Read by QxMD icon Read


Félix Leroy, Boris Lamotte d'Incamps
Electrophysiological recordings from spinal cord slices have proven to be a valuable technique to investigate a wide range of questions, from cellular to network properties. We show how to prepare viable oblique slices of the spinal cord of young mice (P2 - P11). In this preparation, the motoneurons retain their axons coming out from the ventral roots of the spinal cord. Stimulation of these axons elicits back-propagating action potentials invading the motoneuron somas and exciting the motoneuron collaterals within the spinal cord...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jinglin Fu, Yuhe Renee Yang, Soma Dhakal, Zhao Zhao, Minghui Liu, Ting Zhang, Nils G Walter, Hao Yan
In nature, the catalytic efficiency of multienzyme complexes highly depends on their spatial organization. The positions and orientations of the composite enzymes are often precisely controlled to facilitate substrate transport between them. Self-assembled DNA nanostructures hold great promise for organizing biomolecules at the nanoscale. Here, we present detailed protocols for exploiting DNA nanostructures as assembly scaffolds that organize the spatial arrangements of multienzyme cascades with control over their relative distance, compartmentalization and substrate diffusion paths...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
K M Naga Srinivas Nadella, Hana Roš, Chiara Baragli, Victoria A Griffiths, George Konstantinou, Theo Koimtzis, Geoffrey J Evans, Paul A Kirkby, R Angus Silver
Understanding how neural circuits process information requires rapid measurements of activity from identified neurons distributed in 3D space. Here we describe an acousto-optic lens two-photon microscope that performs high-speed focusing and line scanning within a volume spanning hundreds of micrometers. We demonstrate its random-access functionality by selectively imaging cerebellar interneurons sparsely distributed in 3D space and by simultaneously recording from the soma, proximal and distal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal cells in awake behaving mice...
October 17, 2016: Nature Methods
R N Makroo, Soma Agrawal, Mohit Chowdhry, Brinda Kakkar, Uday K Thakur
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is one of the solid organs most commonly being transplanted across the world. The indications, affordability and accessibility have grown manifold. To increase the donor pool, inclusion of ABO incompatible liver donors is being considered. To enhance the graft functioning and survival, immunoadsorption apheresis to reduce the ABO hemagglutination titres are on the rise. CASE REPORT: We report three cases ABO incompatible liver transplantation with immunoadsorption protocol...
September 28, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Ujjwayini Ray, Soma Dutta, Suresh Ramasubban, Dhiman Sen, Indrajeet Kumar Tiwary
OBJECTIVE: Melioidosis caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is a very serious infection and has been sporadically reported from the Indian subcontinent. This disease entity can have acute and chronic presentations involving different organ systems. The purpose of this study is to analyze the risk factors, clinical presentations, therapy and outcome of culture proven cases of melioidosis. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study of eight culture proven cases of melioidosis at a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
F Kent Hamra
Knowledge gaps persist on signaling pathways and metabolic states in germ cells sufficient to support spermatogenesis independent of a somatic environment. Consequently, methods to culture mammalian stem cells through spermatogenesis in defined systems have not been established. Lack of success at culturing mammalian stem cells through spermatogenesis in defined systems reflects an inability to experimentally recapitulate biochemical events that develop in germ cells during a seminiferous epithelial cycle. Complex germ and somatic cell associations that develop each seminiferous epithelial cycle support such a hypothesis, conceivably explaining why highly pure mammalian spermatogonia have not developed into meiosis, much less through meiosis without somatic cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
R Fleischmann, P J Mease, S Schwartzman, L-J Hwang, K Soma, C A Connell, L Takiya, E Bananis
Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This post hoc analysis investigated the effect of methotrexate (MTX) dose on the efficacy of tofacitinib in patients with RA. ORAL Scan (NCT00847613) was a 2-year, randomized, Phase 3 trial evaluating tofacitinib in MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients with RA. Patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID), or placebo, with low (≤12.5 mg/week), moderate (>12.5 to <17.5 mg/week), or high (≥17...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Grace Woodruff, Sol M Reyna, Mariah Dunlap, Rik Van Der Kant, Julia A Callender, Jessica E Young, Elizabeth A Roberts, Lawrence S B Goldstein
We investigated early phenotypes caused by familial Alzheimer's disease (fAD) mutations in isogenic human iPSC-derived neurons. Analysis of neurons carrying fAD PS1 or APP mutations introduced using genome editing technology at the endogenous loci revealed that fAD mutant neurons had previously unreported defects in the recycling state of endocytosis and soma-to-axon transcytosis of APP and lipoproteins. The endocytosis reduction could be rescued through treatment with a β-secretase inhibitor. Our data suggest that accumulation of β-CTFs of APP, but not Aβ, slow vesicle formation from an endocytic recycling compartment marked by the transcytotic GTPase Rab11...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Anindya Sundar Trivedi, Debaprasad Chakrabarti, Soma Saha, A K Bhattacharyya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yoshimi Okamoto-Uchida, Ryosuke Nakamura, Yumiko Matsuzawa, Megumi Soma, Hiroshi Kawakami, Akiko Ishii-Watabe, Tomoko Nishimaki-Mogami, Reiko Teshima, Yoshiro Saito
The physicochemical nature of allergen molecules differ from the liquid phase to the solid phase. However, conventional allergy tests are based on the detection of immunoglobulin (Ig)E binding to immobilized allergens. We recently developed an in vitro allergy testing method using a luciferase-reporting humanized rat mast cell line to detect IgE crosslinking-induced luciferase expression (EXiLE test). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antigen immobilization on the results of different in vitro allergy tests using two anti-ovalbumin (OVA) antibodies (Abs), E-C1 and E-G5, with different properties in the OVA-induced allergic reaction...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
A Cicchetti, T Rancati, M Ebert, C Fiorino, F Palorini, A Kennedy, D J Joseph, J W Denham, V Vavassori, G Fellin, B Avuzzi, C Stucchi, R Valdagni
AIM: To investigate late gastrointestinal toxicity in a large pooled population of prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. Normal tissue complication probability models were developed for late stool frequency and late rectal pain. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Population included 1336 patients, 3-year minimum follow-up, treated with 66-80Gy. Toxicity was scored with LENT-SOMA-scale. Two toxicity endpoints were considered: grade ⩾2 rectal pain and mean grade (average score during follow-up) in stool frequency >1...
October 6, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Sandra-Fausia Soukup, Sabine Kuenen, Roeland Vanhauwaert, Julia Manetsberger, Sergio Hernández-Díaz, Jef Swerts, Nils Schoovaerts, Sven Vilain, Natalia V Gounko, Katlijn Vints, Ann Geens, Bart De Strooper, Patrik Verstreken
Synapses are often far from the soma and independently cope with proteopathic stress induced by intense neuronal activity. However, how presynaptic compartments turn over proteins is poorly understood. We show that the synapse-enriched protein EndophilinA, thus far studied for its role in endocytosis, induces macroautophagy at presynaptic terminals. We find that EndophilinA executes this unexpected function at least partly independent of its role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. EndophilinA-induced macroautophagy is activated when the kinase LRRK2 phosphorylates the EndophilinA-BAR domain and is blocked in animals where EndophilinA cannot be phosphorylated...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Alice Séguret, Abel Bernadou, Robert J Paxton
In eusocial insects, reversal of the fecundity/longevity trade-off and extreme differences in life histories between castes of the same species garner scientific and public interest. Facultative social species at the threshold of sociality, in which individuals are socially plastic, provide an excellent opportunity to understand the causes and mechanisms underlying this reversal in life history trade-off associated with eusociality. We briefly present the ultimate factors favoring sociality and the association between fecundity and longevity in facultative eusocial insects, including kin selection and disposable soma, as well as proximate mechanisms observed in such species, such as differences in hormone titers and functions...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Belen Lafon, Asif Rahman, Marom Bikson, Lucas C Parra
BACKGROUND: Direct current stimulation (DCS) affects both neuronal firing rate and synaptic efficacy. The neuronal input/output (I/O) function determines the likelihood that a neuron elicits an action potential in response to synaptic input of a given strength. Changes of the neuronal I/O function by DCS may underlie previous observations in animal models and human testing, yet have not been directly assessed. OBJECTIVE: Test if the neuronal input/output function is affected by DCS METHODS: Using rat hippocampal brain slices and computational modeling, we provide evidence for how DCS modulates the neuronal I/O function...
September 1, 2016: Brain Stimulation
K N Visweswara Sastry, Sunitha Rani Routhu, Soma Gupta Datta, Narayana Nagesh, Bathini Nagendra Babu, Jagadeesh Babu Nanubolu, C Ganesh Kumar, Ram Awatar Maurya, Ahmed Kamal
A new class of tricyclic heterocycles 4H-benzo[g][1,2,3]triazolo[5,1-c][1,4]oxazocines was synthesized through a Knoevenagel condensation/azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction cascade in one-pot operation. These eight membered ring containing heterocycles exhibited moderately high anticancer activity against four cancer cell lines; human cervix cancer cell line (HeLa), human prostate cancer cell line (DU145), human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human breast adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (MDA-MB-231)...
October 4, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
T Inagaki, N L Smith, K M Sherva, S Ramakrishnan
Growing evidence indicates that chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) may disrupt normal brain function and behavior mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pathways. Previous studies have shown that low dose BPA (200ng/ml) exposure during embryogenesis altered development of extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 systems and non-reproductive locomotor behavior in medaka. Effects of parental low-dose BPA exposure on the development of GnRH3 systems and locomotor behavior of offspring are not well known. This study examines whether the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of BPA in parents (F0 generation) are carried over to their offspring (F1 generation) using stable transgenic medaka embryos/larvae with GnRH3 neurons tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
October 3, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Guy Eyal, Matthijs B Verhoog, Guilherme Testa-Silva, Yair Deitcher, Johannes C Lodder, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Juan Morales, Javier DeFelipe, Christiaan Pj de Kock, Huibert D Mansvelder, Idan Segev
The advanced cognitive capabilities of the human brain are often attributed to our recently evolved neocortex. However, it is not known whether the basic building blocks of human neocortex, the pyramidal neurons, possess unique biophysical properties that might impact on cortical computations. Here we show that layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons from human temporal cortex (HL2/3 PCs) have a specific membrane capacitance (Cm) of ~0.5 µF/cm(2), half of the commonly accepted 'universal' value (~1 µF/cm(2)) for biological membranes...
October 6, 2016: ELife
Dobromila Pekala, Hanna Szkudlarek, Morten Raastad
We studied the ability of typical unmyelinated cortical axons to conduct action potentials at fever-like temperatures because fever often gives CNS symptoms. We investigated such axons in cerebellar and hippocampal slices from 10 to 25 days old rats at temperatures between 30 and 43°C. By recording with two electrodes along axonal pathways, we confirmed that the axons were able to initiate action potentials, but at temperatures >39°C, the propagation of the action potentials to a more distal recording site was reduced...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Simona Hvalič-Touzery, Hanna Hopia, Sanna Sihvonen, Sadhna Diwan, Soma Sen, Brigita Skela-Savič
BACKGROUND: Internationalization of practical training in health and social care study programs is an important aspect of higher education. However, field mentors' and classroom teachers' competence in guiding culturally diverse students varies widely in European countries, and the majority does not have enough training in guiding foreign students. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine which factors enhance the efficacy of international practical placement experiences in health and social care study programs...
September 28, 2016: Nurse Education Today
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"