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docosahexaenoic acid placenta

Akshaya P Meher, Nisha Wadhwani, Karuna Randhir, Savita Mehendale, Girija Wagh, Sadhana R Joshi
BACKGROUND: A very large number of fatty acids play wide range of physiological roles in cellular growth and function in placental as well as fetal growth. However, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in addition to its critical role in cellular membranes, is known to act as a ligand for several nuclear receptors and regulates the activity of transcription factor families like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, liver X receptor (LXR), retinoid X receptor (RXR), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Kemoy Harris, Neeraj Desai, Madhu Gupta, Xiangying Xue, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Burton Rochelson, Christine N Metz
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity may program the fetus and increase the susceptibility of the offspring to adult diseases. Metformin crosses the placenta and has been associated with decreased inflammation and reversal of fatty liver in obese leptin-deficient mice. We investigated the effects of metformin on maternal and fetal lipid metabolism and hepatic inflammation using a rat model of diet-induced obesity during pregnancy. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (6-7 weeks old) were fed normal or high calorie diets for 5 weeks...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Virtu Calabuig-Navarro, Michelle Puchowicz, Patricia Glazebrook, Maricela Haghiac, Judi Minium, Patrick Catalano, Sylvie Hauguel deMouzon, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn
BACKGROUND: The placentas of obese women accumulate lipids that may alter fetal lipid exposure. The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n–3 FAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alter FA metabolism in hepatocytes, although their effect on the placenta is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether n–3 supplementation during pregnancy affects lipid metabolism in the placentas of overweight and obese women at term. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese pregnant women who were randomly assigned to DHA plus EPA (2 g/d) or placebo twice a day from early pregnancy to term...
April 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
María T Prieto-Sánchez, María Ruiz-Palacios, José E Blanco-Carnero, Ana Pagan, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Wolfgang Peissner, Antonio J Ruiz-Alcaraz, Juan J Parrilla, Berthold Koletzko, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maternal-fetal transfer of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is impaired by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. MFSD2a was recently recognized as a lyso-phospholipid (lyso-PL) transporter that facilitates DHA accretion in brain. The role of this transporter in placenta is uncertain. We evaluated effects of GDM and its treatment (diet or insulin) on phospholipid species, fatty acid profile in women, cord blood and placental fatty acid carriers...
January 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Pilar López-Luna, Henar Ortega-Senovilla, Iliana López-Soldado, Emilio Herrera
To investigate the biodisponibility of placental transfer of fatty acids, rats pregnant for 20 days were given tracer amounts of [(14)C]palmitic (PA), oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), α-linolenic (LNA), or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) orally and euthanized at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 8.0 h thereafter. Maternal plasma radioactivity in lipids initially increased only to decline at later times. Most of the label appeared first as triacylglycerols (TAG); later, the proportion in phospholipids (PhL) increased. The percentage of label in placental lipids was also always highest shortly after administration and declined later; again, PhL increased with time...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rafał Bobiński, Monika Mikulska
Fatty acids (FAs) are one the most essential substances in intrauterine human growth. They are involved in a number of energetic and metabolic processes, including the growth of cell membranes, the retina and the nervous system. Fatty acid deficiency and disruptions in the maternal-placental fetal metabolism of FAs lead to malnutrition of the fetus, hypotrophy and preterm birth. What is more, metabolic diseases and cardiovascular conditions may appear later in life. Meeting a fetus' need for FAs is dependent on maternal diet and on the efficiency of the placenta in transporting FAs to fetal circulation...
2015: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Maricela Haghiac, Xiao-hua Yang, Larraine Presley, Shoi Smith, Shirley Dettelback, Judi Minium, Martha A Belury, Patrick M Catalano, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon
OBJECTIVE: Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) exert potent anti-inflammatory properties in humans. This study characterized the effects of omega-3 ω-3 fatty acids supplements (ω-3 FA) on the inflammatory status in the placenta and adipose tissue of overweight/obese pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-masked controlled trial was conducted in overweight/obese pregnant women that were randomly assigned to receive DHA plus EPA (2 g/day) or the equivalent of a placebo twice a day from week 10-16 to term...
2015: PloS One
Ewa Wietrak, Krzysztof Kamiński, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, Jan Oleszczuk
INTRODUCTION: Observational studies confirm a higher incidence of preeclampsia in patients with low erythrocyte concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. Observations point to an association of disorders of pregnancy, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia, with excessive apoptosis. One potential mechanism of action of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promoting a reduction in the risk of pathological pregnancy may be by influencing these processes in the placenta. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 28 pregnant women supplemented with a fish oil product containing 300 mg DHA starting from pregnancy week 20 until delivery (DHA group)...
2015: BioMed Research International
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Ida Kosińska, Dominika Jamioł, Izabela Gutowska, Adam Prokopowicz, Ewa Rębacz-Maron, Marta Goschorska, Tomasz Olszowski, Dariusz Chlubek
Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy...
April 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Yoeju Min, Ovrang Djahanbakhch, Joanne Hutchinson, Sofia Eram, Amritpal S Bhullar, Irene Namugere, Kebreab Ghebremeskel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compromises the level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in phospholipids of maternal and fetal red blood cells and fetal plasma. This is of some concern because of the importance of DHA for fetal neuro-visual development. We have investigated whether this abnormality could be rectified by supplementation with DHA-enriched formula. METHODS: Women with GDM (n = 138) recruited from Newham University Hospital, London received two capsules of DHA-enriched formula (active-group) or high oleic acid sunflower seed oil (placebo-group) from diagnosis until delivery...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Olaf Uhl, Hans Demmelmair, María Teresa Segura, Jesús Florido, Ricardo Rueda, Cristina Campoy, Berthold Koletzko
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse effects in the offspring. The composition of placental glycerophospholipids (GPL) is known to be altered in GDM and might reflect an aberrant fatty acid transfer across the placenta and thus affect the foetal body composition. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of obesity and GDM, respectively, on placental GPL species composition. We investigated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in term placentas from controls (lean non-diabetic, body-mass-index [BMI] 18-24...
August 2015: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Jose A Hurtado, Carmen Iznaola, Manuela Peña, Josefa Ruíz, Luis Peña-Quintana, Naroa Kajarabille, Yessica Rodriguez-Santana, Pablo Sanjurjo, Luis Aldámiz-Echevarría, Julio Ochoa, Federico Lara-Villoslada
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether a dairy drink enriched with ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) could have an impact on the lipid profile of the mother and the newborn, and also whether this intervention could affect the newborns' visual and cognitive development. METHODS: A total of 110 pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups: control group (n = 54), taking 400 mL/day of the control dairy drink, and supplemented group (fish oil [FO]) (n = 56), taking 400 mL/day of the fish oil-enriched dairy drink (including ∼400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]/day)...
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jeffrey A Keelan, Emilie Mas, Nina D'Vaz, Janet A Dunstan, Shaofu Li, Anne E Barden, Peter J Mark, Brendan J Waddell, Susan L Prescott, Trevor A Mori
The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) during pregnancy modifies placental PUFA composition, the accumulation of specialised pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs, specifically resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD) and upstream precursors) and inflammatory gene expression. Placentas were collected from women (n=51) enrolled in a randomised, placebo controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation from 20-week gestation. Lipids were extracted for fatty acid analysis and SPMs were quantitated by mass spectrometry...
February 2015: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Tharwat Stewart Boulis, Burton Rochelson, Olivia Novick, Xiangying Xue, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Madhu Gupta, Malvika H Solanki, Meredith Akerman, Christine N Metz
OBJECTIVE: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation during pregnancy remains controversial. We sought to examine the effects of ω-3 PUFA on inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo using a model of preterm labor. METHODS: In vivo. Female Swiss Webster mice were fed a normal diet or a 5% fish oil (FO) diet for 3 weeks then mated with normal-fed males. On gestational day 15, dams were injected with either saline (n=10 per group) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, intrauterine) (n=10 per group)...
November 2014: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Elvira Larqué, Ana Pagán, María Teresa Prieto, José Eliseo Blanco, Alfonso Gil-Sánchez, Matilde Zornoza-Moreno, María Ruiz-Palacios, Antonio Gázquez, Hans Demmelmair, Juan José Parrilla, Berthold Koletzko
The functionality of the placenta may affect neonatal adiposity and fetal levels of key nutrients such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fetal macrosomia and its complications may occur even in adequately controlled gestational diabetic (GDM) mothers, suggesting that maternal glycemia is not the only determinant of fetal glycemic status and wellbeing. We studied in vivo the placental transfer of fatty acids (FA) labeled with stable isotopes administered to 11 control and 9 GDM pregnant women (6 treated with insulin)...
2014: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Jorge A Carvajal
Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called "deep placentation disorders"; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption...
2014: BioMed Research International
Ephraim Yavin, Yu Hong Lin, Annette Brand, Norman Salem
Accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the fetal brain is accomplished predominantly via a highly selective flow of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, AA) through the placenta. Little is known regarding the endogenous capability of the fetus to generate its own DHA and AA from lower homologues such as linolenic (18:3n-3, ALA) and linoleic (18:2n-6, LA) acids, respectively. Deuterium-labeled d5-ALA and d5-LA at millimolar concentrations were injected directly into the amniotic fluid in order to investigate maternal-independent metabolic conversion of the stable isotopes in brain and liver of the fetus near delivery...
September 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Madhavi Dhobale
Proper placental development is essential during pregnancy since it forms the interface between the maternal-foetal circulations and is critical for foetal nutrition and oxygenation. Neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophin (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) are naturally occurring molecules that regulate development of the placenta and brain. BDNF and NGF also involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. Recent studies suggest that the levels of BDNF and NGF are regulated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which is an important omega-3 fatty acid and is a structural component of the plasma membrane...
October 2014: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Emanuela Pietrantoni, Federica Del Chierico, Giuliano Rigon, Pamela Vernocchi, Guglielmo Salvatori, Melania Manco, Fabrizio Signore, Lorenza Putignani
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are required to maintain the fluidity, permeability and integrity of cell membranes. Maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has beneficial effects, including increased gestational length and reduced risk of pregnancy complications. Significant amounts of ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are transferred from maternal to fetal blood, hence ensuring high levels of DHA in the placenta and fetal bloodstream and tissues. Fetal DHA demand increases exponentially with gestational age, especially in the third trimester, due to fetal development...
2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Akshaya P Meher, Asmita A Joshi, Sadhana R Joshi
An altered one-carbon cycle is known to influence placental and fetal development. We hypothesize that deficiency of maternal micronutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 will lead to increased oxidative stress, reduced long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and altered expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARγ) in the placenta, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to these diets will increase the expression of PPARγ. Female rats were divided into 5 groups: control, folic acid deficient, vitamin B12 deficient, folic acid deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented, and vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid supplemented...
July 2014: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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