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Affects of spinal manipulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716830/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-absence-of-their-target-axons-in-vivo
#1
Rafael Almeida, David Lyons
Oligodendrocytes form myelin around axons of the central nervous system, enabling saltatory conduction. Recent work has established that axons can regulate certain aspects of oligodendrocyte development and myelination, yet remarkably oligodendrocytes in culture retain the ability to differentiate in the absence of axons and elaborate myelin sheaths around synthetic axon-like substrates. It remains unclear the extent to which the life-course of oligodendrocytes requires the presence of, or signals derived from axons in vivo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712014/generation-of-a-nk1r-creer-knockin-mouse-strain-to-study-cells-involved-in-neurokinin-1-receptor-signaling
#2
Huizhen Huang, Marissa S Kuzirian, Xiaoyun Cai, Lindsey M Snyder, Jonathan Cohen, Daniel H Kaplan, Sarah E Ross
The Neurokinin 1 Receptor (NK1R), which binds Substance P, is expressed in discrete populations of neurons throughout the nervous system, where it has numerous roles including the modulation of pain and affective behaviors. Here, we report the generation of a NK1R-CreER knockin allele, in which CreER(T2) replaces the coding sequence of the TACR1 gene (encoding NK1R) in order to gain genetic access to these cells. We find that the NK1R-CreER allele mediates recombination in many regions of the nervous system that are important in pain and anxiety including the amygdala, hypothalamus, frontal cortex, raphe nucleus, and dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
November 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581447/periaqueductal-grey-ep3-receptors-facilitate-spinal-nociception-in-arthritic-secondary-hypersensitivity
#3
R A R Drake, J L Leith, F Almahasneh, J Martindale, A W Wilson, B Lumb, L F Donaldson
UNLABELLED: Descending controls on spinal nociceptive processing play a pivotal role in shaping the pain experience after tissue injury. Secondary hypersensitivity develops within undamaged tissue adjacent and distant to damaged sites. Spinal neuronal pools innervating regions of secondary hypersensitivity are dominated by descending facilitation that amplifies spinal inputs from unsensitized peripheral nociceptors. Cyclooxygenase-prostaglandin (PG) E2 signaling within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is pronociceptive in naive and acutely inflamed animals, but its contributions in more prolonged inflammation and, importantly, secondary hypersensitivity remain unknown...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383600/spontaneous-release-regulates-synaptic-scaling-in-the-embryonic-spinal-network-in-vivo
#4
Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain, Carlos Gonzalez-Islas, Casie Lindsly, Peter Wenner
UNLABELLED: Homeostatic plasticity mechanisms maintain cellular or network spiking activity within a physiologically functional range through compensatory changes in synaptic strength or intrinsic cellular excitability. Synaptic scaling is one form of homeostatic plasticity that is triggered after blockade of spiking or neurotransmission in which the strengths of all synaptic inputs to a cell are multiplicatively scaled upward or downward in a compensatory fashion. We have shown previously that synaptic upscaling could be triggered in chick embryo spinal motoneurons by complete blockade of spiking or GABAA receptor (GABAAR) activation for 2 d in vivo Here, we alter GABAAR activation in a more physiologically relevant manner by chronically adjusting presynaptic GABA release in vivo using nicotinic modulators or an mGluR2 agonist...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080071/pain-and-somatic-sensation-are-transiently-normalized-by-illusory-body-ownership-in-a-patient-with-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Mariella Pazzaglia, Patrick Haggard, Giorgio Scivoletto, Marco Molinari, Bigna Lenggenhager
PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI), a profound impairment of sensorimotor functions, is often associated with pain related phenomena, including mechanical allodynia, a condition in which non-painful tactile sensation is perceived as pain. Pain and somatic sensation are undeniable markers of normal bodily awareness. However, the mechanism by which they are integrated into a coherent sense of the bodily self remains largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of high-level multisensory manipulation on subjective experiences of pain, touch, and body-ownership...
April 11, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047694/manipulation-of-dysfunctional-spinal-joints-affects-sensorimotor-integration-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-brain-source-localization-study
#6
Dina Lelic, Imran Khan Niazi, Kelly Holt, Mads Jochumsen, Kim Dremstrup, Paul Yielder, Bernadette Murphy, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Heidi Haavik
Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM) of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP) populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984600/mechano-transduction-signals-derived-from-self-assembling-peptide-nanofibers-containing-long-motif-of-laminin-influence-neurogenesis-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Shima Tavakol, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Behnaz Tavakol, Elham Hoveizi, Jafar Ai, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat Sorkhabadi
Astroglial scaring and limited neurogenesis are two problematic issues in recovery of spinal cord injury (SCI). In the meantime, it seems that mechanical manipulations of scaffold to inhibit astroglial scarring and improve neurogenesis is worthy of value. In the present investigation, the effect of nanofiber (gel) concentration as a mechanical-stimuli in neurogenesis was investigated. Cell viability, membrane damage, and neural differentiation derived from endometrial stem cells encapsulated into self-assembling peptide nanofiber containing long motif of laminin were assessed...
March 16, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965559/the-expression-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-bladder-pain-syndrome
#8
Ifeoma Offiah, Athanasios Didangelos, John Dawes, Rufus Cartwright, Vik Khullar, Elizabeth J Bradbury, Suzanne O'Sullivan, Dic Williams, Iain P Chessell, Kenny Pallas, Gerry Graham, Barry A O'Reilly, Stephen B McMahon
BACKGROUND: Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) pathology is poorly understood. Treatment strategies are empirical, with limited efficacy, and affected patients have diminished quality of life. OBJECTIVE: We examined the hypothesis that inflammatory mediators within the bladder contribute to BPS pathology. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen women with BPS and 15 women with stress urinary incontinence without bladder pain were recruited from Cork University Maternity Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012...
August 2016: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954891/differential-displacement-of-soft-tissue-layers-from-manual-therapy-loading
#9
Shawn Engell, John J Triano, James R Fox, Helene M Langevin, Elisa E Konofagou
BACKGROUND: Understanding the biomechanics of spinal manipulative therapy requires knowing how loads are transmitted to deeper structures. This investigation monitored displacement at sequential depths in thoracic paraspinal tissues parallel with surface load directions. METHODS: Participants were prone and a typical preload maneuver was applied to thoracic tissues. Ultrasound speckle tracking synchronously monitored displacement and shear deformation of tissue layers in a region of interest adjacent to load application to a depth of 4 cm...
March 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26863348/neural-responses-to-physical-characteristics-of-a-high-velocity-low-amplitude-spinal-manipulation-effect-of-thrust-direction
#10
William R Reed, Cynthia R Long, Gregory N Kawchuk, Randall S Sozio, Joel G Pickar
STUDY DESIGN: Electrophysiological recordings were obtained from proprioceptors in deep lumbar paraspinal muscles of anesthetized cats during high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM). OBJECTIVE: To determine how thrust direction of an HVLA-SM affects neural input from back musculature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A clinician's ability to apply the thrust of an HVLA-SM in a specified direction is considered an important component of its optimal delivery...
December 5, 2015: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26837229/attenuation-effect-of-spinal-manipulation-on-neuropathic-and-postoperative-pain-through-activating-endogenous-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-interleukin-10-in-rat-spinal-cord
#11
Xue-Jun Song, Zhi-Jiang Huang, William B Song, Xue-Song Song, Arlan F Fuhr, Anthony L Rosner, Harrison Ndtan, Ronald L Rupert
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate roles of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 10 and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in spinal manipulation-induced analgesic effects of neuropathic and postoperative pain. METHODS: Neuropathic and postoperative pain were mimicked by chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) (CCD) and decompression (de-CCD) in adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats. Behavioral pain after CCD and de-CCD was determined by the increased thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity of the affected hindpaw...
January 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26777279/regulation-of-excitability-in-tonic-firing-substantia-gelatinosa-neurons-of-the-spinal-cord-by-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channels
#12
Kun Yang
The excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in the spinal dorsal horn determines the processing of nociceptive information from the periphery to the central nervous system. Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels on neurons supply strong negative feedback control on neuronal excitability by affecting afterhyperpolarization (AHP). However, the role of SK channels in regulating tonic-firing SG neuron excitability remains elusive. In the present study, whole-cell recordings were conducted in SG neurons from acute spinal cord slices of adult rats...
June 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26748043/manipulation-of-neurotransmitter-levels-has-differential-effects%C3%A2-on-formalin-evoked-nociceptive-behavior-in-male-and%C3%A2-female-mice
#13
Katherine A Mifflin, Curtis Benson, Kevin C Thorburn, Glen B Baker, Bradley J Kerr
UNLABELLED: Changes in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the spinal cord are known to occur in response to nociceptive stimuli, yet little research has examined possible underlying sex differences in these changes and how they might affect nociception. We have used pharmacological approaches in a well established model of tonic nociception, the formalin test, to explore the effects of altering neurotransmitter levels on nociceptive responses in male and female C57BL/6 mice...
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26586317/chiropractic-spinal-manipulative-therapy-for-migraine-a-study-protocol-of-a-single-blinded-placebo-controlled-randomised-clinical-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Aleksander Chaibi, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Peter J Tuchin, Michael Bjørn Russell
INTRODUCTION: Migraine affects 15% of the population, and has substantial health and socioeconomic costs. Pharmacological management is first-line treatment. However, acute and/or prophylactic medicine might not be tolerated due to side effects or contraindications. Thus, we aim to assess the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs in a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial (RCT). METHOD AND ANALYSIS: According to the power calculations, 90 participants are needed in the RCT...
2015: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26451482/multisensory-signaling-shapes-vestibulo-motor-circuit-specificity
#15
Emanuela Basaldella, Aya Takeoka, Markus Sigrist, Silvia Arber
The ability to continuously adjust posture and balance is necessary for reliable motor behavior. Vestibular and proprioceptive systems influence postural adjustments during movement by signaling functionally complementary sensory information. Using viral tracing and mouse genetics, we reveal two patterns of synaptic specificity between brainstem vestibular neurons and spinal motor neurons, established through distinct mechanisms. First, vestibular input targets preferentially extensor over flexor motor pools, a pattern established by developmental refinement in part controlled by vestibular signaling...
October 8, 2015: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26319101/effects-of-spinal-manipulation-on-sensorimotor-function-in-low-back-pain-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Christine M Goertz, Ting Xia, Cynthia R Long, Robert D Vining, Katherine A Pohlman, James W DeVocht, Maruti R Gudavalli, Edward F Owens, William C Meeker, David G Wilder
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem in industrialized societies. Spinal manipulation (SM) is often used for treating LBP, though the therapeutic mechanisms remain elusive. Research suggests that sensorimotor changes may be involved in LBP. It is hypothesized that SM may generate its beneficial effects by affecting sensorimotor functions. OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in sensorimotor function, as measured by postural sway and response to sudden load, in LBP patients following the delivery of high-velocity low amplitude (HVLA)-SM or low-velocity variable amplitude (LVVA)-SM versus a sham control intervention...
February 2016: Manual Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26309381/immediate-effects-of-upper-thoracic-spine-manipulation-on-hypertensive-individuals
#17
John Ward, Ken Tyer, Jesse Coats, Gabbrielle Williams, Kristina Kulcak
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine if there were any statistically significant immediate effects of upper thoracic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on cardiovascular physiology in hypertensive individuals. INTRODUCTION: Preliminary research suggests that SMT to various regions of the spine may be capable of lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Further studies are warranted to corroborate or refute these findings as well as measure how other attributes of cardiovascular physiology are impacted by SMT...
February 2015: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26235015/discrete-or-diffuse-intramedullary-tumor-contrast-enhanced-intraoperative-ultrasound-in-a-case-of-intramedullary-cervicothoracic-hemangioblastomas-mimicking-a-diffuse-infiltrative-glioma-technical-note-and-case-report
#18
Ignazio G Vetrano, Francesco Prada, Ilaria F Nataloni, Massimiliano Del Bene, Francesco Dimeco, Laura G Valentini
Hemangioblastomas are benign, highly vascularized intramedullary lesions that may also extend into the intradural space. Surgery represents the standard therapy, with the goal of obtaining complete resection even at the risk of neurological morbidity. MRI is the gold standard for diagnosis and assessment of intramedullary tumors. Nevertheless, sometimes MRI may not accurately differentiate between different types of intramedullary tumors, in particular if they are associated with syringes or intra- and peritumoral cysts...
August 2015: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26206681/impact-of-shear-rate-pattern-on-upper-and-lower-limb-conduit-artery-endothelial-function-in-both-spinal-cord-injured-and-able-bodied-men
#19
J O Totosy de Zepetnek, D S Ditor, J S Au, M J MacDonald
What is the central question of this study? This study addresses the following two central questions. (i) What is the impact of vascular deconditioning after spinal cord injury (SCI) on shear rate patterns and endothelial function? (ii) What is the impact of acutely altered shear rate on endothelial function in both SCI and able-bodied control subjects? What is the main finding and its importance? Two main findings in the present study were as follows: (i) reduced superficial femoral artery endothelial function in the SCI group; and (ii) acutely altered shear rate decreased endothelial function in both SCI and able-bodied control subjects...
October 2015: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26193167/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice-with-human-immune-systems
#20
Randall S Carpenter, Kristina A Kigerl, Jessica M Marbourg, Andrew D Gaudet, Devra Huey, Stefan Niewiesk, Phillip G Popovich
Mouse models have provided key insight into the cellular and molecular control of human immune system function. However, recent data indicate that extrapolating the functional capabilities of the murine immune system into humans can be misleading. Since immune cells significantly affect neuron survival and axon growth and also are required to defend the body against infection, it is important to determine the pathophysiological significance of spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced changes in human immune system function...
September 2015: Experimental Neurology
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