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Middle east

Ensaf M Al-Hujaily, Tanvir Khatlani, Zeyad Alehaideb, Rizwan Ali, Bader Almuzaini, Bahauddeen M Alrfaei, Jahangir Iqbal, Imadul Islam, Shuja Malik, Bader A Marwani, Salam Massadeh, Atef Nehdi, Barrak Alsomaie, Bader Debasi, Ibraheem Bushnak, Saeed Noibi, Syed Hussain, Wahid Abdul Wajid, Jean-Pierre Armand, Sheraz Gul, Julen Oyarzabal, Rana Rais, Chas Bountra, Ahmed Alaskar, Bander Al Knawy, Mohamed Boudjelal
The 'Therapeutics discovery: From bench to first in-human trials' conference, held at the King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from October 10-12, 2017, provided a unique opportunity for experts worldwide to discuss advances in drug discovery and development, focusing on phase I clinical trials. It was the first event of its kind to be hosted at the new research center, which was constructed to boost drug discovery and development in the KSA in collaboration with institutions, such as the Academic Drug Discovery Consortium in the United States of America (USA), Structural Genomics Consortium of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom (UK), and Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences in China...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
Harita Gogri, Sabita Ray, Snehal Agrawal, S Aruna, Kanjaksha Ghosh, Ajit Gorakshakar
BACKGROUND: Molecular genotyping of ABO blood group system has identified more than 60 "O" group alleles based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in the ABO gene. Heterogeneity of O group alleles has been observed in various countries from South America, Europe, Middle East, and Asia. India is a vast country with more than 1300 million population which is divided into various ethnic and tribal groups. However, very little is known about the heterogeneity of O alleles in Indians...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Kyungwoo Kim, Kyujin Jung
OBJECTIVES: We investigated public health emergency management networks during the recent outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus that affected more than 17 000 people in South Korea. METHODS: We administered a survey to 169 organizations in order to map the pattern of communication and response networks during the Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak. We also conducted 11 semistructured interviews with national, regional, and local government officials to comprehend inhibiting and facilitating factors in risk communication and response to the system...
March 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Hilal Kılınç, Milena Masullo, Alfredo Bottone, Tamer Karayıldırım, Özgen Alankuş, Sonia Piacente
A new steroidal glycoside, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β,25-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one 25-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), together with six known steroidal derivatives (2-7), one cerebroside (8) and one flavonoid (9) were isolated from Silene montbretiana Boiss (Caryophyllaceae), a perennial herb growing mainly in the Middle and East Anatolia, Azerbaijan, Iran, and Turkey. Their structures were established by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with ESI-MS analyses. The cytotoxicity against the cancer A549 (human alveolar basal carcinoma) and Hela (human epitheloid cervix carcinoma) cell lines has been evaluated...
March 21, 2018: Natural Product Research
Kyungeun Jang, Young Min Baek
Public health officials (PHOs) are responsible for providing trustworthy information during a public health crisis; however, there is little research on how the public behaves when their expectations for such information are violated. Drawing on media dependency theory and source credibility research as our primary theoretical framework, we tested how credibility of information from PHOs is associated with people's reliance on a particular communication channel in the context of the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea...
March 20, 2018: Health Communication
Jeanne M Sisk, Matthew B Frieman, Carolyn E Machamer
Enveloped viruses gain entry into host cells by fusing with cellular membranes, a step that is required for virus replication. Coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fuse at the plasma membrane or use receptor-mediated endocytosis and fuse with endosomes, depending on the cell or tissue type. The virus spike (S) protein mediates fusion with the host cell membrane. We have shown previously that an Abelson (Abl) kinase inhibitor, imatinib, significantly reduces SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viral titres and prevents endosomal entry by HIV SARS S and MERS S pseudotyped virions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Abhinav Jain, Shrey Gandhi, Remya Koshy, Vinod Scaria
Incidental findings in genomic data have been studied in great detail in the recent years, especially from population-scale data sets. However, little is known about the frequency of such findings in ethnic groups, specifically the Middle East, which were not previously covered in global sequencing studies. The availability of whole exome and genome data sets for a highly consanguineous Arab population from Qatar motivated us to explore the incidental findings in this population-scale data. The sequence data of 1005 Qatari individuals were systematically analyzed for incidental genetic variants in the 59 genes suggested by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Kah Kheng Goh, Chun-Hsin Chen, Mong-Liang Lu
OBJECTIVE: Weight gain is one of the most challenging issues in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. Several meta-analyses have been conducted to review the efficacy of topiramate in reducing weight, however, several issues regarding the methodology had arisen of which make the results remain ambiguous. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials about the use of topiramate in patients with schizophrenia for weight reduction...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Gopal R Gopinath, Hannah R Chase, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Athmanya Eshwar, Hyein Jang, Isha Patel, Flavia Negrete, Samantha Finkelstein, Eunbi Park, TaeJung Chung, YeonJoo Yoo, JungHa Woo, YouYoung Lee, Jihyeon Park, Hyerim Choi, Seungeun Jeong, Soyoung Jun, Mijeong Kim, Chaeyoon Lee, HyeJin Jeong, Séamus Fanning, Roger Stephan, Carol Iversen, Felix Reich, Günter Klein, Angelika Lehner, Ben D Tall
Background: Malonate utilization, an important differential trait, well recognized as being possessed by six of the seven Cronobacter species is thought to be largely absent in Cronobacter sakazakii (Csak). The current study provides experimental evidence that confirms the presence of a malonate utilization operon in 24 strains of sequence type (ST) 64, obtained from Europe, Middle East, China, and USA; it offers explanations regarding the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness among these strains, and that of other C...
2018: Gut Pathogens
O O Olukoya, O A Adebiyi
Background: Malaria is of global health concern particularly among pregnant women. Nigeria contributes largely to global burden but coverage of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy using Sulphadoxine pyrimethamine remains low. This study was conducted to determine the national situation of missed opportunity for IPTp-SP and attempted to look at correlates and predictors. Method: The study used secondary data analysis of the Nigeria Demographic Health Survey, 2013...
December 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Canan Eryıldız, Nermin Sakru
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Tahereh Mikaeili Galeh, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, David Carmena, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Aleksandra Barac, Roghayeh Ghoyounchi, Reza Berahmat, Ehsan Ahmadpour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Tiziana Leone, Diego Alburez-Gutierrez, Rula Gandour, Ernestina Coast, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts can undermine a country's health-care capacity and disrupt the delivery of basic health services. Yet the public health consequences of war remain difficult to quantify, mainly because adequate data do not exist. We hypothesised that the ongoing conflict in the occupied Palestinian territory (including the restrictions on free movement and the strain on health-care services) have had detrimental effects on maternal and child health outcomes. METHODS: We reconstructed data on delivery by caesarean section and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccination with pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys for 2000-14...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Khaled Abu Saman, Salwa Massad, Ali Abu Ibaid, Huda Anan, Mamhoud Daher, Rand Salman, Saleh Aldeqes
BACKGROUND: About 9% of the world's population has diabetes. Most people with diabetes live in developing countries. Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in the occupied Palestinian territory. The likelihood of diabetes complications increases with depression. Worldwide, about half of patients with diabetes have severe depression that has been misidentified by health providers. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with depression in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Gaza governorate...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Hiroshi Yatsuya, Yuanying Li, Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Atsuhiko Ota, Masaaki Matsunaga, Hilawe Esayas Haregot, Chifa Chiang, Yan Zhang, Koji Tamakoshi, Hideaki Toyoshima, Atsuko Aoyama
BACKGROUND: Relatively little evidence exists for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prediction models from long-term follow-up studies in East Asians. This study aims to develop a point-based prediction model for 10-year risk of developing T2DM in middle-aged Japanese men. METHODS: We followed 3,540 male participants of Aichi Workers' Cohort Study, who were aged 35-64 years and were free of diabetes in 2002, until March 31, 2015. Baseline age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, medication for dyslipidemia, diabetes family history, and blood levels of triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were examined using Cox proportional hazard model...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Victor M Corman, Doreen Muth, Daniela Niemeyer, Christian Drosten
The four endemic human coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 contribute a considerable share of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults and children. While their clinical representation resembles that of many other agents of the common cold, their evolutionary histories, and host associations could provide important insights into the natural history of past human pandemics. For two of these viruses, we have strong evidence suggesting an origin in major livestock species while primordial associations for all four viruses may have existed with bats and rodents...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Devender Bhalla, Elham Lotfalinezhad, Fatemah Amini, Mohsen Salmannejad, Vahid Reza Borhani Nezhad, Seyedeh Fatemeh Rezai Kooshalshah, Ahmed Delbari, Reza Fadayevatan, I Irmansyah, Abdalla Abdelrahman, Nanda Kumar Bhatta, Kurosh Gharagozli
BACKGROUND: The risk of dementia is reported as "epidemic" and "looming" over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. For this, we performed a multi-language review and feasible analysis on the incidence of dementia to offer apt conclusions. METHODS: Totally, 3 databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database, and PubMed) and 1 non-database source (Google) were searched in French, English, and Persian by using specific keywords and their combinations...
March 14, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
Anwar E Ahmed, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Abeer N Alshukairi, Mody Alaqeel, Salma S Siddiq, Hanan A Alsaab, Ezzeldin A Sakr, Hamed A Alyahya, Munzir M Alandonisi, Alaa T Subedar, Nouf M Aloudah, Salim Baharoon, Majid A Alsalamah, Sameera Al Johani, Mohammed G Alghamdi
BACKGROUND: Rapidly and accurately identifying individuals who are at high risk for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains a major challenge for the medical and scientific communities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction model for the screening of suspected cases of MERS-CoV infection in patients who had developed pneumonia. METHODS: A two-center retrospective case-control study was done, including 360 patients with confirmed pneumonia who were evaluated for MERS-CoV infection by Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from September 1, 2012 to June 1, 2016 at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh (KAMC-R) and King Fahd General Hospital in Jeddah (KFGH-JED)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
L Armand-Lefèvre, A Andremont, E Ruppé
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered a major threat to health. Enterobacteriaceae have increasingly become resistant to antibiotics through the acquisition and dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) that confer resistance to most beta-lactams. While ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were formerly restricted to hospitals, they have now spread to community settings, especially in developing countries. The tremendous expansion of international travels contributed to the importation of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MRE) to low prevalence countries...
March 14, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Justin Hardick, David Metzgar, Lisa Risen, Christopher Myers, Melinda Balansay, Trent Malcom, Richard Rothman, Charlotte Gaydos
Clinical samples were evaluated with the Mobile Analysis Platform (MAP) to determine platform performance for detecting respiratory viruses in samples previously characterized using clinical reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays. The percent agreement between MAP and clinical results was 97% for influenza A (73/75), 100% (21/21) for influenza B, 100% (6/6) for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and 80% (4/5) for negative specimens. The approximate limit of detection of the MAP was 30 copies/assay for RSV and 1500 copies/assay for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus...
February 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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