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Affects of spinal manipulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807894/advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-neck-pain
#1
REVIEW
Steven P Cohen, W Michael Hooten
Neck pain imposes a considerable personal and socioeconomic burden-it is one of the top five chronic pain conditions in terms of prevalence and years lost to disability-yet it receives a fraction of the research funding given to low back pain. Although most acute episodes resolve spontaneously, more than a third of affected people still have low grade symptoms or recurrences more than one year later, with genetics and psychosocial factors being risk factors for persistence. Nearly half of people with chronic neck pain have mixed neuropathic-nociceptive symptoms or predominantly neuropathic symptoms...
August 14, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737113/micrornas-roles-in-regulating-neuroinflammation
#2
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken, Linda R Watkins, Randy J Nelson, Phillip G Popovich
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that broadly affect cellular and physiological function in all multicellular organisms. Here, the role of miRNAs in neuroinflammation is considered. miRNAs are 21- to 23-oligonucleotide RNAs that regulate translation of specific RNAs by binding to complementary regulatory RNA sequences, thereby causing mRNA degradation or sequestration. More than 5000 miRNAs likely exist in humans, and each miRNA binds an average of 200 RNAs. Specific immunomodulatory miRNAs can regulate a set of RNAs in a coordinated manner, suggesting that effective miRNA-based therapeutic manipulations for neuroinflammatory conditions may be revealed...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729900/unravelling-functional-neurology-a-scoping-review-of-theories-and-clinical-applications-in-a-context-of-chiropractic-manual-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Anne-Laure Meyer, Amanda Meyer, Sarah Etherington, Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde
BACKGROUND: Functional Neurology (FN), a seemingly attractive treatment approach used by some chiropractors, proposes to have an effect on a multitude of conditions but some of its concepts are controversial. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: A scoping review was performed to describe, in the context of chiropractic manual therapy, 1) the FN theories, and 2) its clinical applications (i.e. its indications, examination procedures, treatment modalities, treatment plans, and clinical outcomes) using four sources: i) one key textbook, ii) the scientific peer-reviewed literature, iii) websites from chiropractors using FN, and iv) semi-structured interviews of chiropractors using FN...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713283/excitatory-modulation-of-the-preb%C3%A3-tzinger-complex-inspiratory-rhythm-generating-network-by-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide
#4
Glauber S F da Silva, João P J Sabino, Vishaal Rajani, Tucaauê S Alvares, Silvia Pagliardini, Luiz G S Branco, Gregory D Funk
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is one of three gasotransmitters that modulate excitability in the CNS. Global application of H2S donors or inhibitors of H2S synthesis to the respiratory network has suggested that inspiratory rhythm is modulated by exogenous and endogenous H2S. However, effects have been variable, which may reflect that the RTN/pFRG (retrotrapezoid nucleus, parafacial respiratory group) and the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC, critical for inspiratory rhythm generation) are differentially modulated by exogenous H2S...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636676/mitochondrion-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-apposition-length-in-zebrafish-embryo-spinal-progenitors-is-unchanged-in-response-to-perturbations-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Morgan Newman, Lena Halter, Anne Lim, Michael Lardelli
Mutations in the human genes PRESENILIN1 (PSEN1), PRESENILIN2 (PSEN2) and AMYLOID BETA A4 PRECURSOR PROTEIN (APP) have been identified in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The length of mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum (M-ER) appositions is increased in Psen1-/-/Psen2-/- double knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from AD-affected individuals. Development of an easily accessible, genetically manipulable, in vivo system for studying M-ER appositions would be valuable so we attempted to manipulate M-ER apposition length in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599647/association-of-lumbar-spine-stiffness-and-flexion-relaxation-phenomenon-with-patient-reported-outcomes-in-adults-with-chronic-low-back-pain-a-single-arm-clinical-trial-investigating-the-effects-of-thrust-spinal-manipulation
#6
Ting Xia, Cynthia R Long, Robert D Vining, Maruti R Gudavalli, James W DeVocht, Gregory N Kawchuk, David G Wilder, Christine M Goertz
BACKGROUND: Spinal manipulation (SM) is used commonly for treating low back pain (LBP). Spinal stiffness is routinely assessed by clinicians performing SM. Flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) was shown to distinguish between LBP and healthy populations. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association of these two physiological variables with patient-reported pain intensity and disability in adults with chronic LBP (>12 weeks) receiving SM. METHODS: A single-arm trial provided 12 sessions of side-lying thrust SM in the lumbosacral region over 6 weeks...
June 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539887/biomaterials-for-local-controlled-drug-delivery-to-the-injured-spinal-cord
#7
REVIEW
Alexis M Ziemba, Ryan J Gilbert
Affecting approximately 17,000 new people each year, spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating injury that leads to permanent paraplegia or tetraplegia. Current pharmacological approaches are limited in their ability to ameliorate this injury pathophysiology, as many are not delivered locally, for a sustained duration, or at the correct injury time point. With this review, we aim to communicate the importance of combinatorial biomaterial and pharmacological approaches that target certain aspects of the dynamically changing pathophysiology of SCI...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536509/chronic-social-stress-time-dependently-affects-neuropathic-pain-related-cold-allodynia-and-leads-to-altered-expression-of-spinal-biochemical-mediators
#8
Glenn-Marie Le Coz, Julien Genty, Fernand Anton, Ulrike Hanesch
Clinical data have shown that chronic exposure to stress may be accompanied by an enhancement of inflammation-related pain sensitivity. In this context, little is however known on the impact of stress on neuropathic pain. In the present study we addressed this issue by combining the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model with an ongoing social stress (OSS) paradigm. Cold plate and von Frey tests were performed in 48 rats divided into four groups: OSS exposed to OSS, CCI subjected to chronic nerve constriction, OSS+CCI with a combination of neuropathy and stress and CON, a control group lacking any manipulation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503292/historical-influence-on-the-practice-of-chiropractic-radiology-part-i-a-survey-of-diplomates-of-the-american-chiropractic-college-of-radiology
#9
Kenneth J Young
BACKGROUND: It is known that not all chiropractors follow mainstream guidelines on the use of diagnostic ionising radiation. Various reasons have been discussed in the literature, including using radiography to screen for congenital anomalies, to perform postural analysis, to search for contraindications to spinal manipulation, and to document chiropractic subluxations, i.e., tiny anatomical displacements of vertebrae thought to affect nerves and health. The visualisation of subluxations was the reason chiropractic first adopted the x-ray in 1910...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479402/tight-neurovascular-coupling-in-the-spinal-cord-during-nociceptive-stimulation-in-intact-and-spinal-rats
#10
Mathieu Piché, Thierry Paquette, Hugues Leblond
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is based on neurovascular coupling, which allows inferring neuronal activity from hemodynamic changes. Spinal fMRI has been used to examine pain processes, although spinal neurovascular coupling has never been investigated. In addition, fluctuations in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occur during nociceptive stimulation and this may affect neurovascular coupling. The objective of this study was to examine neurovascular coupling in the rat spinal cord during nociceptive stimulation while MAP was manipulated by cervical spinal transection, which prevents nociception-related MAP increases...
May 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426667/bioenergetic-status-modulates-motor-neuron-vulnerability-and-pathogenesis-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#11
Penelope J Boyd, Wen-Yo Tu, Hannah K Shorrock, Ewout J N Groen, Roderick N Carter, Rachael A Powis, Sophie R Thomson, Derek Thomson, Laura C Graham, Anna A L Motyl, Thomas M Wishart, J Robin Highley, Nicholas M Morton, Thomas Becker, Catherina G Becker, Paul R Heath, Thomas H Gillingwater
Degeneration and loss of lower motor neurons is the major pathological hallmark of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), resulting from low levels of ubiquitously-expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. One remarkable, yet unresolved, feature of SMA is that not all motor neurons are equally affected, with some populations displaying a robust resistance to the disease. Here, we demonstrate that selective vulnerability of distinct motor neuron pools arises from fundamental modifications to their basal molecular profiles...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384197/the-influence-of-corticospinal-activity-on-tms-evoked-activity-and-connectivity-in-healthy-subjects-a-tms-eeg-study
#12
Sara Petrichella, Nessa Johnson, Bin He
Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to analyze cortical reactivity and connectivity. However, the effects of corticospinal and peripheral muscle activity on TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) are not well understood. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between cortico-spinal activity, in the form of peripheral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and the TEPs from motor areas, along with the connectivity among activated brain areas. TMS was applied to left and right motor cortex (M1), separately, at motor threshold while multi-channel EEG responses were recorded in 17 healthy human subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315275/sigma-1-receptor-in-motoneuron-disease
#13
Renzo Mancuso, Xavier Navarro
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS ) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting spinal cord and brain motoneurons , leading to paralysis and early death. Multiple etiopathogenic mechanisms appear to contribute in the development of ALS , including glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress , protein misfolding, mitochondrial defects, impaired axonal transport, inflammation and glial cell alterations. The Sigma-1 receptor is highly expressed in motoneurons of the spinal cord, particularly enriched in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at postsynaptic cisternae of cholinergic C-terminals...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266959/morphometric-analysis-of-the-retroperitoneal-vessels-with-respect-to-lateral-access-surgery-in-adult-scoliosis
#14
Heeren S Makanji, Hai Le, Kirkham B Wood, Louis G Jenis, Thomas D Cha
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study reviewing 62 magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans from consecutive adult patients with scoliotic spinal deformity in the thoracolumbar spine. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in anatomic position of retroperitoneal vessels in relationship to curve direction, location, magnitude, and axial rotation of curves in adult scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The minimally invasive lateral approach to the thoracolumbar spine avoids manipulation of abdominal and retroperitoneal structures and decreases risk of injury to paraspinal musculature...
August 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196632/procedure-selection-and-patient-positioning-influence-spine-kinematics-during-high-velocity-low-amplitude-spinal-manipulation-applied-to-the-low-back
#15
Spencer Bell, Kevin D'Angelo, Gregory N Kawchuk, John J Triano, Samuel J Howarth
OBJECTIVES: This investigation compared indirect 3-dimensional angular kinematics (position, velocity, and acceleration) of the lumbar spine for 2 different high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation procedures (lumbar spinous pull or push), and altered initial patient lower limb posture. METHODS: Twenty-four participants underwent 6 HVLA procedures directed toward the presumed L4 vertebra, reflecting each combination of 2 variants of a spinal manipulation application technique (spinous pull and push) and 3 initial hip flexion angles (0°, 45°, and 90°) applied using a right lateral recumbent patient position...
March 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144626/modulation-of-rhythmic-activity-in-mammalian-spinal-networks-is-dependent-on-excitability-state
#16
Simon A Sharples, Patrick J Whelan
Neuromodulators play an important role in activating rhythmically active motor networks; however, what remains unclear are the network interactions whereby neuromodulators recruit spinal motor networks to produce rhythmic activity. Evidence from invertebrate systems has demonstrated that the effect of neuromodulators depends on the pre-existing state of the network. We explored how network excitation state affects the ability of dopamine to evoke rhythmic locomotor activity in the neonatal mouse isolated spinal cord...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128321/spinal-hb9-cre-derived-excitatory-interneurons-contribute-to-rhythm-generation-in-the-mouse
#17
Vanessa Caldeira, Kimberly J Dougherty, Lotta Borgius, Ole Kiehn
Rhythm generating neurons are thought to be ipsilaterally-projecting excitatory neurons in the thoracolumbar mammalian spinal cord. Recently, a subset of Shox2 interneurons (Shox2 non-V2a INs) was found to fulfill these criteria and make up a fraction of the rhythm-generating population. Here we use Hb9::Cre mice to genetically manipulate Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons (INs) in order to determine the role of these INs in rhythm generation. We demonstrate that this line captures a consistent population of spinal INs which is mixed with respect to neurotransmitter phenotype and progenitor domain, but does not overlap with the Shox2 non-V2a population...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093705/manipulation-of-oxygen-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-factors-as-possible-interventions-for-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-evidence-for-and-against
#18
Paul Eggleton, Gary R Smerdon, Janet E Holley, Nicholas J Gutowski
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is normally considered a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), where T-cells breaching the blood brain barrier react against proteins of the axonal myelin sheaths, leading to focal plaques and demyelination in the brain and spinal cord. Many current therapies are immunosuppressive in nature and are designed to target the immune system at an early stage of the disease. But there is no cure and MS may evolve into a neurodegenerative disease, where immunomodulatory treatments appear less effective...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042118/post-operative-neuropathy-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#19
REVIEW
E P Su
Nerve palsy is a well-described complication following total hip arthroplasty, but is highly distressing and disabling. A nerve palsy may cause difficulty with the post-operative rehabilitation, and overall mobility of the patient. Nerve palsy may result from compression and tension to the affected nerve(s) during the course of the operation via surgical manipulation and retractor placement, tension from limb lengthening or compression from post-operative hematoma. In the literature, hip dysplasia, lengthening of the leg, the use of an uncemented femoral component, and female gender are associated with a greater risk of nerve palsy...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716830/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-absence-of-their-target-axons-in-vivo
#20
Rafael Almeida, David Lyons
Oligodendrocytes form myelin around axons of the central nervous system, enabling saltatory conduction. Recent work has established that axons can regulate certain aspects of oligodendrocyte development and myelination, yet remarkably oligodendrocytes in culture retain the ability to differentiate in the absence of axons and elaborate myelin sheaths around synthetic axon-like substrates. It remains unclear the extent to which the life-course of oligodendrocytes requires the presence of, or signals derived from axons in vivo...
2016: PloS One
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