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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435193/can-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-prevalence-from-dairy-cows-in-india-act-as-potential-risk-for-community-associated-infections-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Sathish Gopal, Kurunchi C Divya
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is classified as hospital associated (HA), community associated (CA), livestock associated (LA) and is a global concern. Developing countries, like India, are densely populated country challenging for public hygiene practices. HA-MRSA is comfortably recorded in India, and CA-MRSA is also reported as increasing one. CA-MRSA is serious disease which affects the community as endemic. MRSA is one among major mastitis-causing organisms in India as LA-MRSA. There were reports for transmission of MRSA as community between milk handlers and cow in global perspective...
March 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434737/short-communication-microbiological-quality-of-raw-cow-milk-and-its-association-with-herd-management-practices-in-northern-china
#2
X Y Lan, S G Zhao, N Zheng, S L Li, Y D Zhang, H M Liu, J McKillip, J Q Wang
Contamination of raw milk with bacterial pathogens is potentially hazardous to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total bacteria count (TBC) and presence of pathogens in raw milk in Northern China along with the associated herd management practices. A total of 160 raw milk samples were collected from 80 dairy herds in Northern China. All raw milk samples were analyzed for TBC and pathogens by culturing. The results showed that the number of raw milk samples with TBC <2 × 10(6) cfu/mL and <1 × 10(5) cfu/mL was 146 (91...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434722/prediction-of-milk-fatty-acid-content-with-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-in-canadian-dairy-cattle-using-differently-distributed-model-development-sets
#3
A Fleming, F S Schenkel, J Chen, F Malchiodi, V Bonfatti, R A Ali, B Mallard, M Corredig, F Miglior
The fatty acid profile of milk is a prevailing issue due to the potential negative or positive effects of different fatty acids to human health and nutrition. Mid-infrared spectroscopy can be used to obtain predictions of otherwise costly fatty acid phenotypes in a widespread and rapid manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prediction of fatty acid content for the Canadian dairy cattle population from mid-infrared spectral data and to compare the results produced by altering the partial least squares (PLS) model development set used...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433900/production-of-new-human-milk-fat-substitutes-by-enzymatic-acidolysis-of-microalgae-oils-from-nannochloropsis-oculata-and-isochrysis-galbana
#4
Yongjin He, Changyang Qiu, Zheng Guo, Jian Huang, Mingzi Wang, Bilian Chen
Human milk fat substitutes (HMFs) with four kinds of n-3 fatty acid for infant formula were firstly synthesized using triacylglycerols (TAGs) from Nannochloropsis oculata rich in PA at the sn-2 position and free fatty acids (FFAs) from Isochrysis galbana rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs-ALA/SDA/DHA) via solvent-free acidolysis with Novozym 435, Lipozyme 435, TL-IM and RM-IM as biocatalysts. The results show that the resulting HMFs contain total n-3 PUFA of 13.92-17.12% and PA of 59.38-68.13% at the sn-2 position under the optimal conditions (mole ratio FFAs/TAG 3:1, 60°C (Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL-IM) and 50°C (Lipozyme 435 and RM-IM), lipase loading 10%, reaction time 24h)...
April 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433110/animal-models-of-wilson-disease
#5
Valentina Medici, Dominik Huster
Wilson disease (WD) is caused by ATPase copper-transporting beta (ATP7B) mutations and results in copper toxicity in liver and brain. Although the defective gene was identified in 1993, the specific mechanisms underlying copper toxicity and the remarkable phenotypic diversity of the disease are still poorly understood. Animal models harboring defects in the ATP7B homolog have helped to reveal new insights into pathomechanisms of WD. Four rodent models with ATP7B gene defects have been described - the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, inbred mouse models (toxic milk (tx), the Jackson Laboratory toxic milk (tx-j)), and the genetically engineered ATP7B(-/-) (knockout) mouse - all of which develop liver disease to different extents...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432916/colorimetric-method-for-the-detection-of-melamine-using-in-situ-formed-silver-nanoparticles-via-tannic-acid
#6
Md Fazle Alam, Amaj Ahmed Laskar, Shahbaz Ahmed, Mohd Azfar Shaida, Hina Younus
Melamine toxicity has recently attracted worldwide attention as it causes renal failure and the death of humans and animals. Therefore, developing a simple, fast and sensitive method for the routine detection of melamine is the need of the hour. Herein, we have developed a selective colorimetric method for the detection of melamine in milk samples based upon in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via tannic acid. The AgNPs thus formed were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), zetasizer and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
April 17, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432863/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-breast-milk-donation-in-banks-that-receive-human-milk-in-primary-health-care-units
#7
Tatiana Mota Xavier de Meneses, Maria Inês Couto de Oliveira, Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) by Poisson regression with robust variance...
April 19, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430959/expression-immunogenicity-and-variation-of-iron-regulated-surface-protein-a-from-bovine-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#8
N Misra, T F Wines, C L Knopp, M A McGuire, J K Tinker
Staphylococcus aureus iron-regulated surface protein A (IsdA) is a fibrinogen and fibronectin adhesin that also contributes to iron sequestration and resistance to innate immunity. IsdA is conserved in human isolates and has been investigated as a human vaccine candidate. Here we report the expression of isdA, the efficacy of anti-IsdA responses, and the existence of IsdA sequence variants from bovine Staphylococcus. Clinical staphylococci were obtained from U.S. dairy farms and assayed by PCR for the presence and expression of isdA...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430148/a-rapid-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-method-followed-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-for-the-determination-of-mycotoxins-in-cereals
#9
Giorgia La Barbera, Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Patrizia Foglia, Carmela Maria Montone, Riccardo Zenezini Chiozzi, Aldo Laganà
Mycotoxins can contaminate various food commodities, including cereals. Moreover, mycotoxins of different classes can co-contaminate food, increasing human health risk. Several analytical methods have been published in the literature dealing with mycotoxins determination in cereals. Nevertheless, in the present work, the aim was to propose an easy and effective system for the extraction of six of the main mycotoxins from corn meal and durum wheat flour, i.e., the main four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and the mycoestrogen zearalenone...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426942/polychlorinated-biphenyl-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-profiles-in-serum-from-cattle-sheep-and-goats-across-california
#10
S Sethi, X Chen, P H Kass, B Puschner
It has been previously been shown by our lab and others that persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are contaminants in milk produced for human consumption. To further this research we determined the concentration of 21 PCB and 14 PBDE congeners in livestock serum, mainly bovine, across California. Congeners were extracted from serum using solid phase extraction (SPE), cleaned up by silica cartridge and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426286/on-the-evolution-of-lactase-persistence-in-humans
#11
Laure Ségurel, Céline Bon
Lactase persistence-the ability of adults to digest the lactose in milk-varies widely in frequency across human populations. This trait represents an adaptation to the domestication of dairying animals and the subsequent consumption of their milk. Five variants are currently known to underlie this phenotype, which is monogenic in Eurasia but mostly polygenic in Africa. Despite being a textbook example of regulatory convergent evolution and gene-culture coevolution, the story of lactase persistence is far from clear: Why are lactase persistence frequencies low in Central Asian herders but high in some African hunter-gatherers?Whywas lactase persistence strongly selected for even though milk processing can reduce the amount of lactose? Are there other factors, outside of an advantage of caloric intake, that contributed to the selective pressure for lactase persistence? It is time to revisit what we know and still do not know about lactase persistence in humans...
April 19, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425978/validation-of-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-for-macronutrient-analysis-of-human-milk
#12
S Parat, S Groh-Wargo, S Merlino, C Wijers, D M Super
OBJECTIVE: Human milk has considerable variation in its composition. Hence, the nutrient profile is only an estimate and can result in under- or over-estimation of the intake of preterm infants. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is an evolving technique for analyzing human milk but needs validation before use in clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN: Human milk samples from 35 mothers delivering at 35 weeks to term gestation were analyzed for macronutrients by MIR spectroscopy and by standard laboratory methods using Kjeldahl assay for protein, Mojonnier assay for fat and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay for lactose...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425447/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-of-recombinant-human-myelin-basic-protein-nano-therapeutic-vaccine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice-animal-model
#13
Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Aliaa N ElMeshad, Rania M Abdelsalam, Mohammed M Nooh, Muhammad Al-Shorbagy, Götz Laible
Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424261/zinc-absorption-from-milk-is-affected-by-dilution-but-not-by-thermal-processing-and-milk-enhances-absorption-of-zinc-from-high-phytate-rice-in-young-dutch-women
#14
Elise F Talsma, Diego Moretti, Sou Chheng Ly, Renske Dekkers, Ellen Ghm van den Heuvel, Aditia Fitri, Esther Boelsma, Tjeerd Jan Stomph, Christophe Zeder, Alida Melse-Boonstra
Background: Milk has been suggested to increase zinc absorption. The effect of processing and the ability of milk to enhance zinc absorption from other foods has not been measured directly in humans.Objective: We aimed to assess zinc absorption from 1) milk undergoing various processing and preparatory steps and 2) from intrinsically labeled high-phytate rice consumed with milk or water.Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy young women [age:18-25 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 20-25]: 1) a milk study (n = 19) comparing the consumption of 800 mL full-fat ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk [heat-treated milk (HTM)], full-fat UHT milk diluted 1:1 with water [heat-treated milk and water (MW)], water, or unprocessed (raw) milk (UM), each extrinsically labeled with (67)Zn, and 2) a rice study (n = 18) comparing the consumption of 90 g intrinsically (67)Zn-labeled rice with 600 mL of water [rice and water (RW)] or full-fat UHT milk [rice and milk (RM)]...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424255/analysis-of-milk-from-mothers-who-delivered-prematurely-reveals-few-changes-in-proteases-and-protease-inhibitors-across-gestational-age-at-birth-and-infant-postnatal-age
#15
Veronique Demers-Mathieu, Søren Drud Nielsen, Mark A Underwood, Robyn Borghese, David C Dallas
Background: Peptidomics research has demonstrated that protease activity is higher in breast milk from preterm-delivering mothers than from term-delivering mothers. However, to our knowledge, the effect of the degree of prematurity and postnatal age on proteases and protease inhibitors in human milk remains unknown.Objective: We aimed to determine the change of proteases and protease inhibitors in milk from mothers who delivered prematurely across gestational age (GA) and postnatal age.Methods: Milk samples were collected from 18 mothers aged 26-40 y who delivered preterm infants and who lacked mastitis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424182/human-milk-oligosaccharides-vary-among-populations
#16
David S Newburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423739/sialyllactose-suppresses-angiogenesis-by-inhibiting-vegfr-2-activation-and-tumor-progression
#17
Tae-Wook Chung, Eun-Young Kim, Seok-Jo Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Se Bok Jang, Keuk-Jun Kim, Sun-Hyung Ha, Fukushi Abekura, Choong-Hwan Kwak, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Ki-Tae Ha
The oligosaccharides in human milk have various biological functions. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the anti-angiogenic action of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are still unclear. Here, we show that siallylactose (SL) found in human milk can inhibit the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by binding to its VEGF binding site (second and third IgG-like domains), thus blocking downstream signal activation. SL also inhibits growth of VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423117/-recommendations-for-a-multisectorial-national-policy-to-promote-breastfeeding-in-mexico-position-of-the-national-academy-of-medicine
#18
Teresita González de Cosío-Martínez, Sonia Hernández-Cordero, Juan Rivera-Dommarco, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila
Evidence strongly supports that to improve breastfeeding practices it is needed to strengthen actions of promotion, protection and support. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to establish a multisectoral national policy that includes elements such as design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programs and policies, funding research, advocacy to develop political willingness, and the promotion of breastfeeding from the national to municipal level, all coordinated by a central level. It is until now that Mexico has initiated a reform process to the establish a National Strategy for Breastfeeding Action...
January 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422941/metabolism-related-micrornas-in-maternal-breast-milk-are-influenced-by-premature-delivery
#19
Molly C Carney, Andrij Tarasiuk, Susan L DiAngelo, Patricia Silveyra, Abigail Podany, Leann L Birch, Ian M Paul, Shannon Kelleher, Steven D Hicks
BACKGROUND: Maternal breast milk (MBM) is enriched in microRNAs, factors that regulate protein translation throughout the human body. MBM from mothers of term and preterm infants differ in nutrient, hormone, and bioactive-factor composition, but the microRNA differences between these groups have not been compared. We hypothesized that gestational age at delivery influences microRNA in MBM, particularly microRNAs involved in immunologic and metabolic regulation. METHODS: MBM from mothers of premature infants (pMBM) obtained 3-4 weeks post-delivery was compared with MBM from mothers of term infants obtained at birth (tColostrum) and 3-4 weeks post-delivery (tMBM)...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422122/infant-milk-fat-droplet-size-and-coating-affect-postprandial-responses-in-healthy-adult-men-a-proof-of-concept-study
#20
S Baumgartner, B J M van de Heijning, D Acton, R P Mensink
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fat droplets in human milk (HM) are larger and surrounded by a phospholipid membrane compared with infant milk formulas (IMF). Since the physical structure of fat droplets might affect digestion and postprandial metabolism, an IMF was developed more mimicking HM lipid structure than current IMF. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 29 fasted healthy men (aged 18-25 years, BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2)) to compare 5-hour postprandial responses after consumption of an experimental IMF (Concept, Nuturis) with a current IMF (Control)...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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