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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050225/hcarg-commd5-inhibits-erbb-receptor-driven-renal-cell-carcinoma
#1
Hiroyuki Matsuda, Carole G Campion, Kyoko Fujiwara, Jin Ikeda, Suzanne Cossette, Thomas Verissimo, Maiko Ogasawara, Louis Gaboury, Kosuke Saito, Kenya Yamaguchi, Satoru Takahashi, Morito Endo, Noboru Fukuda, Masayoshi Soma, Pavel Hamet, Johanne Tremblay
Hypertension-related, calcium-regulated gene (HCaRG/COMMD5) is highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it contributes to the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. HCaRG accelerates tubular repair by facilitating re-differentiation of injured proximal tubular epithelial cells, thus improving mouse survival after acute kidney injury. Sustained hyper-proliferation and de-differentiation are important hallmarks of tumor progression. Here, we demonstrate that cancer cells overexpressing HCaRG maintain a more differentiated phenotype, while several of them undergo autophagic cell death...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045146/ultra-high-vacuum-synthesis-of-strain-controlled-model-pt-111-shell-layers-surface-strain-and-oxygen-reduction-reaction-activity
#2
Soma Kaneko, Rikiya Myochi, Shuntaro Takahashi, Naoto Todoroki, Toshimasa Wadayama, Tadao Tanabe
In this study, we perform ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and arc-plasma synthesis of strain-controlled Pt(111) model shells on Pt-Co(111) layers with various atomic ratios of Pt/Co and an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity enhancement trend against the surface strain induced by lattice mismatch between the Pt shell and Pt-Co alloy-core interface structures was observed. The results showed that the Pt(111)-shell with 2.0% compressive surface strain vs. intrinsic Pt(111) lattice gave rise to a maximum activity enhancement, ca...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044774/3d-distribution-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-vasopressin-and-oxytocin-neurons-in-the-transparent-postnatal-mouse-brain
#3
David Godefroy, Chloé Dominici, Hélène Hardin-Pouzet, Youssef Anouar, Stéphane Melik-Parsadaniantz, William Rostene, Annabelle Reaux-Le Goazigo
Over the years, advances in immunohistochemistry techniques have been a critical step in detecting and mapping neuromodulatory substances in the central nervous system. The better quality and specificity of primary antibodies, new staining procedures and the spectacular development of imaging technologies have allowed such progress. Very recently, new methods permitting tissue transparency have been successfully used on brain tissues. In this work, we combined whole-mount immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), with iDISCO+ clearing method, light-sheet microscopy and semi automated counting of 3D-labelled neurons to obtain a 3D distribution of these neuronal populations in a 5-day postnatal (P5) mouse brain...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042434/trafficking-of-kv2-1-channels-to-the-axon-initial-segment-by-a-novel-non-conventional-secretory-pathway
#4
Camilla Stampe Jensen, Shoji Watanabe, Jeroen Ingrid Stas, Jessica Klaphaak, Ayaka Yamane, Nicole Schmitt, Søren-Peter Olesen, James S Trimmer, Hanne Borger Rasmussen, Hiroaki Misonou
Kv2.1 is a major delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channel widely expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. Kv2.1 localizes in high-density cell surface clusters in the soma and proximal dendrites as well as in the axon initial segment. Given the crucial roles of both of these compartments in integrating signal input and then generating output, this localization of Kv2.1 is ideal for regulating the overall excitability of neurons. Here we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) imaging, mutagenesis and pharmacological interventions to investigate the molecular mechanisms that control the localization of Kv2...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040117/factors-limiting-the-visual-outcome-after-descemet-stripping-automated-endothelial-keratoplasty-comprehensive-analysis-including-the-graft-position-and-irregularity
#5
Yasuaki Iwama, Takeshi Soma, Naoyuki Maeda, Yuzuru Sasamoto, Yoshinori Oie, Shizuka Koh, Kohji Nishida
PURPOSE: To investigate factors affecting best postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) in patients who have undergone Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). METHODS: Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with predominantly non-Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy after DSAEK were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were examined using anterior segment optical coherence tomography when their best postoperative CDVA had been achieved...
October 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039413/vta-mtor-signaling-regulates-dopamine-dynamics-cocaine-induced-synaptic-alterations-and-reward
#6
Xiaojie Liu, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Casey R Vickstrom, Qing-Song Liu
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates long-term synaptic plasticity, learning and memory by controlling dendritic protein synthesis. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has been shown to attenuate the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Using viral vectors to selectively delete mTOR in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in adult male mTOR(loxP/loxP) mice, we investigated the role of mTOR in regulating neuronal morphology, basal synaptic transmission, dopamine dynamics and cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and rewarding effects...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038438/haplotype-analysis-of-xrcc2-gene-polymorphisms-and-association-with-increased-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#7
Soma Saeed, Ishrat Mahjabeen, Romana Sarwar, Kashif Bashir, Mahmood Akhtar Kayani
We aimed to investigate the effect of hotspot variations of XRCC2 gene on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) in 400 patients and 400 controls. Five polymorphisms of XRCC2 gene G4234C (rs3218384), G4088T (rs3218373), G3063A (rs2040639), R188H (rs3218536) and rs7802034 were analyzed using Allele- specific polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) followed by sequence analysis. For rs3218373, the GG genotype indicated a statistically significant 3-fold increased risk of HNC (P < 0.001) after multivariate adjustment...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032511/soma-detection-in-3d-images-of-neurons-using-machine-learning-technique
#8
Guan-Wei He, Ting-Yuan Wang, Ann-Shyn Chiang, Yu-Tai Ching
Computing and analyzing the neuronal structure is essential to studying connectome. Two important tasks for such analysis are finding the soma and constructing the neuronal structure. Finding the soma is considered more important because it is required for some neuron tracing algorithms. We describe a robust automatic soma detection method developed based on the machine learning technique. Images of neurons were three-dimensional confocal microscopic images in the FlyCircuit database. The testing data were randomly selected raw images that contained noises and partial neuronal structures...
October 14, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031941/the-travel-diaries-of-tetanus-and-botulinum-neurotoxins
#9
Sunaina Surana, Andrew P Tosolini, Ione F G Meyer, Alexander D Fellows, Sergey S Novoselov, Giampietro Schiavo
Tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) neurotoxins, the causative agents of tetanus and botulism, respectively, are the most potent toxic molecules known to mankind. This extreme potency is attributed to: i) their specificity for essential components of the neurotransmitter release machinery present at vertebrate synapses, and ii) their high-affinity targeting to motor neurons by binding to polysialogangliosides and protein receptors. Comprising the clostridial neurotoxin family, TeNT and BoNTs engage distinct surface receptors and intracellular sorting pathways in neurons...
October 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031861/the-benefits-of-early-oral-nutrition-in-mild-acute-pancreatitis
#10
Kate M Ellery, Soma Kumar, Wallace Crandall, Cheryl Gariepy
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early patient-directed oral nutrition in children with mild acute pancreatitis decreases the length of hospitalization without increasing complications. STUDY DESIGN: Hospitalized patients aged 2-21 years of age who met the criteria for acute pancreatitis based on the Revised Atlanta Classification were enrolled prospectively and allowed to eat by mouth at their discretion (patient-directed nutrition [PDN]). These patients were compared with a retrospective cohort of children who were allowed to eat based on traditional practices (treatment team-directed nutrition [TTDN])...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030573/adjusting-the-catalytic-properties-of-cobalt-ferrite-nanoparticles-by-pulsed-laser-fragmentation-in-water-with-defined-energy-dose
#11
Friedrich Waag, Bilal Gökce, Chakrapani Kalapu, Georg Bendt, Soma Salamon, Joachim Landers, Ulrich Hagemann, Markus Heidelmann, Stephan Schulz, Heiko Wende, Nils Hartmann, Malte Behrens, Stephan Barcikowski
Highly active, structurally disordered CoFe2O4/CoO electrocatalysts are synthesized by pulsed laser fragmentation in liquid (PLFL) of a commercial CoFe2O4 powder dispersed in water. A partial transformation of the CoFe2O4 educt to CoO is observed and proposed to be a thermal decomposition process induced by the picosecond pulsed laser irradiation. The overpotential in the OER in aqueous alkaline media at 10 mA cm(-2) is reduced by 23% compared to the educt down to 0.32 V with a Tafel slope of 71 mV dec(-1)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030297/impaired-extinction-of-cued-fear-memory-and-abnormal-dendritic-morphology-in-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices-in-vpac2-receptor-vipr2-deficient-mice
#12
Yukio Ago, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Takuya Kawanai, Ryosuke Yamauchi, Shuto Takeuchi, Jesse D Cushman, Abha K Rajbhandari, Michael S Fanselow, Hitoshi Hashimoto, James A Waschek
The structurally related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. Several bodies of research have shown the impact of the PACAP specific receptor PAC1 on fear memory, but the roles of other PACAP receptors in regulating fear stress responses remain to be elucidated. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of VIPR2 encoding the VPAC2 receptor, which binds both VIP and PACAP, on fear-related memory and on dendritic morphology in the brain regions of the fear circuitry...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024668/increased-prevalence-of-calcium-transients-across-the-dendritic-arbor-during-place-field-formation
#13
Mark E J Sheffield, Michael D Adoff, Daniel A Dombeck
Hippocampal place cell ensembles form a cognitive map of space during exposure to novel environments. However, surprisingly little evidence exists to support the idea that synaptic plasticity in place cells is involved in forming new place fields. Here we used high-resolution functional imaging to determine the signaling patterns in CA1 soma, dendrites, and axons associated with place field formation when mice are exposed to novel virtual environments. We found that putative local dendritic spikes often occur prior to somatic place field firing...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024033/impact-of-x-irradiation-on-microglia
#14
Franziska Menzel, Nicole Kaiser, Susann Haehnel, Felicitas Rapp, Ina Patties, Nina Schöneberg, Zhana Haimon, Kerstin Immig, Ingo Bechmann
Irradiation is widely used to treat brain tumors, and also to create bone marrow (BM) chimeras. BM chimeras are widely used to dissect functions and origin of microglia and blood-derived mononuclear cells under homeostatic or pathological conditions. This is facilitated by the fact that microglia survive irradiation and are thus regarded radio-resistant. In this study, we tested whether microglia are indeed radio-resistant and looked for potential mechanisms that might explain this phenomenon. We analyzed the radio-resistance of microglia independently of their physiological brain environment compared to other mononuclear cells from spleen and brain after X-irradiation with 7 Gy or 30 Gy...
October 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023717/recovery-from-the-anatomical-effects-of-long-term-monocular-deprivation-in-cat-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#15
Kevin R Duffy, Ming-Fai Fong, Donald E Mitchell, Mark F Bear
Monocular deprivation (MD) imposed early in postnatal life elicits profound structural and functional abnormalities throughout the primary visual pathway. The ability of MD to modify neurons within the visual system is restricted to a so-called critical period that, for cats, peaks at about one postnatal month and declines thereafter so that by about 3 months of age MD has little effect. Recovery from the consequences of MD likewise adheres to a critical period that ends by about 3 months of age, after which the effects of deprivation are thought to be permanent and without capacity for reversal...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021587/relationships-between-structure-in-vivo-function-and-long-range-axonal-target-of-cortical-pyramidal-tract-neurons
#16
Gerardo Rojas-Piloni, Jason M Guest, Robert Egger, Andrew S Johnson, Bert Sakmann, Marcel Oberlaender
Pyramidal tract neurons (PTs) represent the major output cell type of the neocortex. To investigate principles of how the results of cortical processing are broadcasted to different downstream targets thus requires experimental approaches, which provide access to the in vivo electrophysiology of PTs, whose subcortical target regions are identified. On the example of rat barrel cortex (vS1), we illustrate that retrograde tracer injections into multiple subcortical structures allow identifying the long-range axonal targets of individual in vivo recorded PTs...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017910/developmental-ethanol-exposure-alters-the-morphology-of-mouse-prefrontal-neurons-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#17
Emma L Louth, Hanna D Luctkar, Kayla A Heney, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic developmental exposure to ethanol can lead to a wide variety of teratogenic effects, which in humans are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Individuals affected by FASD may exhibit persistent impairments to cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and attention, which are highly dependent on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. The objective of this study was to determine long-term effects of chronic developmental ethanol exposure on mPFC neuron morphology, in order to better-understand potential neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments associated with FASD...
October 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016437/a-mouse-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-model-by-surgically-induced-instability
#18
Takeshi Oichi, Yuki Taniguchi, Kazuhito Soma, Song Ho Chang, Fumiko Yano, Sakae Tanaka, Taku Saito
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study to develop a mouse model of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a mouse lumbar IDD model using surgically-induced instability and to compare the findings of this model to those in human IDD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previously, various kinds of inducers have been used to reproduce IDD in experimental animals; however, there is yet no standard mouse lumbar IDD model without direct injury to intervertebral disc...
October 9, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994469/transgenderism-and-transformation-an-attempt-at-a-jungian-understanding
#19
Michael A Marsman
While transgenderism as a cultural phenomenon seems to be based on a collective taste for the sensational, its emergence represents a collective shift towards a new or more differentiated way of experiencing and expressing sex and gender, a movement of world soul. This paper attempts to explore that emergence from a Jungian perspective. The paper utilizes clinical examples which illustrate how dissociated aspects of the personality are seeking assimilation and expression in order to move the personality towards greater wholeness...
November 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992201/progress-toward-rice-seed-omics-in-low-level-gamma-radiation-environment-in-iitate-village-fukushima
#20
Randeep Rakwal, Gohei Hayashi, Junko Shibato, Saligrama A Deepak, Seetaramanjaneyulu Gundimeda, Upendra Simha, Arunkumar Padmanaban, Ravi Gupta, Sang-Ik Han, Sun Tae Kim, Akihiro Kubo, Tetsuji Imanaka, Manabu Fukumoto, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Seiji Shioda
Here, we present an update on the next level of experiments studying the impact of the gamma radiation environment, created post-March, 2011 nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, on rice plant and its next generation - the seed. Japonica-type rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari) plant was exposed to low-level gamma radiation (~4 μSv/h) in the contaminated Iitate Farm field in Iitate village (Fukushima). Seeds were harvested from these plants at maturity, and serve as the treated group...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Heredity
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