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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547658/time-of-day-dependent-expression-of-purinergic-receptors-in-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#1
Julian Lommen, Anna Stahr, Marc Ingenwerth, Amira A H Ali, Charlotte von Gall
Purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors are involved in mediating intercellular signalling via purines such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). P2X and P2Y receptors have been implicated in numerous body functions including learning, memory and sleep. All of these body functions show time-of-day-dependent variations controlled by the master circadian oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Evidence exists for a role of purinergic signalling in intercellular coupling within SCN. However, few studies have been performed on the expression of purinergic receptors in SCN...
May 26, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547521/validation-of-the-cingulate-island-sign-with-optimized-ratios-for-discriminating-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-from-alzheimer-s-disease-using-brain-perfusion-spect
#2
Etsuko Imabayashi, Tsutomu Soma, Daichi Sone, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Yukio Kimura, Noriko Sato, Miho Murata, Hiroshi Matsuda
OBJECTIVE: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is often cited as the second most common dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is clinically important to distinguish DLB from AD because specific side effects of antipsychotic drugs are limited to DLB. The relative preservation of cingulate glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyri versus that in the precuni, known as the cingulate island sign (CIS), in patients with DLB compared with AD is supposed to be highly specific for diagnosing DLB...
May 25, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546314/chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-changes-associated-with-subregion-selective-serotonin-cell-death-in-the-dorsal-raphe
#3
Reka Natarajan, Laura Forrester, Nicolas Chiaia, Bryan K Yamamoto
The current study examined the neurochemical mechanisms and neuroanatomical changes underlying co-existing behavioral effects associated with chronic stress-induced alterations in serotonin (5HT) neurons. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to adult male rats produced depression-like changes with cognitive dysfunction and selective cell death in the interfascicular nucleus of the dorsal raphe (DRif) resulting in decreased 5HTergic innervation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Twenty-one days of CUS decreased basal plasma levels of corticosterone and produced a shorter latency to immobility and longer durations of immobility in the force-swim test that persisted for one month after CUS...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545924/retinoic-acid-pre-treatment-down-regulates-v-cholerae-outer-membrane-vesicles-induced-acute-inflammation-and-enhances-mucosal-immunity
#4
Ritam Sinha, Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Atri Ta, Soma Mitra, Santasabuj Das, Hemanta Koley
Bacterial outer membrane vesicles have been extensively investigated and considered as a next generation vaccine. Recently, we have demonstrated that the cholera pentavalent outer membrane vesicles (CPMVs) immunogen induced adaptive immunity and had a strong protective efficacy against the circulating V. cholerae strains in a mouse model. In this present study, we are mainly focusing on reducing outer membrane vesicle (OMV) -mediated toxicity without altering its antigenic property. Therefore, we have selected All-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA), active metabolites of vitamin A, which have both anti-inflammatory and mucosal adjuvant properties...
May 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541900/simultaneous-semi-coupled-dictionary-learning-for-matching-in-canonical-space
#5
Nilotpal Das, Devraj Mandal, Soma Biswas
Cross-modal recognition and matching with privileged information are important challenging problems in the field of computer vision. The cross-modal scenario deals with matching across different modalities and needs to take care of the large variations present across and within each modality. The privileged information scenario deals with the situation that all the information available during training may not be available during the testing stage and hence algorithms need to leverage the extra information from the training stage itself...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540525/identification-of-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-via-newborn-screening-for-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#6
Jessica C Barry, Terrence Blaine Crowley, Soma Jyonouchi, Jennifer Heimall, Elaine H Zackai, Kathleen E Sullivan, Donna M McDonald-McGinn
PURPOSE: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common cause of DiGeorge syndrome, is quite variable. Neonatal diagnosis traditionally relies on recognition of classic features and cytogenetic testing, but many patients come to attention only following identification of later onset conditions, such as hypernasal speech due to palatal insufficiency and developmental and behavioral differences including speech delay, autism, and learning disabilities that would benefit from early interventions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536263/axodendritic-sorting-and-pathological-missorting-of-tau-is-isoform-specific-and-determined-by-axon-initial-segment-architecture
#7
Hans Zempel, Frank Dennissen, Yatender Kumar, Julia Luedtke, Jacek Biernat, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Eckhard Mandelkow
Subcellular mislocalization of the microtubule-associated protein Tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Six Tau isoforms, differentiated by the presence or absence of a second repeat or of N-terminal inserts, exist in the human CNS but their physiological and pathological differences have long remained remain elusive. Here, we investigated the properties and distributions of human and rodent Tau isoforms in primary forebrain rodent neurons. We found that the Tau-Diffusion-Barrier (TDB), located within the Axon-Initial-Segment (AIS), controls retrograde (axon-to-soma) and anterograde (soma-to-axon) traffic of Tau...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532352/understanding-glaucomatous-optic-neuropathy-the-synergy-between-clinical-observation-and-investigation
#8
Harry A Quigley
Glaucoma is a complex disorder of aging defined by the death of retinal ganglion cells and remodeling of connective tissues at the optic nerve head. Intraocular pressure-induced axonal injury at the optic nerve head leads to apoptosis. Loss of retinal ganglion cells follows a slowly progressive sequence. Clinical features of the disease have suggested and corroborated pathological events. The death of retinal ganglion cells causes secondary loss of neurons in the brain, but only as a by-product of injury to the retinal ganglion cells...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526579/differential-involvement-of-vesicular-and-glial-glutamate-transporters-around-spinal-%C3%AE-motoneurons-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Tomohiro Ohgomori, Ryo Yamasaki, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Kenji Kadomatsu, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shozo Jinno
From a view point of the glutamate excitotoxicity theory, several studies have suggested that abnormal glutamate homeostasis via dysfunction of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) may underlie neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the detailed role of GLT-1 in the pathogenies of ALS remains controversial. To assess this issue, here we elucidated structural alterations associated with dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis using SOD1(G93A) mice, a genetic model of familial ALS...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526138/gata-factors-master-regulators-of-gene-expression-in-trophoblast-progenitors
#10
Soumen Paul, Pratik Home, Bhaswati Bhattacharya, Soma Ray
Mammalian reproduction is critically dependent on trophoblast cells, which ensure embryo implantation and placentation. Development of trophoblast cell lineages is a multi-step process and relies upon proper spatial and temporal gene expression, which is regulated by multiple transcription factors. However, most of the transcription factors that are implicated in trophoblast development regulate gene expression at a specific developmental stage or in a specific trophoblast subtype. In contrast, recent studies from our group and other laboratories indicate that conserved GATA family of transcription factors, GATA2 and GATA3, are important to regulate gene expression at multiple stages of trophoblast development...
May 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526022/a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study-of-medical-student-preferences-for-vodcast-design-format-and-pedagogical-approach
#11
Robin K Pettit, Marjorie Kinney, Lise McCoy
BACKGROUND: Vodcasts (video podcasts) are becoming increasingly popular in medical education. At A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (ATSU SOMA), vodcasts are an essential component of our blended learning environment, where year 2-4 students train in a contextual setting at community health centers across the U.S. Vodcasts are used far less frequently in our year 1 residential learning environment at the main campus in Arizona, but we are considering moving to significantly more interactive educational experiences with on-demand videos followed by in-class activities...
May 19, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524001/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promotes-growth-of-neurons-and-neural-stem-cells-possibly-by-triggering-the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-akt-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#12
Jin-Wei Yang, Zhang Liang, Shi-Kang Deng Deng, Wei Ma, Xian-Bin Wang, Xing-Tong Li, Tong-Tong Wang, Yun-Fei Dai, Jian-Hui Guo, Li-Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in promoting survival and differentiation of neurons and neural stem cells (NSCs), but the downstream regulating mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether BDNF exerts its effect by triggering the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B, PKB (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and β-catenin signaling pathway in cultured neurons and NSCs derived from the rat embryonic spinal cord...
May 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522470/three-dimensional-ca-2-imaging-advances-understanding-of-astrocyte-biology
#13
Erika Bindocci, Iaroslav Savtchouk, Nicolas Liaudet, Denise Becker, Giovanni Carriero, Andrea Volterra
Astrocyte communication is typically studied by two-dimensional calcium ion (Ca(2+)) imaging, but this method has not yielded conclusive data on the role of astrocytes in synaptic and vascular function. We developed a three-dimensional two-photon imaging approach and studied Ca(2+) dynamics in entire astrocyte volumes, including during axon-astrocyte interactions. In both awake mice and brain slices, we found that Ca(2+) activity in an individual astrocyte is scattered throughout the cell, largely compartmented between regions, preponderantly local within regions, and heterogeneously distributed regionally and locally...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510441/molybdenum-carbamate-nanosheets-as-a-new-class-of-potential-phase-change-materials
#14
Maksym Zhukovskyi, Vladimir V Plashnitsa, Nattasamon Petchsang, Anthony Ruth, Anshumaan Bajpai, Felix Vietmeyer, Yuanxing Wang, Michael Brennan, Yunsong Pang, Kalpani Werellapatha, Bruce A Bunker, Soma Chattopadhyay, Tengfei Luo, Boldizsar Janko, Patrick Fay, Masaru Kuno
We report, for the first time, the synthesis of large, free-standing, Mo2O2(µ-S)2(Et2dtc)2 (MoDTC) nanosheets (NSs), which exhibit an electron-beam induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition. Both electron beam ionization and femtosecond (fs) optical excitation induce the phase transition, which is size-, morphology- and composition-preserving. Resulting NSs are the largest, free standing regularly-shaped two-dimensional amorphous nanostructures made to date. More importantly, amorphization is accompanied by dramatic changes to the NS electrical and optical response wherein resulting amorphous species exhibit room temperature conductivities 5 orders of magnitude larger than those of their crystalline counterparts...
May 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508537/superorganismality-and-caste-differentiation-as-points-of-no-return-how-the-major-evolutionary-transitions-were-lost-in-translation
#15
Jacobus J Boomsma, Richard Gawne
More than a century ago, William Morton Wheeler proposed that social insect colonies can be regarded as superorganisms when they have morphologically differentiated reproductive and nursing castes that are analogous to the metazoan germ-line and soma. Following the rise of sociobiology in the 1970s, Wheeler's insights were largely neglected, and we were left with multiple new superorganism concepts that are mutually inconsistent and uninformative on how superorganismality originated. These difficulties can be traced to the broadened sociobiological concept of eusociality, which denies that physical queen-worker caste differentiation is a universal hallmark of superorganismal colonies...
May 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504711/the-stabilizing-effect-of-an-oligomeric-proanthocyanidin-on-red-blood-cell-membrane-structure-of-poorly-controlled-type-ii-diabetes
#16
J Visser, P J van Staden, P Soma, A V Buys, E Pretorius
Type II diabetes (T2D) is a pandemic characterized by pathological circulating inflammatory markers, high-glucose levels and oxidative stress. The hematological system is especially vulnerable to these aberrant circulating molecules, and erythrocytes (RBCs) show aberrant rheology properties, owing to the direct contact with these molecules. Pathological levels of circulating inflammatory markers in T2D therefore have a direct effect on the molecular and cellular structure of RBCs. Previous research has suggested that antioxidants may reduce oxidative stress that results from the pathological inflammatory markers...
May 15, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503136/a-quantitative-golgi-study-of-dendritic-morphology-in-the-mice-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons
#17
Ivana Bicanic, Ana Hladnik, Zdravko Petanjek
In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit) impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503130/uncoupling-the-trade-off-between-somatic-proteostasis-and-reproduction-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-models-of-polyglutamine-diseases
#18
Netta Shemesh, Nadav Shai, Lana Meshnik, Rotem Katalan, Anat Ben-Zvi
Caenorhabditis elegans somatic protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is actively remodeled at the onset of reproduction. This proteostatic collapse is regulated cell-nonautonomously by signals from the reproductive system that transmit the commitment to reproduction to somatic cells. Here, we asked whether the link between the reproductive system and somatic proteostasis could be uncoupled by activating downstream effectors in the gonadal longevity cascade. Specifically, we examined whether over-expression of lipl-4 (lipl-4(oe)), a target gene of the gonadal longevity pathway, or increase in arachidonic acid (AA) levels, associated with lipl-4(oe), modulated proteostasis and reproduction...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502832/sexually-dimorphic-expression-in-developing-and-adult-gonads-shows-an-important-role-of-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-during-sex-differentiation-in-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#19
Yuezhong Liu, Wei Zhang, Xinxin Du, Jun Zhao, Xiaobing Liu, Xiaojing Li, Quanqi Zhang, Xubo Wang
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is a new member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. As a teleost- and gonad-specific growth factor, gsdf has been indicated to play an important role in early germ cell development. However, little is known about its significance in germ cell development of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In the present study, a 1338 bp gsdf gene was isolated from P. olivaceus for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genomic structure and synteny relationship of gsdf in teleosts were conserved...
May 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501695/expression-of-aromatase-and-estrogen-receptors-in-lumbar-motoneurons-of-mice
#20
Ying-Xiao Ji, Mei Zhao, Ya-Ling Liu, Li-Sha Chen, Peng-Li Hao, Can Sun
Estrogen exerts protective roles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the expression of aromatase (ARO) and estrogen receptors (ERs) in the motoneurons of spinal cord, has not yet been elucidated. By immunohistochemistry, we found that ARO and ERs were present in the ventral horn of adult mice lumbar spinal cord, and colocalized with SMI-32, a motoneuron specific marker. Within motoneurons, we observed that ARO is detected primarily in the cytoplasm, with fewer ARO in the nucleus; ERα and ERβ mainly localized in the nucleus with less in the cytoplasm; while GPR30 is located in soma and processes...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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