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"Cognitive activity" aging

Yoko Eguchi, Kumiko Tasato, Shinichiro Nakajima, Yoshihiro Noda, Sakiko Tsugawa, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Hidehito Niimura, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yasumichi Arai, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND: Despite a steady increase in life expectancy, a few studies have investigated cross-sectional correlates and longitudinal predictors of cognitive function, a core domain of the successful aging, among socio-clinico-demographic factors in the oldest-old exclusively. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine socio-clinico-demographic characteristics associated with global cognition and its changes in the oldest-old. METHODS: We reanalyzed a dataset of cognitively preserved community-dwelling subjects aged 85 years and older in the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health, a 6-year longitudinal observational study...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Sterling C Johnson, Rebecca L Koscik, Erin M Jonaitis, Lindsay R Clark, Kimberly D Mueller, Sara E Berman, Barbara B Bendlin, Corinne D Engelman, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Kirk J Hogan, Sanjay Asthana, Cynthia M Carlsson, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager
The Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention is a longitudinal observational cohort study enriched with persons with a parental history (PH) of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Since late 2001, Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention has enrolled 1561 people at a mean baseline age of 54 years. Participants return for a second visit 4 years after baseline, and subsequent visits occur every 2 years. Eighty-one percent (1270) of participants remain active in the study at a current mean age of 64 and 9 years of follow-up...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
INTRODUCTION: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity that has negative implications on many aspects in daily life. Caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion have been shown to be able to reduce these negative effects of mental fatigue. Intake of these substances might however be less desirable in some situations (e.g., restricted caloric intake, Ramadan). Rinsing caffeine or glucose within the mouth has already been shown to improve exercise performance...
December 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Christina Martins Borges Lima, Heloisa Veiga Dias Alves, Daniel Correa Mograbi, Flávia Furtado Pereira, Jesus Landeira Fernandez, Helenice Charchat-Fichman
Objective: To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods: A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders) were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB), Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS)...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Meng Sun, Krista Lanctot, Nathan Herrmann, Damien Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of exercise on cognition in depression as well as the impact of potential moderators and intervention type. METHOD: Controlled and uncontrolled interventional studies that described an exercise intervention and cognitive outcomes in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) were included following a search of Pubmed, Ovid Medline, PsycInfo and Embase from inception to January 2017. Meta-analyses were conducted to calculate Hedges' g using a random-effects model...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Mi Sook Jung, Hyunli Kim, Yeji Lee, Mijung Kim, Eunyoung Chung
Objectives: We aimed to examine the effects of various leisure activities on cognitive impairment in young-old (aged 65-74 years) and old-old (aged ≥ 75 years) adults. Methods: In total, 10,279 elderly Korean individuals from the 2014 Korean National Survey on Older Adults' cohort were enrolled in our study. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the standardized score of the Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening, whereas leisure activities were recorded via self-reporting of the extent and type of leisure activity the subjects involved in over the past year...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Atsushi Takeda, Hanuna Tamano
The basal levels of extracellular Zn2+ are in the range of low nanomolar concentrations and less attention has been paid to Zn2+ , compared to Ca2+ , for synaptic activity. However, extracellular Zn2+ is necessary for synaptic activity. The basal levels of extracellular zinc are age-dependently increased in the rat hippocampus, implying that the basal levels of extracellular Zn2+ are also increased age-dependently and that extracellular Zn2+ dynamics are linked with age-related cognitive function and dysfunction...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amy Coyle Connell
Purpose of this study was to identify whether children aged 12-14 years benefit from academic reentry plans when returning to school following a mild traumatic brain injury. An integrative review was carried out with data sourced from CINAHL, Medline, Education Full Text, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and hand searching of references. Abstracts were reviewed for inclusion/exclusion criteria, resulting with six articles appraised and analyzed for this article. The review shows the need for gradual return to physical and cognitive activity postconcussion to facilitate a quicker recovery with fewer postconcussive symptoms...
November 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Hiroyuki Hikichi, Katsunori Kondo, Tokunori Takeda, Ichiro Kawachi
INTRODUCTION: There are few intervention studies that demonstrated linking social participation to lower risk of cognitive decline. We examined prospectively the protective effect of a community intervention program promoting social participation on the incidence of cognitive disability. METHODS: The baseline was established in a survey of community-dwelling older people aged 65 years old or more in July 2006 (2793 respondents, response rate 48.5%). The setting was Taketoyo town in Japan, where municipal authorities launched an intervention that was based on the establishment of community-based centers called "salons," where the town's senior residents could congregate and participate in social activities, ranging from arts and crafts, games, and interactive activities with preschool children...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Christina L Master, Stephen R Master, Douglas J Wiebe, Eileen P Storey, Julia E Lockyer, Olivia E Podolak, Matthew F Grady
OBJECTIVE: Up to one-third of children with concussion have prolonged symptoms lasting beyond 4 weeks. Vision and vestibular dysfunction is common after concussion. It is unknown whether such dysfunction predicts prolonged recovery. We sought to determine which vision or vestibular problems predict prolonged recovery in children. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of pediatric patients with concussion. SETTING: A subspecialty pediatric concussion program...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Sevdenur Cizginer, Edward Marcantonio, Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Mouhsin Shafi, Eva M Schmitt, Sharon K Inouye, Richard N Jones
We evaluated the role of cognitive and brain reserve markers in modifying the risk of postoperative delirium associated with a pathophysiologic marker. The Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study (SAGES) enrolled 556 adults age ≥70 years without dementia scheduled for major surgery. Patients were assessed preoperatively and daily during hospitalization for delirium. We used C-reactive protein (CRP) as a pathophysiologic marker of inflammation, previously associated with delirium. Markers of reserve included vocabulary knowledge, education, cognitive activities, occupation type and complexity, head circumference, intracranial volume, and leisure activities...
November 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Babette L R Reijs, Stephanie J B Vos, Hilkka Soininen, Jyrki Lötjonen, Juha Koikkalainen, Maria Pikkarainen, Anette Hall, Ritva Vanninen, Yawu Liu, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Giovanni B Frisoni, Lutz Frölich, Flavio Nobili, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Luiza Spiru, Magda Tsolaki, Åsa K Wallin, Philip Scheltens, Frans Verhey, Pieter Jelle Visser
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors have been associated with the risk of dementia, but the association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between later life lifestyle factors and AD biomarkers (i.e., amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal volume) in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, to examine the effect of later life lifestyle factors on developing AD-type dementia in individuals with MCI...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Tiffany F Hughes, Zhaowen Sun, Chung-Chou H Chang, Mary Ganguli
Engagement in cognitively stimulating activities is gaining prominence as a potential strategy to maintain cognitive functioning in old age. In a population-based cohort of individuals aged 65+ years, we examined patterns of change in frequency of engagement in total cognitive activity (TCA), higher cognitive activity (HCA), and frequent cognitive activity (FCA) based on the Florida Cognitive Activities Scale over an average of 3.62 years, and whether these patterns were associated with incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) during this same period...
October 12, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Sara Scrimin, Elisabetta Patron, Elena Florit, Daniela Palomba, Lucia Mason
This study investigated the role of basal cardiac activity and inhibitory control at the beginning of the school year in predicting oral comprehension at the end of the year in pre-schoolers. Forty-three, 4-year-olds participated in the study. At the beginning of the school year children's electrocardiogram at rest was registered followed by the assessment of inhibitory control as well as verbal working memory and verbal ability. At the end of the year all children were administered a listening comprehension ability measure...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
Ludmiła Zając-Lamparska, Monika Wiłkość, Anita Markowska, Ilona Paulina Laskowska-Levy, Marek Wróbel, Bogdan Małkowski
OBJECTIVES: Functional neuroimaging of the brain is a widely used method to study cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of the brain during performance of the tasks of phonemic and semantic fluency with the paced-overt technique in terms of prolonged activation of the brain. METHODS: The study included 17 patients aged 20-40 years who were treated in the past for Hodgkin'slymphoma, now in remission. Due to the type of task, the subjectswere divided into two groups...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Alice Medalia, Alice M Saperstein, Yanlan Huang, Seonjoo Lee, Elizabeth J Ronan
Cognitive impairments are common in homeless youth and negatively impact academic and vocational outcomes. We examined the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive interventions provided to 18- to 22-year-old homeless youth living in urban supportive housing. Ninety-one homeless youth were randomized to receive either targeted cognitive training (cognitive remediation) or general cognitive activation (computer skills training). Cognitive and psychological outcomes were assessed at baseline, after 13 and 26 sessions, and 1 month postintervention...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jin-Won Noh, Kyoung-Beom Kim, Ju Hyun Lee, Min Hee Kim, Young Dae Kwon
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship of health, sociodemographic, and economic factors and life satisfaction in young-old and old-old elderly groups. [Subjects and Methods] In the 2012 data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 4,134 of the final survey subjects aged 65 or older were analyzed. Multivaribale linear regression was performed to examine the degrees of explanatory power as factors (health, sociodemographic, and economic) in young-old (65 to 79 years) and old-old (80 years or older)...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Patrick Fissler, Olivia C Küster, Laura S Loy, Daria Laptinskaya, Martin J Rosenfelder, Christine A F von Arnim, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive disorders are an important societal challenge and the need for early prevention is increasingly recognized. Meta-analyses show beneficial effects of cognitive activities on cognition. However, high financial costs, low intrinsic motivation, logistic challenges of group-based activities, or the need to operate digital devices prevent their widespread application in clinical practice. Solving jigsaw puzzles is a cognitive activity without these hindering characteristics, but cognitive effects have not been investigated yet...
September 6, 2017: Trials
Manuel Hinojosa-Rodríguez, Thalía Harmony, Cristina Carrillo-Prado, John Darrell Van Horn, Andrei Irimia, Carinna Torgerson, Zachary Jacokes
Perinatal care advances emerging over the past twenty years have helped to diminish the mortality and severe neurological morbidity of extremely and very preterm neonates (e.g., cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [c-PVL] and Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage - Intraventricular Hemorrhage [GMH-IVH grade 3-4/4]; 22 to < 32 weeks of gestational age, GA). However, motor and/or cognitive disabilities associated with mild-to-moderate white and gray matter injury are frequently present in this population (e.g., non-cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [non-cystic PVL], neuronal-axonal injury and GMH-IVH grade 1-2/4)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh
Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons innervating the cortex regulate cognitive, specifically attentional, processes. Cholinergic atrophy and cognitive decline occur at an accelerated pace in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease; however, the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon remains unknown. Here we hypothesized that developmental suppression of nerve growth factor signaling, mediated via tropomyosin-related kinase A (trkA) receptors, would escalate age-related attentional vulnerability...
September 29, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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