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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454834/functional-implications-of-inhibitory-synapse-placement-on-signal-processing-in-pyramidal-neuron-dendrites
#1
REVIEW
Josiah R Boivin, Elly Nedivi
A rich literature describes inhibitory innervation of pyramidal neurons in terms of the distinct inhibitory cell types that target the soma, axon initial segment, or dendritic arbor. Less attention has been devoted to how localization of inhibition to specific parts of the pyramidal dendritic arbor influences dendritic signal detection and integration. The effect of inhibitory inputs can vary based on their placement on dendritic spines versus shaft, their distance from the soma, and the branch order of the dendrite they inhabit...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452106/nerve-fibre-layer-degeneration-and-retinal-ganglion-cell-loss-long-term-after-optic-nerve-crush-or-transection-in-adult-mice
#2
M C Sánchez-Migallón, F J Valiente-Soriano, M Salinas-Navarro, F M Nadal-Nicolás, M Jiménez-López, M Vidal-Sanz, M Agudo-Barriuso
We have investigated the long term effects of two different models of unilateral optic nerve (ON) lesion on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, in the injured and contralateral retinas of adult albino mice. Intact animals were used as controls. The left ON was intraorbitally crushed or transected at 0.5 mm from the optic disk and both retinas were analyzed at 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 30, 45 or 90 days after injury. RGCs were immunoidentified with anti-Brn3a, and their axons with anti-highly phosphorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H (pNFH)...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447953/dendrite-growth-and-the-effect-of-ectopic-rheb-expression-on-cortical-neurons
#3
Aidan M Sokolov, Caitlin M Seluzicki, Mary C Morton, David M Feliciano
Ras homology enriched in brain (Rheb) is a GTPase that activates the protein kinase mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). Rheb mutations cause intellectual delay and megalencephaly. mTOR hyperactivation causes a constellation of neurodevelopmental disorders called "mTOR-opathies" that are frequently accompanied by hyperexcitable cortical malformations. Cortical malformations within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and somatosensory cortex (SSC) frequently colocalize with hyperexcitability. Although Rheb and mTOR are implicated in the formation of cortical lesions, seizure activity, and defects in neuronal migration, the contribution of Rheb to changes in neuron size and dendrite morphology is not well established...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447162/early-experiences-mediate-distinct-adult-gene-expression-and-reproductive-programs-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Maria C Ow, Kirill Borziak, Alexandra M Nichitean, Steve Dorus, Sarah E Hall
Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446379/astroglial-kir4-1-in-the-lateral-habenula-drives-neuronal-bursts-in-depression
#5
Yihui Cui, Yan Yang, Zheyi Ni, Yiyan Dong, Guohong Cai, Alexandre Foncelle, Shuangshuang Ma, Kangning Sang, Siyang Tang, Yuezhou Li, Ying Shen, Hugues Berry, Shengxi Wu, Hailan Hu
Enhanced bursting activity of neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) is essential in driving depression-like behaviours, but the cause of this increase has been unknown. Here, using a high-throughput quantitative proteomic screen, we show that an astroglial potassium channel (Kir4.1) is upregulated in the LHb in rat models of depression. Kir4.1 in the LHb shows a distinct pattern of expression on astrocytic membrane processes that wrap tightly around the neuronal soma. Electrophysiology and modelling data show that the level of Kir4...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438795/independent-suboesophageal-neuronal-innervation-of-the-defense-gland-and-longitudinal-muscles-in-the-stick-insect-peruphasma-schultei-prothorax
#6
Konrad Stolz, Johannes Strauß, Joscha Arne Alt, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan
This study investigates the neuroanatomy of the defense gland and a related muscle in the stick insect Peruphasma schultei with axonal tracing and histological sections. The gland is innervated by three neurons through the Nervus anterior of the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), the ipsilateral neuron (ILN), the contralateral neuron (CLN) and the prothoracic intersegmental neuron (PIN). The ILN has a large soma which is typical for motoneurons that cause fast contraction of large muscles and its dendrites are located in motor-sensory and sensory neuropile areas of the SOG...
February 10, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435924/exosomal-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#7
Gabriel R Fries, Joao Quevedo
This chapter will discuss the potential use of microRNAs, particularly those located in peripherally-isolated exosomes, as biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders. These extracellular vesicles are released as a form of cell-to-cell communication and may mediate the soma-to-germline transmission of brain-relevant information, thereby potentially contributing to the inter- or transgenerational transmission of behavioral traits. Recent novel methods allow for the enrichment of peripheral exosomes specifically released by neurons and astrocytes and may provide valuable brain-relevant biosignatures of disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434298/loss-of-autophagy-in-dopaminergic-neurons-causes-lewy-pathology-and-motor-dysfunction-in-aged-mice
#8
Shigeto Sato, Toshiki Uchihara, Takahiro Fukuda, Sachiko Noda, Hiromi Kondo, Shinji Saiki, Masaaki Komatsu, Yasuo Uchiyama, Keiji Tanaka, Nobutaka Hattori
Inactivation of constitutive autophagy results in the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions in neurons, but the relationship between impaired autophagy and Lewy bodies (LBs) as well as the in vivo process of formation remains unknown. Synuclein, a component of LBs, is the defining characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we characterize dopamine (DA) neuron-specific autophagy-deficient mice and provide in vivo evidence for LB formation. Synuclein deposition is preceded by p62 and resulted in the formation of inclusions containing synuclein and p62...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434244/characterization-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-and-optic-nerve-phenotypes-caused-by-sustained-intracranial-pressure-elevation-in-mice
#9
Guofu Shen, Schuyler Link, Sandeep Kumar, Derek M Nusbaum, Dennis Y Tse, Yingbin Fu, Samuel M Wu, Benjamin J Frankfort
Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) can result in multiple neurologic sequelae including vision loss. Inducible models of ICP elevation are lacking in model organisms, which limits our understanding of the mechanism by which increased ICP impacts the visual system. We adapted a mouse model for the sustained elevation of ICP and tested the hypothesis that elevated ICP impacts the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). ICP was elevated and maintained for 2 weeks, and resulted in multiple anatomic changes that are consistent with human disease including papilledema, loss of physiologic cupping, and engorgement of the optic nerve head...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432809/seizure-progression-and-inflammatory-mediators-promote-pericytosis-and-pericyte-microglia-clustering-at-the-cerebrovasculature
#10
Wendy Klement, Rita Garbelli, Emma Zub, Laura Rossini, Laura Tassi, Benoit Girard, Marine Blaquiere, Federica Bertaso, Julie Perroy, Frederic de Bock, Nicola Marchi
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular dysfunction and inflammation occur in experimental and clinical epilepsy. Here we asked whether pericytes, a pivotal cellular component of brain capillaries, undergo pathological modifications during experimental epileptogenesis and in human epilepsy. We evaluated whether pro-inflammatory cytokines, present in the brain during seizures, contribute to pericyte morphological modifications. METHODS: In vivo, unilateral intra-hippocampal kainic acid (KA) injections were performed in NG2DsRed/C57BL6 mice to induce status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS)...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432387/quantification-of-phosphatidylethanols-in-whole-blood-as-a-proxy-for-chronic-alcohol-consumption-using-ultra-performance-convergence-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Bart C H van der Nagel, Sophie Wassenaar, Soma Bahmany, Birgit C P Koch
BACKGROUND: Detection of alcohol consumption after a longer period of time can be useful in certain patient groups. To monitor chronic alcohol consumption, a novel analytical method for the quantification of phosphatidylethanols (PEth) was developed and validated using ultra performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. METHODS: The main phosphatidylethanols -Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol (POPEth), 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol (PLPEth), and 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol (DOPEth) were analyzed using a simple and fast sample preparation protocol followed by chromatographic separation using ultra performance convergence chromatography, a novel kind of supercritical fluid chromatography...
February 8, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431913/ion-selective-electrodes-based-on-hydrophilic-ionophore-modified-nanopores
#12
Soma Papp, Gyula Jágerszki, Róbert Ervin Gyurcsanyi
We report the synthesis and analytical application of the first Cu(II)-selective synthetic ion channel based on peptide-modified gold nanopores. A Cu(II) binding peptide motif (Gly-Gly-His) along with two additional functional thiol derivatives inferring cation-permselectivity and hydrophobicity was self-assembled on the surface of gold nanoporous membranes comprising of ca. 5 nm diameter pores. These membranes were used to construct Cu(II) ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) with extraordinary Cu(II) selectivities, approaching 6 orders of magnitude over certain ions...
February 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429934/immune-or-genetic-mediated-disruption-of-caspr2-causes-pain-hypersensitivity-due-to-enhanced-primary-afferent-excitability
#13
John M Dawes, Greg A Weir, Steven J Middleton, Ryan Patel, Kim I Chisholm, Philippa Pettingill, Liam J Peck, Joseph Sheridan, Akila Shakir, Leslie Jacobson, Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Jorge Galino, Jan Walcher, Johannes Kühnemund, Hannah Kuehn, Maria D Sanna, Bethan Lang, Alex J Clark, Andreas C Themistocleous, Noboru Iwagaki, Steven J West, Karolina Werynska, Liam Carroll, Teodora Trendafilova, David A Menassa, Maria Pia Giannoccaro, Ester Coutinho, Ilaria Cervellini, Damini Tewari, Camilla Buckley, M Isabel Leite, Hendrik Wildner, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Elior Peles, Andrew J Todd, Stephen B McMahon, Anthony H Dickenson, Gary R Lewin, Angela Vincent, David L Bennett
Human autoantibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are often associated with neuropathic pain, and CASPR2 mutations have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, in which sensory dysfunction is increasingly recognized. Human CASPR2 autoantibodies, when injected into mice, were peripherally restricted and resulted in mechanical pain-related hypersensitivity in the absence of neural injury. We therefore investigated the mechanism by which CASPR2 modulates nociceptive function. Mice lacking CASPR2 (Cntnap2-/-) demonstrated enhanced pain-related hypersensitivity to noxious mechanical stimuli, heat, and algogens...
February 1, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427541/asymmetric-nano-textured-surfaces-influence-neuron-viability-and-polarity
#14
Andreea Belu, Mehmet Yilmaz, Elmar Neumann, Andreas Offenhäusser, Gokhan Demirel, Dirk Mayer
Three dimensional, nanostructured surfaces have attracted considerable attention in biomedical research since they have proven to represent a powerful platform to influence cell fate. In particular, nanorods and nanopillars possess great potential for the control of cell adhesion and differentiation, gene and biomolecule delivery, optical and electrical stimulation and recording, as well as cell patterning. Here, we investigate the influence of asymmetric poly(dichloro-p-xylene) (PPX) columnar films on the adhesion and maturation of cortical neurons...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425284/chromosomal-instability-in-women-with-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#15
Sunita Katari, Mahmoud Aarabi, Angela Kintigh, Susan Mann, Svetlana A Yatsenko, Joseph S Sanfilippo, Anthony J Zeleznik, Aleksandar Rajkovic
STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence of somatic chromosomal instability among women with idiopathic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A subset of women with idiopathic POI may have functional impairment in DNA repair leading to chromosomal instability in their soma. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks during meiotic recombination are fundamental processes of gametogenesis. Oocytes with compromised DNA integrity are susceptible to apoptosis which could trigger premature ovarian aging and accelerated wastage of the human follicle reserve...
February 7, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423951/early-calp2-expression-and-microglial-activation-are-potential-inducers-of-spinal-il-6-upregulation-and-bilateral-pain-following-motor-nerve-injury
#16
Shao-Xia Chen, Shao-Kun Wang, Pei-Wen Yao, Guang-Jie Liao, Xiao-Dong Na, Yong-Yong Li, Wei-An Zeng, Xian-Guo Liu, Ying Zang
Previous work from our laboratory showed that motor nerve injury by lumbar 5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT) led to interleukin-6 (IL-6) overexpression in bilateral spinal cord, and that intrathecal administration of IL-6 neutralizing antibody delayed the induction of mechanical allodynia in bilateral hind paws. However, early events and upstream mechanisms underlying spinal IL-6 expression following L5-VRT require elucidation. The model of L5-VRT was used to induce neuropathic pain, which was assessed with von Frey hairs and the plantar tester in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421584/effective-long-term-solution-to-therapeutic-remission-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-role-of-azathioprine
#17
REVIEW
Lyla Adam, Alisa Phulukdaree, Prashilla Soma
Azathioprine (AZA) is a well-known immunosuppressant used for many years for its ability to ensure long term disease remission in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) at an affordable cost to the public. However, the side effect profile has raised many concerns with numerous investigations into the risk, cause and prevention of these effects. Much of the side effect profile of AZA can be linked to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) gene which ensures the breakdown and efficacy of AZA...
February 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416407/two-new-species-of-the-genus-dahlica-enderlein-lepidoptera-psychidae-from-korea
#18
Seung Jin Roh, Bong-Woo Lee, Bong-Kyu Byun
The genus Dahlica Enderlein, 1912 is reported for the first time from Korea with two new species: Dahlica (Dahlica) somae Roh & Byun, sp. n. and Dahlica (Dahlica) ochrostigma Roh & Byun, sp. n. Adults and genitalia are illustrated, and DNA barcodes for precise identification of the species are also provided.
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415205/hdac6-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-mutant-gars-induced-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#19
Veronick Benoy, Lawrence Van Helleputte, Robert Prior, Constantin d'Ydewalle, Wanda Haeck, Natasja Geens, Wendy Scheveneels, Begga Schevenels, M Zameel Cader, Kevin Talbot, Alan P Kozikowski, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Philip Van Damme, Wim Robberecht, Ludo Van Den Bosch
Peripheral nerve axons require a well-organized axonal microtubule network for efficient transport to ensure the constant crosstalk between soma and synapse. Mutations in more than 80 different genes cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which is the most common inherited disorder affecting peripheral nerves. This genetic heterogeneity has hampered the development of therapeutics for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) can serve as a therapeutic target focusing on the mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS/GARS)-induced peripheral neuropathy...
February 5, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413964/in-situ-generation-metabolism-and-immunomodulatory-signaling-actions-of-nitro-conjugated-linoleic-acid-in-a-murine-model-of-inflammation
#20
Luis Villacorta, Lucia Minarrieta, Sonia R Salvatore, Nicholas K Khoo, Oren Rom, Zhen Gao, Rebecca C Berman, Soma Jobbagy, Lihua Li, Steven R Woodcock, Y Eugene Chen, Bruce A Freeman, Ana M Ferreira, Francisco J Schopfer, Dario A Vitturi
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a prime substrate for intra-gastric nitration giving rise to the formation of nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-CLA). Herein, NO2-CLA generation is demonstrated within the context of acute inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo. Macrophage activation resulted in dose- and time-dependent CLA nitration and also in the production of secondary electrophilic and non-electrophilic derivatives. Both exogenous NO2-CLA as well as that generated in situ, attenuated NF-κB-dependent gene expression, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and up-regulated Nrf2-regulated proteins...
January 12, 2018: Redox Biology
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