weeks of Mitii(TM) training (30 minutes/day, six days/week, total 60 hours) immediately, or waitlisted (usual care control group) for 20 weeks...
June 7, 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Atsushi Takeda, Hanuna Tamano
Hippocampal Zn(2+) homeostasis is critical for cognitive activity and hippocampus-dependent memory. Extracellular Zn(2+) signaling is linked to extracellular glutamate signaling and leads to intracellular Zn(2+) signaling, which is involved in cognitive activity. On the other hand, excess intracellular Zn(2+) signaling that is induced by excess glutamate signaling is involved in cognitive decline. In the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus is the most vulnerable to aging and is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive decline...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Leanne Hassett, Maayken van den Berg, Richard I Lindley, Maria Crotty, Annie McCluskey, Hidde P van der Ploeg, Stuart T Smith, Karl Schurr, Maggie Killington, Bert Bongers, Kirsten Howard, Stephane Heritier, Leanne Togher, Maree Hackett, Daniel Treacy, Simone Dorsch, Siobhan Wong, Katharine Scrivener, Sakina Chagpar, Heather Weber, Ross Pearson, Catherine Sherrington
INTRODUCTION: People with mobility limitations can benefit from rehabilitation programmes that provide a high dose of exercise. However, since providing a high dose of exercise is logistically challenging and resource-intensive, people in rehabilitation spend most of the day inactive. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of affordable technology to usual care on physical activity and mobility in people with mobility limitations admitted to inpatient aged and neurological rehabilitation units compared to usual care alone...
2016: BMJ Open
Mati Har-Lev, Nachshon Meiran
Attachment is related to behaviors, including contact maintenance/proximity seeking, and to the keeping of the attachment figure physically, visually, or mentally accessible. In a series of experiments, we observed an analogous behavior in a simple laboratory task in the absence of any stress-related manipulations. Participants performed an easy, choice reaction time (RT) task (often emotionally neutral) on pictures (or names) of significant others versus other persons, both familiar and unfamiliar to them...
October 2016: Emotion
A A Kulesh, V V Shestakov
OBJECTIVE: To present neuropsychological characteristics of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) in acute ischemic stroke (IS) and to assess the efficacy of the drug cellex. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery was administered to 288 patients with acute IS. In addition to basic therapy, 30 patients received cellexin the dosage of 0.1 mg (1 ml) subcutaneously for 10 days, treatment was started in the acute phase. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Multifunctional PSCI were revealed in 87% of patients with acute IS...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
A M Beck, E Dent, C Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Nutritional intervention is increasingly recognised as having an important role in functional rehabilitation for older people. Nonetheless, a greater understanding of the functional benefit of nutritional interventions is needed. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis examined randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2007 and 2014 with the aim of determining whether nutritional intervention combined with rehabilitation benefited older people with reduced functional ability...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Gautam Sajeev, Jennifer Weuve, John W Jackson, Tyler J VanderWeele, David A Bennett, Francine Grodstein, Deborah Blacker
BACKGROUND: Engaging in late-life cognitive activity is often proposed as a strategy to delay or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. However, it is unclear to what extent the available evidence supports a causal effect of cognitive activity in dementia prevention. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE through June 2014 to identify peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies of cognitive activity and incidence of AD or all-cause dementia...
September 2016: Epidemiology
Talia R Seider, Robert A Fieo, Andrew O'Shea, Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Ronald A Cohen
As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9) received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ondine van de Rest, Yamin Wang, Lisa L Barnes, Christine Tangney, David A Bennett, Martha Clare Morris
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between consumption of seafood and long-chain n-3 fatty acids with change in 5 cognitive domains over an average of 4.9 years. METHODS: From an ongoing longitudinal, community-based epidemiologic study of aging and dementia (the Rush Memory and Aging Project), we included 915 participants (age 81.4 ± 7.2 years, 25% men) who had completed at least one follow-up cognitive assessment and dietary data. Diet was assessed by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire...
May 31, 2016: Neurology
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