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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821659/stim1-regulates-somatic-ca-2-signals-and-intrinsic-firing-properties-of-cerebellar-purkinje-neurons
#1
Changhyeon Ryu, Dong Cheol Jang, Dayoon Jung, Yong Gyu Kim, Hyun Geun Shim, Hyun-Hee Ryu, Yong-Seok Lee, David J Linden, Paul F Worley, Sang Jeong Kim
Control of Ca(2+) flux between the cytosol and intracellular Ca(2+) stores is essential for maintaining normal cellular function. It has been well established in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) initiates and regulates refilling Ca(2+) into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we describe a novel, additional role for STIM1, regulation of free cytosolic Ca(2+) and consequent control of spike firing in neurons. Among central neurons, cerebellar Purkinje neurons express the highest level of STIM1 and they fire continuously in the absence of stimulation, making somatic Ca(2+) homeostasis of particular importance...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821651/role-of-somatostatin-positive-cortical-interneurons-in-the-generation-of-sleep-slow-waves
#2
Chadd M Funk, Kayla Peelman, Michele Bellesi, William Marshall, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi
During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep cortical and thalamic neurons oscillate every second or so between ON periods characterized by membrane depolarization and wake-like tonic firing, and OFF periods characterized by membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silence. Cortical slow waves - the hallmark of NREM sleep - reflect near-synchronous OFF periods in cortical neurons. However, the mechanisms triggering such OFF periods are unclear, as there is little evidence for somatic inhibition. We studied cortical inhibitory interneurons that express somatostatin (SOM), because ∼70% of them are Martinotti cells that target diffusely layer I and can block excitatory transmission presynaptically, at glutamatergic terminals, and postsynaptically, at apical dendrites, without inhibiting the soma...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818572/ribavirin-inhibits-zika-virus-zikv-replication-in-vitro-and-suppresses-viremia-in-zikv-infected-stat1-deficient-mice
#3
Naganori Kamiyama, Ryusuke Soma, Shinya Hidano, Kei Watanabe, Hiroshi Umekita, Chiaki Fukuda, Kaori Noguchi, Yoshiko Gendo, Takashi Ozaki, Akira Sonoda, Nozomi Sachi, Lucky Ronald Runtuwene, Yumako Miura, Etsuro Matsubara, Shigeru Tajima, Tomohiko Takasaki, Yuki Eshita, Takashi Kobayashi
Zika fever, a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), is an epidemic disease for which no effective therapy has been established. The recent outbreaks of ZIKV in Brazil and French Polynesia have been linked to a considerable increase in the incidence of fetal microcephaly and other diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Because there is currently no specific therapy or vaccine, the early exploitation of a method to prevent expansion of ZIKV is a high priority. To validate commonly used antiviral drugs, we evaluated the effect of ribavirin, a drug used to treat hepatitis C with interferon-β (IFN-β), on ZIKV replication...
August 14, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818391/role-of-capillary-pericytes-and-precapillary-arterioles-in-the-vascular-mechanism-of-betahistine-in-a-guinea-pig-inner-ear-model
#4
Mattis Bertlich, Friedrich Ihler, Bernhard G Weiss, Saskia Freytag, Michael Strupp, Mark Jakob, Martin Canis
AIMS: Betahistine is a histamine analogue that is used for the treatment of Menière's disease. Animal studies showed that it increases local blood flow in the stria vascularis. In terms of its mode of action, recent studies have prompted discussion of whether betahistine actively affects cochlear microcirculation by dilations of pericytes or of precapillary arterioles or by mere downstream effects. Hence, we investigated the effects of betahistine on cochlear capillary pericytes and precapillary arterioles...
August 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817688/the-extremely-divergent-maternally-and-paternally-transmitted-mitochondrial-genomes-are-co-expressed-in-somatic-tissues-of-two-freshwater-mussel-species-with-doubly-uniparental-inheritance-of-mtdna
#5
Sophie Breton, Karim Bouvet, Gabrielle Auclair, Stéphanie Ghazal, Bernard E Sietman, Nathan Johnson, Stefano Bettinazzi, Donald T Stewart, Davide Guerra
Freshwater mussel species with doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mtDNA are unique because they are naturally heteroplasmic for two extremely divergent mtDNAs with ~50% amino acid differences for protein-coding genes. The paternally-transmitted mtDNA (or M mtDNA) clearly functions in sperm in these species, but it is still unknown whether it is transcribed when present in male or female soma. In the present study, we used PCR and RT-PCR to detect the presence and expression of the M mtDNA in male and female somatic and gonadal tissues of the freshwater mussel species Venustaconcha ellipsiformis and Utterbackia peninsularis (Unionidae)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812939/removing-dysfunctional-mitochondria-from-axons-independent-of-mitophagy-under-pathophysiological-conditions
#6
Mei-Yao Lin, Xiu-Tang Cheng, Yuxiang Xie, Qian Cai, Zu-Hang Sheng
Chronic mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in major neurodegenerative diseases. Long-term cumulative pathological stress leads to axonal accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Therefore, the early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. We recently investigated the axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer disease (AD)-linked neurons...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805794/large-scale-mapping-of-cortical-synaptic-projections-with-extracellular-electrode-arrays
#7
Mark Shein-Idelson, Lorenz Pammer, Mike Hemberger, Gilles Laurent
Understanding circuit computation in the nervous system requires sampling activity over large neural populations and maximizing the number of features that can be extracted. By combining planar arrays of extracellular electrodes with the three-layered cortex of turtles, we show that synaptic signals induced along individual axons as well as action potentials can be easily captured. Two types of information can be extracted from these signals, the neuronal subtype (inhibitory or excitatory)-whose identification is more reliable than with traditional measures such as action potential width-and a (partial) spatial map of functional axonal projections from individual neurons...
August 14, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804848/laboratory-testing-for-von-willebrand-factor-factor-viii-binding-for-2n-vwd
#8
Soma Mohammed, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is reportedly the most common inherited bleeding disorder and can also arise as an acquired syndrome (AVWS). These disorders develop due to defects and/or deficiency of the plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). Laboratory testing for the VWF-related disorders requires assessment of both VWF level and VWF activity, the latter requiring multiple assays because of the many functions carried out by VWF to help prevent bleeding. The current paper describes a protocol for assessment of VWF activity by means of VWF: factor VIII binding (VWF:FVIIIB)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804846/laboratory-testing-for-von-willebrand-factor-ristocetin-cofactor-vwf-rco
#9
Soma Mohammed, Emmanuel J Favaloro
von Willebrand disease (VWD) is reportedly the most common inherited bleeding disorder and can also arise as an acquired syndrome (AVWS). These disorders develop due to defects and/or deficiency of the plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). Laboratory testing for these VWF-related disorders requires assessment of both VWF level and VWF activity, the latter requiring multiple assays because of the many functions carried out by VWF to help prevent bleeding. The current paper describes several protocols for assessment of VWF activity by means of VWF ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804845/laboratory-testing-for-von-willebrand-factor-collagen-binding-vwf-cb
#10
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Soma Mohammed
Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is reportedly the most common inherited bleeding disorder and can also arise as an acquired syndrome (AVWS). These disorders develop due to defects and/or deficiency of the plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). Laboratory testing for the VWF-related disorders requires assessment of both VWF level and VWF activity, the latter requiring multiple assays because of the many functions carried out by VWF to help prevent bleeding. This chapter describes several protocols for assessment of VWF activity by means of VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804844/laboratory-testing-for-von-willebrand-factor-antigen-vwf-ag
#11
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Soma Mohammed, Jürgen Patzke
von Willebrand disease (VWD) is reportedly the most common inherited bleeding disorder and can also arise as an acquired syndrome (AVWS). These disorders arise due to defects and/or deficiency of the plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). Laboratory testing for the VWF-related disorders requires assessment of both VWF level and VWF activity, the latter requiring multiple assays because of the many functions carried out by VWF to help prevent bleeding. The current paper describes protocols for assessment of VWF level by means of VWF antigen (VWF:Ag)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804833/laboratory-testing-protocols-for-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-hit-testing
#12
Kun Kan Edwin Lau, Soma Mohammed, Leonardo Pasalic, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) represents a significant high morbidity complication of heparin therapy. The clinicopathological diagnosis of HIT remains challenging for many reasons; thus, laboratory testing represents an important component of an accurate diagnosis. Although there are many assays available to assess HIT, these essentially fall into two categories-(a) immunological assays, and (b) functional assays. The current chapter presents protocols for several HIT assays, being those that are most commonly performed in laboratory practice and have the widest geographic distribution...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804824/laboratory-testing-for-activated-protein-c-resistance-apcr
#13
Soma Mohammed, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Activated protein C resistance (APCR) describes a hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). This results in an increased risk of venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Protein C is a natural anticoagulant that is synthesized in the liver and is activated to APC via proteolysis. APC then degrades Factors Va and VIIIa. APCR describes the reduced inability of APC to cleave Factors Va and VIIIa, which therefore promotes increased thrombin generation and potentially leads to a prothrombotic state...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802898/neurochemical-evidence-that-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-55-102-peptide-modulates-the-dopaminergic-reward-system-by-decreasing-the-dopamine-release-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#14
Angelina Rakovska, Maria Baranyi, Katalin Windish, Polina Petkova-Kirova, Hristo Gagov, Reni Kalfin
CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801529/silencing-of-repetitive-dna-is-controlled-by-a-member-of-an-unusual-caenorhabditis-elegans-gene-family
#15
Eduardo Leyva-Díaz, Nikolaos Stefanakis, Inés Carrera, Lori Glenwinkel, Guoqiang Wang, Monica Driscoll, Oliver Hobert
Repetitive DNA sequences are subject to gene silencing in various animal species. Under specific circumstances repetitive DNA sequences can escape such silencing. For example, when exogenously added, extrachromosomal DNA sequences that are stably inherited in multicopy repetitive arrays in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are frequently silenced in the germline, whereas such silencing often does not occur in the soma. This indicates that somatic cells might utilize factors that prevent repetitive DNA silencing...
August 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800966/reconstruction-of-a-metabolic-regulatory-network-in-escherichia-coli-for-purposeful-switching-from-cell-growth-mode-to-production-mode-in-direct-gaba-fermentation-from-glucose
#16
Yuki Soma, Yuri Fujiwara, Takuya Nakagawa, Keigo Tsuruno, Taizo Hanai
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a drug and functional food additive and is used as a monomer for producing the biodegradable plastic, polyamide 4. Recently, direct GABA fermentation from glucose has been developed as an alternative to glutamate-based whole cell bioconversion. Although total productivity in fermentation is determined by the specific productivity and cell amount responsible for GABA production, the optimal metabolic state for GABA production conflicts with that for bacterial cell growth. Herein, we demonstrated metabolic state switching from the cell growth mode based on the metabolic pathways of the wild type strain to a GABA production mode based on a synthetic metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli through rewriting of the metabolic regulatory network and pathway engineering...
August 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799130/near-set-based-mucin-segmentation-in-histopathology-images-for-detecting-mucinous-carcinoma
#17
Soma Banerjee, Monjoy Saha, Indu Arun, Bijan Basak, Sanjit Agarwal, Rosina Ahmed, Sanjoy Chatterjee, Lipi B Mahanta, Chandan Chakraborty
This paper introducesnear-set based segmentation method for extraction and quantification of mucin regions for detecting mucinouscarcinoma (MC which is a sub type of Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)). From histology point of view, the presence of mucin is one of the indicators for detection of this carcinoma. In order to detect MC, the proposed method majorly includes pre-processing by colour correction, colour transformation followed by near-set based segmentation and post-processing for delineating only mucin regions from the histological images at 40×...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798669/receptor-mechanisms-mediating-the-pro-nociceptive-action-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-rat-trigeminal-neurons-and-meningeal-afferents
#18
Kseniya Koroleva, Alsu Mustafina, Aleksey Yakovlev, Anton Hermann, Rashid Giniatullin, Guzel Sitdikova
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a well-established member of the gasotransmitter family, is involved in a variety of physiological functions, including pro-nociceptive action in the sensory system. Although several reports have shown that H2S activates sensory neurons, the molecular targets of H2S action in trigeminal (TG) nociception, implicated in migraine, remains controversial. In this study, using suction electrode recordings, we investigate the effect of the H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on nociceptive firing in rat meningeal TG nerve fibers...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798533/a-spontaneous-myoepithelial-carcinoma-in-the-mammary-gland-of-an-aged-female-icr-cd-1-mouse
#19
Tsuyoshi Ito, Toshinori Yoshida, Katsumi Soma, Yoshitaka Katoh, Yuko Shimada, Aya Ohnuma-Koyama, Naofumi Takahashi, Yoshimasa Okazaki, Atsushi Shiga, Maki Kuwahara, Takanori Harada
We report a female Crlj:CD1(ICR) mouse with a spontaneous mammary gland tumor composed of biphasic tumor cells, i.e., epithelioid and spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells. Macroscopically, a subcutaneous mass, approximately 3 cm in diameter was found in the lumbodorsal region. Histopathologically, the epithelioid cells proliferated in an alveolar or nest-like growth pattern, occasionally forming glandular-like structures. On the other hand, the spindle-shaped cells proliferated in a sarcomatous pattern. Normal mammary gland was observed in the vicinity of the tumor...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794453/varying-sensitivity-of-mountainous-streamwater-base-flow-formula-see-text-concentrations-to-n-deposition-in-the-northern-suburbs-of-tokyo
#20
Kazuya Nishina, Mirai Watanabe, Masami K Koshikawa, Takejiro Takamatsu, Yu Morino, Tatsuya Nagashima, Kunika Soma, Seiji Hayashi
Ecosystems of suburban landscapes (i.e., forest, inland water ecosystem) are threatened by high nitrogen (N) loadings derived from urban air pollutants. Forest ecosystems under high chronic N loadings tend to leach more N via streams. In the northern suburbs of Tokyo, N deposition loading on terrestrial ecosystems has increased over the past 30 years. In this region, we investigated nitrate concentrations in 608 independent small forested catchment water samples from northeastern suburbs of Tokyo. The nitrate concentrations varied from 0...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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