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Ji-Jie Pang, Zhuo Yang, Roy A Jacoby, Samuel M Wu
Some mammalian rod bipolar cells (RBCs) can receive excitatory chemical synaptic inputs from both rods and cones (DBCR2 ), but anatomical evidence for mammalian cone-RBC contacts has been sparse. We examined anatomical cone-RBC contacts using neurobiotin (NB) to visualize individual mouse cones and standard immuno-markers to identify RBCs, cone pedicles and synapses in mouse and baboon retinas. Peanut agglutinin (PNA) stained the basal membrane of all cone pedicles, and mouse cones were positive for red/green (R/G)-opsin, whereas baboon cones were positive for calbindin D-28k...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Steven M Brunwasser, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Diane R Gold, Kedir N Turi, Cosby A Stone, Soma Datta, James E Gern, Tina V Hartert
BACKGROUND: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Wheezing Module is commonly used to characterize pediatric asthma in epidemiological studies, including nearly all airway cohorts participating in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) consortium. However, there is no consensus model for operationalizing wheezing severity with this instrument in explanatory research studies. Severity is typically measured using coarsely-defined categorical variables, reducing power and potentially underestimating etiological associations...
2018: PloS One
Javier Lázaro, Moritz Hertel, Chet C Sherwood, Marion Muturi, Dina K N Dechmann
The seasonal changes in brain size of some shrews represent the most drastic reversible transformation in the mammalian central nervous system known to date. Brain mass decreases 10-26% from summer to winter and regrows 9-16% in spring, but the underlying structural changes at the cellular level are not yet understood. Here, we describe the volumetric differences in brain structures between seasons and sexes of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in detail, confirming that changes in different brain regions vary in the magnitude of change...
April 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Lorena Vargas, Sebastián Solé, Claudio Vicente Solé
Aim: To analyse the overall cosmetic outcome according to patient self-assessment in relation to the fractionation received. Materials and methods: A questionnaire, drawn up on the basis of subjective rating scales of cosmesis and of acute and late toxicity RTOG/EORTC, EORTC QLQ-C30 (v3) and LENT SOMA, was applied to patients with early-stage breast cancer who received radiotherapy with tangential fields between June 2014 and July 2015. Self-perception of cosmesis, changes in the treated breast, pain and fractionation used (hypofractionation (HF) 42...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Jung-Hwa Tao-Cheng
Subsurface cistern (SSC) in neuronal soma and primary dendrites is a specialized compartment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is in close apposition (10 nm) with the plasma membrane (PM). ER-PM contact areas are thought to be involved in intracellular calcium regulation. Here, structural changes of SSC in hippocampal neurons were examined by electron microscopy upon depolarization with high K+ (90 mM) or application of NMDA (50 μM) in rat dissociated cultures as well as organotypic slice cultures. The number and average length of SSC-PM contact areas in neuronal somas significantly decreased within 30 s under excitatory condition...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Brain
Hiroshi Uei, Yasuaki Tokuhashi, Masafumi Maseda, Masahiro Nakahashi, Hirokatsu Sawada, Enshi Nakayama, Hirotoki Soma
BACKGROUND: Posterior decompression and stabilization plays significant roles in palliative surgery for metastatic spinal tumor. However, the indication for addition of posterior decompression have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate a retrospective cohort of outcomes of metastatic spinal tumor treated with minimally invasive spine stabilization (MISt) with or without posterior decompression. METHODS: The subjects were 40 patients who underwent MISt using percutaneous pedicle screws for metastatic spinal tumor, including 20 patients treated with stabilization alone (group A) and 20 patients with added posterior decompression (group B)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Grazyna Rajkowska, Beata Legutko, Mohadetheh Moulana, Maryam Syed, Damian G Romero, Craig A Stockmeier, Jose Javier Miguel-Hidalgo
Astrocyte functions in white matter are less well understood than in gray matter. Our recent study of white matter in ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) revealed alterations in expression of myelin-related genes in major depressive disorder (MDD). Since white matter astrocytes maintain myelin, we hypothesized that morphometry of these cells will be altered in MDD in the same prefrontal white matter region in which myelin-related genes are altered. White matter adjacent to vPFC was examined in 25 MDD and 21 control subjects...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Francisco Carricondo, Bárbara Romero-Gómez
The VIII nerve is formed by sensory neurons that innervate the inner ear, i.e. the vestibular and the auditory receptors. Neurons of the auditory portion, the cochlear afferent fibers that innervate the sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti, have their somas in the cochlear spiral ganglion where two types of neurons can be distinguished. Afferent type-I neurons are the 95% of the total population. Bipolar and myelinated fibers, each one innervates only one cochlear inner hair cell (IHC). In contrast, afferent type-II neurons are only the 5% of the spiral ganglion population...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Á Rovirosa, K S Cortés, C Ascaso, A Glickman, S Valdés, A Herreros, C Camacho, J Sánchez, Y Zhang, Y Li, S Sabater, M Arenas, A Torne
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of age on radiotherapy results based on cancer-specific survival (CSS), vaginal-cuff relapses (VCR) and complications analysis in 438 patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC) receiving postoperative radiotherapy (PRT) divided into three age groups for analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2003 to 2015, 438 patients with EC were treated with PRT and divided into three age groups: Group-1: 202 patients < 65 years; Group-2: 210 patients ≥ 65 and < 80 years; Group-3: 26 patients ≥ 80 years...
April 12, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Gwynn Ison, Lynn J Howie, Laleh Amiri-Kordestani, Lijun Zhang, Shenghui Tang, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Vadryn Pierre, Rosane Charlab, Anuradha Ramamoorthy, Pengfei Song, Fang Li, Jingyu Yu, Wimolnut Manheng, Todd R Palmby, Soma Ghosh, Hisani N Horne, Eunice Y Lee, Reena Philip, Kaushalkumar Dave, Xiao Hong Chen, Sharon L Kelly, Kumar G Janoria, Anamitro Banerjee, Okponanabofa Eradiri, Jeannette Dinin, Kirsten B Goldberg, William F Pierce, Amna Ibrahim, Paul G Kluetz, Gideon M Blumenthal, Julia A Beaver, Richard Pazdur
The Food and Drug Administration approved niraparib, a poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, on March 27, 2017, for maintenance treatment of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who are in response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Approval was based on data from the NOVA trial comparing niraparib with placebo in two independent cohorts, based on germline BRCA mutation status (gBRCAm vs. non-gBRCAm). Progression-free survival (PFS) in each cohort was the primary endpoint...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Yuka Mizutani, Daisuke Kuga, Machiko Iida, Kaori Ushida, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Yoshihito Tokita, Masahide Takahashi, Masato Asai
The actin binding protein girdin is a cytosolic protein that is required for actin remodeling to trigger cell migration in various tissues. Girdin is phosphorylated by both receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases at tyrosine 1798. Omori et al. developed site- and phosphorylation status-specific antibodies against human girdin at tyrosine-1798 (pY1798), which specifically bind to phosphorylated tyrosine-1798, but not to unphosphorylated tyrosine-1798. pY1798 antibodies have been used to specifically label tuft cells (TCs) that are present in mammalian gastrointestinal tissues, but the function of these cells is unclear...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ying Gao, Shisi Hu, Qiqin Li, Muran Wang, Zhina Zhi, Xiuli Kuang, Yaoyao Li, Sergii Vakal, Yun Wang
Perinatal inflammatory insult in preterm babies is associated with vision impairment, but the underlying cellular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we set out to explore whether systemic inflammatory stress affects the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Neonatal inflammation was induced by single and systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg) at postnatal day 4 (P4). Morphological changes of RGCs were investigated by using 3D neuron reconstruction technique in Thy-1 YFPH transgenic mice at P21, of which a fraction of RGCs selectively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
April 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Leire Almandoz-Gil, Emma Persson, Veronica Lindström, Martin Ingelsson, Anna Erlandsson, Joakim Bergström
The aggregation of alpha-synuclein (αSyn) is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and related neurological disorders. However, the physiological function of the protein and how this function relates to its pathological effects remain poorly understood. One of the proposed roles of αSyn is to promote the soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex assembly by binding to VAMP-2. The objective of this study was to visualize the co-localization between αSyn and the SNARE proteins (VAMP-2, SNAP-25, and syntaxin-1) for the first time using in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Georg Brenneis, Gerhard Scholtz, Barbara S Beltz
BACKGROUND: Comparative studies of neuroanatomy and neurodevelopment provide valuable information for phylogenetic inference. Beyond that, they reveal transformations of neuroanatomical structures during animal evolution and modifications in the developmental processes that have shaped these structures. In the extremely diverse Arthropoda, such comparative studies contribute with ever-increasing structural resolution and taxon coverage to our understanding of nervous system evolution...
April 5, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Peter Henningsen, Harald Gündel, Willem J Kop, Bernd Löwe, Alexander Martin, Winfried Rief, Judith G M Rosmalen, Andreas Schröder, Christina van der Feltz-Cornelis, Omer Van den Bergh
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the perception and experience of persistent physical symptoms are not well understood, and in the models, the specific relevance of peripheral input versus central processing, or of neurobiological versus psychosocial factors in general, is not clear.In this article, we propose a model for this clinical phenomenon that is designed to be coherent with an underlying, relatively new model of the normal brain functions involved in the experience of bodily signals...
April 4, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Maisam Abu-El-Haija, Soma Kumar, J Antonio Quiros, Sohail Husain, Veronique Morinville
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
María Del Valle Aguilera, Ángeles Rovirosa, Carlos Ascaso, Antonio Herreros, Joan Sánchez, Julia Garcia-Migue, Stephanía Cortes, Eduardo Agusti, Cristina Camacho, Yaowen Zhang, Yan Li, Sebastià Sabater, Aureli Torne, Meritxell Arenas
Purpose: To evaluate if the dose equivalent to 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2)(α/β=3Gy) at 0.1 cm3 , 1 cm3 , and 2 cm3 of vagina in vaginal-cuff-brachytherapy (VBT) (high-dose-rate [HDR]192 Ir-source) ± external-beam-irradiation (EBRT) is associated with toxicity in post-operative endometrial carcinoma (P-EC). Material and methods: From June 2014 till November 2015, 67 consecutive P-EC patients underwent VBT ± EBRT; 44 patients received EBRT (median, 45 Gy; range, 44-50...
February 2018: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Kevin Meng, Andreas Fellner, Frank Rattay, Diego Ghezzi, Hamish Meffin, Michael Ibbotson, Tatiana Kameneva
The existence of an upper threshold in electrically stimulated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is of interest because of its relevance to the development of visual prosthetic devices, which are designed to restore partial sight to blind patients. The upper threshold is defined as the stimulation level above which no action potentials (direct spikes) can be elicited in electrically stimulated retina.&#13; &#13; Approach. We collected and analyzed in vitro recordings from rat RGCs in response to extracellular biphasic (anodic-cathodic) pulse stimulation of varying amplitudes and pulse durations...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Mohammad M Maneshi, Frederick Sachs, Susan Z Hua
Mechanical perturbations increase intracellular Ca2+ in cells, but the coupling of mechanical forces to the Ca2+ influx is not well understood. We used a microfluidic chamber driven with a high-speed pressure servo to generate defined fluid shear stress to cultured astrocytes, and simultaneously measured cytoskeletal forces using a force sensitive actinin optical sensor and intracellular Ca2+ . Fluid shear generated non-uniform forces in actinin that critically depended on the stimulus rise time emphasizing the presence of viscoelasticity in the activating sequence...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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