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docosahexaenoic acid placenta

Suja Ann Mathew, Ramesh Bhonde
Enhancement of angiogenesis is solicited in wound repair and regeneration. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from the placenta (P-MSCs) have an inherent angiogenic potential. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in turn, specifically the omega-3 (N-3) are essential for growth and development. They are also recommended as dietary supplements during pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that addition of N-3 PUFAs in P-MSC culture media may enhance their angiogenic potential. Hence we treated P-MSCs with omega-3 (N-3) fatty acids -Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at different concentrations and tested their angiogenic potential...
April 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Fernanda Carrilho Pinto da Fonseca, Daniela de Barros Mucci, Renata Pereira Assumpção, Henrique Marcondes, Fátima Lúcia de Carvalho Sardinha, Simone Vargas Silva, Marta Citelli, Maria das Graças Tavares do Carmo
Adolescent pregnancy increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Placental delivery of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is essential for fetal growth and development. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess maternal and fetal status of fatty acids (FA) measured at birth and the expression of key genes involved in FA uptake, transport and metabolism in the placenta of fifteen adolescents and fifteen adults. FA were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Placental expression of FA transporters was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was quantified by Western Blot...
February 16, 2018: Nutrients
Susanne Lager, Vanessa I Ramirez, Ometeotl Acosta, Christiane Meireles, Evelyn Miller, Francesca Gaccioli, Fredrick J Rosario, Jonathan A L Gelfond, Kevin Hakala, Susan T Weintraub, Debra A Krummel, Theresa L Powell
Context: Maternal obesity in pregnancy has profound impacts on maternal metabolism and promotes placental nutrient transport, which may contribute to fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies. The fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has bioactive properties that may improve outcomes in obese pregnant women by modulating placental function. Objective: To determine the effects of DHA supplementation in obese pregnant women on maternal metabolism and placental function...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Renata P Assumpção, Daniela B Mucci, Fernanda C P Fonseca, Henrique Marcondes, Fátima L C Sardinha, Marta Citelli, Maria G Tavares do Carmo
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), mainly docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acids (AA), are critical for adequate fetal growth and development. We investigated mRNA expression of proteins involved in hydrolysis, uptake and/or transport of fatty acids in placenta of fifteen full term normal pregnancies and eleven pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with normal umbilical blood flows. The mRNA expression of LPL, FATPs (-1, -2 and -4) and FABPs (-1 and -3) was increased in IUGR placentas, however, tissue profile of LC-PUFA was not different between groups...
October 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Adam H Metherel, Alex P Kitson, Anthony F Domenichiello, R J Scott Lacombe, Kathryn E Hopperton, Marc-Olivier Trépanier, Shoug M Alashmali, Lin Lin, Richard P Bazinet
Maternal delivery of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) to the developing fetus via the placenta is required for fetal neurodevelopment, and is the only mechanism by which DHA can be accreted in the fetus. The aim of the current study was to utilize a balance model of DHA accretion combined with kinetic measures of serum unesterified DHA uptake to better understand the mechanism by which maternal DHA is delivered to the fetus via the placenta. Female rats maintained on a 2% α-linolenic acid diet free of DHA for 56 days were mated, and for balance analysis, sacrificed at 18 days of pregnancy, and fetus, placenta and maternal carcass fatty acid concentration were determined...
October 2017: Placenta
Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Julia H King, Jian Yan, Zhen Wang, Xinyin Jiang, Jason S Hutzler, Hallie R Klein, J Thomas Brenna, Mark S Roberson, Marie A Caudill
Background: Fetal growth is dependent on placental nutrient supply, which is influenced by placental perfusion and transporter abundance. Previous research indicates that adequate choline nutrition during pregnancy improves placental vascular development, supporting the hypothesis that choline may affect placental nutrient transport. Objective: The present study sought to determine the impact of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental nutrient transporter abundance and nutrient metabolism during late gestation...
November 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Federica Ungaro, Carlotta Tacconi, Luca Massimino, Paola Antonia Corsetto, Carmen Correale, Philippe Fonteyne, Andrea Piontini, Valeria Garzarelli, Francesca Calcaterra, Silvia Della Bella, Antonino Spinelli, Michele Carvello, Angela Maria Rizzo, Stefania Vetrano, Luciana Petti, Gionata Fiorino, Federica Furfaro, Domenico Mavilio, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Alberto Malesci, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Silvia D'Alessio, Silvio Danese
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alterations in signaling pathways that regulate resolution of inflammation (resolving pathways) contribute to pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). The resolution process is regulated by lipid mediators, such as those derived from the ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whose esterified form is transported by the major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2A (MFSD2A) through the endothelium of brain, retina, and placenta. We investigated if and how MFSD2A regulates lipid metabolism of gut endothelial cells to promote resolution of intestinal inflammation...
November 2017: Gastroenterology
Akshaya P Meher, Nisha Wadhwani, Karuna Randhir, Savita Mehendale, Girija Wagh, Sadhana R Joshi
BACKGROUND: A very large number of fatty acids play wide range of physiological roles in cellular growth and function in placental as well as fetal growth. However, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in addition to its critical role in cellular membranes, is known to act as a ligand for several nuclear receptors and regulates the activity of transcription factor families like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, liver X receptor (LXR), retinoid X receptor (RXR), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Kemoy Harris, Neeraj Desai, Madhu Gupta, Xiangying Xue, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Burton Rochelson, Christine N Metz
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity may program the fetus and increase the susceptibility of the offspring to adult diseases. Metformin crosses the placenta and has been associated with decreased inflammation and reversal of fatty liver in obese leptin-deficient mice. We investigated the effects of metformin on maternal and fetal lipid metabolism and hepatic inflammation using a rat model of diet-induced obesity during pregnancy. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (6-7 weeks old) were fed normal or high calorie diets for 5 weeks...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Virtu Calabuig-Navarro, Michelle Puchowicz, Patricia Glazebrook, Maricela Haghiac, Judi Minium, Patrick Catalano, Sylvie Hauguel deMouzon, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn
BACKGROUND: The placentas of obese women accumulate lipids that may alter fetal lipid exposure. The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n–3 FAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alter FA metabolism in hepatocytes, although their effect on the placenta is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether n–3 supplementation during pregnancy affects lipid metabolism in the placentas of overweight and obese women at term. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese pregnant women who were randomly assigned to DHA plus EPA (2 g/d) or placebo twice a day from early pregnancy to term...
April 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
María T Prieto-Sánchez, María Ruiz-Palacios, José E Blanco-Carnero, Ana Pagan, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Wolfgang Peissner, Antonio J Ruiz-Alcaraz, Juan J Parrilla, Berthold Koletzko, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maternal-fetal transfer of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is impaired by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. MFSD2a was recently recognized as a lyso-phospholipid (lyso-PL) transporter that facilitates DHA accretion in brain. The role of this transporter in placenta is uncertain. We evaluated effects of GDM and its treatment (diet or insulin) on phospholipid species, fatty acid profile in women, cord blood and placental fatty acid carriers...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Pilar López-Luna, Henar Ortega-Senovilla, Iliana López-Soldado, Emilio Herrera
To investigate the biodisponibility of placental transfer of fatty acids, rats pregnant for 20 days were given tracer amounts of [(14)C]palmitic (PA), oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), α-linolenic (LNA), or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) orally and euthanized at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 8.0 h thereafter. Maternal plasma radioactivity in lipids initially increased only to decline at later times. Most of the label appeared first as triacylglycerols (TAG); later, the proportion in phospholipids (PhL) increased. The percentage of label in placental lipids was also always highest shortly after administration and declined later; again, PhL increased with time...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rafał Bobiński, Monika Mikulska
Fatty acids (FAs) are one the most essential substances in intrauterine human growth. They are involved in a number of energetic and metabolic processes, including the growth of cell membranes, the retina and the nervous system. Fatty acid deficiency and disruptions in the maternal-placental fetal metabolism of FAs lead to malnutrition of the fetus, hypotrophy and preterm birth. What is more, metabolic diseases and cardiovascular conditions may appear later in life. Meeting a fetus' need for FAs is dependent on maternal diet and on the efficiency of the placenta in transporting FAs to fetal circulation...
2015: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Maricela Haghiac, Xiao-hua Yang, Larraine Presley, Shoi Smith, Shirley Dettelback, Judi Minium, Martha A Belury, Patrick M Catalano, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon
OBJECTIVE: Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) exert potent anti-inflammatory properties in humans. This study characterized the effects of omega-3 ω-3 fatty acids supplements (ω-3 FA) on the inflammatory status in the placenta and adipose tissue of overweight/obese pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-masked controlled trial was conducted in overweight/obese pregnant women that were randomly assigned to receive DHA plus EPA (2 g/day) or the equivalent of a placebo twice a day from week 10-16 to term...
2015: PloS One
Ewa Wietrak, Krzysztof Kamiński, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, Jan Oleszczuk
INTRODUCTION: Observational studies confirm a higher incidence of preeclampsia in patients with low erythrocyte concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. Observations point to an association of disorders of pregnancy, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia, with excessive apoptosis. One potential mechanism of action of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promoting a reduction in the risk of pathological pregnancy may be by influencing these processes in the placenta. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 28 pregnant women supplemented with a fish oil product containing 300 mg DHA starting from pregnancy week 20 until delivery (DHA group)...
2015: BioMed Research International
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Ida Kosińska, Dominika Jamioł, Izabela Gutowska, Adam Prokopowicz, Ewa Rębacz-Maron, Marta Goschorska, Tomasz Olszowski, Dariusz Chlubek
Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy...
April 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Yoeju Min, Ovrang Djahanbakhch, Joanne Hutchinson, Sofia Eram, Amritpal S Bhullar, Irene Namugere, Kebreab Ghebremeskel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compromises the level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in phospholipids of maternal and fetal red blood cells and fetal plasma. This is of some concern because of the importance of DHA for fetal neuro-visual development. We have investigated whether this abnormality could be rectified by supplementation with DHA-enriched formula. METHODS: Women with GDM (n = 138) recruited from Newham University Hospital, London received two capsules of DHA-enriched formula (active-group) or high oleic acid sunflower seed oil (placebo-group) from diagnosis until delivery...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Olaf Uhl, Hans Demmelmair, María Teresa Segura, Jesús Florido, Ricardo Rueda, Cristina Campoy, Berthold Koletzko
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse effects in the offspring. The composition of placental glycerophospholipids (GPL) is known to be altered in GDM and might reflect an aberrant fatty acid transfer across the placenta and thus affect the foetal body composition. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of obesity and GDM, respectively, on placental GPL species composition. We investigated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in term placentas from controls (lean non-diabetic, body-mass-index [BMI] 18-24...
August 2015: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Jose A Hurtado, Carmen Iznaola, Manuela Peña, Josefa Ruíz, Luis Peña-Quintana, Naroa Kajarabille, Yessica Rodriguez-Santana, Pablo Sanjurjo, Luis Aldámiz-Echevarría, Julio Ochoa, Federico Lara-Villoslada
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether a dairy drink enriched with ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) could have an impact on the lipid profile of the mother and the newborn, and also whether this intervention could affect the newborns' visual and cognitive development. METHODS: A total of 110 pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of the following intervention groups: control group (n = 54), taking 400 mL/day of the control dairy drink, and supplemented group (fish oil [FO]) (n = 56), taking 400 mL/day of the fish oil-enriched dairy drink (including ∼400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]/day)...
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jeffrey A Keelan, Emilie Mas, Nina D'Vaz, Janet A Dunstan, Shaofu Li, Anne E Barden, Peter J Mark, Brendan J Waddell, Susan L Prescott, Trevor A Mori
The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) during pregnancy modifies placental PUFA composition, the accumulation of specialised pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs, specifically resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD) and upstream precursors) and inflammatory gene expression. Placentas were collected from women (n=51) enrolled in a randomised, placebo controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation from 20-week gestation. Lipids were extracted for fatty acid analysis and SPMs were quantitated by mass spectrometry...
February 2015: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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