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docosahexaenoic acid choline

Jeffrey Cummings, Philip Scheltens, Ian McKeith, Rafael Blesa, John E Harrison, Paulo H F Bertolucci, Kenneth Rockwood, David Wilkinson, Wouter Wijker, David A Bennett, Raj C Shah
BACKGROUND: Souvenaid® (uridine monophosphate, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium), was developed to support the formation and function of neuronal membranes. OBJECTIVE: To determine effect sizes observed in clinical trials of Souvenaid and to calculate the number needed to treat to show benefit or harm. METHODS: Data from all three reported randomized controlled trials of Souvenaid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia (Souvenir I, Souvenir II, and S-Connect) and an open-label extension study were included in analyses of effect size for cognitive, functional, and behavioral outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Suku-Maran Shalini, Deron R Herr, Wei-Yi Ong
Pain and anxiety have a complex relationship and pain is known to share neurobiological pathways and neurotransmitters with anxiety. Top-down modulatory pathways of pain have been shown to originate from cortical and subcortical regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this study, a novel docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing nutraceutical, Souvenaid, was administered to mice with infraorbital nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain and behavioral responses recorded. Infraorbital nerve ligation resulted in increased face wash strokes of the face upon von Frey hair stimulation, indicating increased nociception...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Christoph Maas, Axel R Franz, Anna Shunova, Michaela Mathes, Christine Bleeker, Christian F Poets, Erwin Schleicher, Wolfgang Bernhard
BACKGROUND: Choline, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) are essential to fetal development, particularly of the brain. These components are actively enriched in the fetus. Deprivation from placental supply may therefore result in impaired accretion in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To determine choline, choline metabolites, DHA, and ARA in human breast milk (BM) of preterm infants compared to BM of term born infants. DESIGN: We collected expressed BM samples from 34 mothers (N = 353; postnatal day 6-85), who had delivered 35 preterm infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (postmenstrual age 30 weeks, range 25...
May 10, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Silvia Vincenzetti, Valeria Polzonetti, Daniela Micozzi, Stefania Pucciarelli
It is well known that disorders of pyrimidine pathways may lead to neurological, hematological, immunological diseases, renal impairments, and association with malignancies. Nucleotide homeostasis depends on the three stages of pyrimidine metabolism: de novo synthesis, catabolism and recycling of these metabolites. Cytidine and uridine, in addition to be used as substrates for pyrimidine nucleotide salvaging, also act as the precursors of cytidine triphosphate used in the biosynthetic pathway of both brain's phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine via the Kennedy cycle...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
M Neijat, M Suh, J Neufeld, J D House
The limited efficiency with which dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted by hens into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for egg deposition is not clearly understood. In this study, dietary ALA levels were increased via the inclusion of hempseed (HS) and hempseed oil (HO) in hen diets, with the goal of assessing the effects on the fatty acid (FA) profiles of total lipids and lipid classes in yolk, liver and plasma. Forty-eight hens were individually caged and fed one of six diets containing either HS:10, 20 or 30, HO:4...
May 2016: Lipids
Nick van Wijk, Martin Balvers, Mehmet Cansev, Timothy J Maher, John W C Sijben, Laus M Broersen
Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks...
July 2016: Lipids
Maximilian Wiesmann, Valerio Zerbi, Diane Jansen, Roy Haast, Dieter Lütjohann, Laus M Broersen, Arend Heerschap, Amanda J Kiliaan
APOE ε4 (apoE4) polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A dietary approach (Fortasyn) including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for dietary management of AD. We hypothesize that the diet could inhibit AD-like pathologies in apoE4 mice, specifically cerebrovascular and connectivity impairment. Moreover, we evaluated the diet effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional connectivity (FC), gray/white matter integrity, and postsynaptic density in aging apoE4 mice...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Makoto Usami, Makoto Miyoshi, Hayato Yamashita
The gut microbiota has the capacity to produce a diverse range of compounds that play a major role in regulating the activity of distal organs and the liver is strategically positioned downstream of the gut. Gut microbiota linked compounds such as short chain fatty acids, bile acids, choline metabolites, indole derivatives, vitamins, polyamines, lipids, neurotransmitters and neuroactive compounds, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones have many biological functions. This review focuses on the gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis...
November 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Carol L Cheatham, Kelly Will Sheppard
The aim was to explore the relation of human milk lutein; choline; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with recognition memory abilities of six-month-olds. Milk samples obtained three to four months postpartum were analyzed for fatty acids, lutein, and choline. At six months, participants were invited to an electrophysiology session. Recognition memory was tested with a 70-30 oddball paradigm in a high-density 128-lead event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Complete data were available for 55 participants. Data were averaged at six groupings (Frontal Right; Frontal Central; Frontal Left; Central; Midline; and Parietal) for latency to peak, peak amplitude, and mean amplitude...
November 3, 2015: Nutrients
Keshuai Li, Rolf Erik Olsen, Mari-Ann Østensen, Dag Altin, Elin Kjørsvik, Yngvar Olsen
The dietary requirement of phospholipid (PL) of fish larvae has been suggested to originate in an inefficient ability for de novo biosynthesis of PL based on dietary triacylglycerol (TAG). The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether cod larvae could synthesis PL from sn-2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and glycerol precursors. A tube feeding method was used to deliver equal molar aliquots of 2-oleoyl-[1,2,3-(3)H]glycerol and [U-(14)C] glycerol together with bovine serum albumin (BSA) bound 16:0 (palmitic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), with or without choline chloride to the foregut of anesthetized cod larvae and thereafter monitoring the metabolism of these components in the larvae through 4 h following injection...
February 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Anne Rijpma, Olga Meulenbroek, Anneke M J van Hees, John W C Sijben, Bruno Vellas, Raj C Shah, David A Bennett, Philip Scheltens, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert
INTRODUCTION: Circulating levels of uridine, selenium, vitamins B12, E and C, folate, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than in healthy individuals. These low levels may affect disease pathways involved in synapse formation and neural functioning. Here, we investigated whether, and to what extent, circulating levels of micronutrients and fatty acids can be affected by oral supplementation with Souvenaid (containing a specific nutrient combination), using data derived from three randomized clinical trials (RCT) and an open-label extension (OLE) study with follow-up data from 12 to 48 weeks...
2015: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Georgina P Ossani, Valeria C Denninghoff, Ana M Uceda, Maria L Díaz, Raúl Uicich, Alberto J Monserrat
Weanling male Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient diet develop acute kidney injury. Menhaden oil, which is a very important source of omega-3 fatty acids, has a notorious protective effect. The mechanism of this protection is unknown; one possibility could be that menhaden oil changes renal lipid profile, with an impact on the functions of biological membranes. The aim of this work was to study the renal lipid profile in rats fed a choline-deficient diet with menhaden oil or vegetable oil as lipids. Rats were divided into 4 groups and fed four different diets for 7 days: choline-deficient or choline-supplemented diets with corn and hydrogenated oils or menhaden oil...
2015: Journal of Oleo Science
Sanaz Khosravi, Ji-Woong Jang, Samad Rahimnejad, Jin-Woo Song, Kyeong-Jun Lee
A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the essentiality of choline supplementation in diets for parrot fish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were supplemented with 0 (as control), 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg choline per kg diet, and a positive control diet without choline contained 0.3% of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol as choline biosynthesis inhibitor (designated as Con, C500, C1000, C2000 and Con(+), respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (body weight, 8.8±0.01 g) were fed one of the experimental diets at a rate of 4% body weight twice daily...
May 2015: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Morag J Andrew, Jeremy R Parr, Chris Montague-Johnson, Oliver Braddick, Karen Laler, Nicola Williams, Bonny Baker, Peter B Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Neurological impairment is a common sequelae of perinatal brain injury. Plasticity of the developing brain is due to a rich substrate of developing neurones, synaptic elements and extracellular matrix. Interventions supporting this inherent capacity for plasticity may improve the developmental outcome of infants following brain injury. Nutritional supplementation with combination docosahexaenoic acid, uridine and choline has been shown to increase synaptic elements, dendritic density and neurotransmitter release in rodents, improving performance on cognitive tests...
March 17, 2015: BMC Pediatrics
Judith Grothe, Joachim Riethmüller, Sandra M Tschürtz, Marco Raith, Chris J Pynn, Dieter Stoll, Wolfgang Bernhard
BACKGROUND: Liver impairment, ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, is frequent in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and is becoming increasingly significant due to their improved life expectancy. One aspect of hepatic alterations is caused by increased fecal loss of the essential nutrient choline, following enterohepatic bile phosphatidylcholine (PC) cycle impairment. Hepatic PC synthesis, both de novo and via phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyl-transferase (PEMT), is essential for very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Matteo Pardini, Carlo Serrati, Silvia Guida, Chiara Mattei, Lucia Abate, Davide Massucco, Davide Sassos, Mario Amore, Frank Krueger, Leonardo Cocito, Leonardo Emberti Gialloreti
BACKGROUND: Souvenaid™ is a nutraceutical compound thought to positively enhance synaptic function. In line with this mechanism of action, Souvenaid™ has been shown to improve cognitive function in subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease in randomized clinical trials. To date, however, the potential of Souvenaid™ to improve cognitive functioning in subjects with other neurodegenerative conditions also characterized by synaptic loss has not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Souvenaid™ on executive functions, social cognition and behavioral disturbances in subjects with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD)...
2015: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Paul L Wood, Greg Unfried, Willard Whitehead, Aaron Phillipps, Julie A Wood
BACKGROUND: Based upon the concept of a prodromal risk syndrome for first psychosis, intense efforts are being applied to define potential biomarkers of disease onset in schizophrenia. One such tentative biomarker may be plasmalogens, complex structural glycerophospholipids that serve multiple functions in all cells. METHODS: To further investigate this possibility, we undertook a lipidomics analysis of choline and ethanolamine plasmalogens in the plasma and platelets of 23 patients with schizophrenia and 27 age-matched controls...
February 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Jennifer K Young, Heather E Giesbrecht, Michael N Eskin, Michel Aliani, Miyoung Suh
Prenatal alcohol exposure produces a multitude of detrimental alcohol-induced defects in children collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Children with FASD often exhibit delayed or abnormal mental, neural, and physical growth. Socioeconomic status, race, genetics, parity, gravidity, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption patterns are all factors that may influence FASD. Optimal maternal nutritional status is of utmost importance for proper fetal development, yet is often altered with alcohol consumption...
November 2014: Advances in Nutrition
Zahra Hadian, Mohammad Ali Sahari, Hamid Reza Moghimi, Mohsen Barzegar
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) have been shown to prevent cardiovascular disease. The most commonly used omega-3 fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are highly vulnerable to oxidation and therefore, have short shelf life. Recent advances in nanoliposomes provided a biocompatible system for stabilizing omega-3 FAs. Several methods could be implemented to prepare nanoliposomes. To the best of our knowledge, the performances of these methods in preparation omega-3 FAs have not been examined...
2014: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Philippe Koehrer, Sarah Saab, Olivier Berdeaux, Rodica Isaïco, Stéphane Grégoire, Stéphanie Cabaret, Alain M Bron, Catherine P Creuzot-Garcher, Lionel Bretillon, Niyazi Acar
BACKGROUND: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) including docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are suspected to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. LCPUFAs are known to be preferentially concentrated in specific phospholipids termed as plasmalogens. This study was aimed to highlight potential changes in the metabolism of phospholipids, and particularly plasmalogens, and LCPUFAs at various stages of diabetic retinopathy in humans. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed lipidomic analyses on red blood cell membranes from controls and mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with or without retinopathy...
2014: PloS One
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