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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#1
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919121/psychological-trauma-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-victims-and-bereaved-families
#2
Minyoung Sim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918418/insecticide-effect-of-zeolites-on-the-tomato-leafminer-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#3
Caroline De Smedt, Veerle Van Damme, Patrick De Clercq, Pieter Spanoghe
(1) Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of T. absoluta to spinosad causes some concern, which leads to the need for alternative products. (2) Materials and Methods: Several laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the ovicidal properties of a zeolite particle film on T. absoluta...
December 2, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918334/challenges-of-anesthesia-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-access-to-safe-obstetric-anesthesia-in-east-africa
#4
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Thomas M Chokwe, Edwin Lugazia, Francois Ndarugirire, Theogene Twagirumugabe, Gerald Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: The United Nations 2015 Millennium Development Goals targeted a 75% reduction in maternal mortality. However, in spite of this goal, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births remains unacceptably high across Sub-Saharan Africa. Because many of these deaths could likely be averted with access to safe surgery, including cesarean delivery, we set out to assess the capacity to provide safe anesthetic care for mothers in the main referral hospitals in East Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at 5 main referral hospitals in East Africa: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi...
December 1, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917361/il28b-genotype-is-associated-with-cirrhosis-or-transition-to-cirrhosis-in-treatment-naive-patients-with-chronic-hcv-genotype-1-infection-the-international-observational-gen-c-study
#5
Alessandra Mangia, Victor De Ledinghen, François Bailly, Javier Brahm, Jazeps Keiss, Jonas Valantinas, Nele Rasmann, Diethelm Messinger, Fernando Tatsch, Georgios Bakalos, Graham R Foster
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Contradictory data exist on the association between host interleukin-28B (IL28B) rs12979860 genotype and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This large, international, observational study (NCT01675427/MV25600) investigated relationships between IL28B rs12979860 genotype and liver fibrosis stage in CHC patients. METHODS: A total of 3003 adult, treatment-naive CHC patients were enrolled into the study. Patients made one study visit to provide a blood sample for genotyping; other data were obtained from medical records...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916572/high-resolution-melting-hrm-for-genotyping-bovine-ephemeral-fever-virus-befv
#6
Oran Erster, Rotem Stram, Shopia Menasherow, Marisol Rubistein-Giuni, Binyamin Sharir, Evgeni Kchinich, Yehuda Stram
In recent years there have been several major outbreaks of bovine ephemeral disease in the Middle East, including Israel. Such occurrences raise the need for quick identification of the viruses responsible for the outbreaks, in order to rapidly identify the entry of viruses that do not belong to the Middle-East BEFV lineage. This challenge was met by the development of a high-resolution method (HRM) assay. The assay is based on the viral G gene sequence and generation of an algorithm that calculates and evaluates the GC content of various fragments...
December 1, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914145/differential-cell-count-and-crp-level-in-blood-as-predictors-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-in-acute-febrile-patients-during-nosocomial-outbreak
#7
Ga Eun Park, Cheol In Kang, Jae Hoon Ko, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Yae Jean Kim, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae Hoon Song, Doo Ryeon Chung
A case-control study was performed to identify clinical predictors for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection among patients with acute febrile illness during the nosocomial outbreak. Patients with MERS-CoV were more likely to have monocytosis with normal white blood cell (WBC) count and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Simple laboratory data such as complete blood counts (CBC) with differential count could be a useful marker for the prediction of MERS and triage at the initial presentation of acute febrile patients in outbreak setting...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912766/non-random-distribution-of-child-undernutrition-in-ethiopia-spatial-analysis-from-the-2011-ethiopia-demographic-and-health-survey
#8
Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Alemayehu Worku Yalew, Belay Simanie Birhanu
BACKGROUND: Child undernutrition showed geographical inequalities due to variations in contextual determinants from area to area which indicates that location is an important factor in child undernutrition. However, there are limited studies on spatial epidemiology of child undernutrition in Ethiopia. This study was aimed to identify the SaTScan spatial clusters of child undernutrition in Ethiopia. METHODS: Nutritional indices of children (0-59 months) with Global Positioning System (GPS) location data were accessed from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) after getting permission from the MEASURES Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) Program...
December 3, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909038/decision-tree-based-modelling-for-identification-of-potential-interactions-between-type-2-diabetes-risk-factors-a-decade-follow-up-in-a-middle-east-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Azra Ramezankhani, Esmaeil Hadavandi, Omid Pournik, Jamal Shahrabi, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken for use of the decision tree (DT) method for development of different prediction models for incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and for exploring interactions between predictor variables in those models. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). METHODS: A total of 6647 participants (43.4% men) aged >20 years, without T2D at baselines ((1999-2001) and (2002-2005)), were followed until 2012...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906999/identification-geochemical-characterisation-and-significance-of-bitumen-among-the-grave-goods-of-the-7th-century-mound-1-ship-burial-at-sutton-hoo-suffolk-uk
#10
Pauline Burger, Rebecca J Stacey, Stephen A Bowden, Marei Hacke, John Parnell
The 7th century ship-burial at Sutton Hoo is famous for the spectacular treasure discovered when it was first excavated in 1939. The finds include gold and garnet jewellery, silverware, coins and ceremonial armour of broad geographical provenance which make a vital contribution to understanding the political landscape of early medieval Northern Europe. Fragments of black organic material found scattered within the burial were originally identified as 'Stockholm Tar' and linked to waterproofing and maintenance of the ship...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905938/the-impact-of-epidemics-on-labor-market-identifying-victims-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-in-the-korean-labor-market
#11
Ayoung Lee, Joonmo Cho
BACKGROUND: The vulnerability approach suggests that disasters such as epidemics have different effects according not only to physical vulnerability but also to economic class (status). This paper examines the effect of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic on the labor market to investigate whether vulnerable groups become more vulnerable due to an interaction between the socio-economic structure and physical risk. METHODS: This paper examines the effect of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic on the labor market by considering unemployment status, job status, working hours, reason for unemployment and underemployment status...
December 1, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903992/a-brief-review-on-toxic-alcohols-management-strategies
#12
Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani
The information on burden of alcohol abuse in Iran is scarce. However, the available data show that mortality rates and frequency of its use have increased in the Iranian community. In particular, Iran occupies the 1st rank in the number of outbreak incidents and victims of toxic alcohols such as methanol in the Middle East. Mortality and morbidity of toxic alcohols are high if prompt diagnosis and treatment are not initiated rapidly. On-time diagnosis, proper case finding, and standard treatment have an essential role to reduce mortality and morbidity of toxic alcohols particularly blindness and other physical and psychological disabilities...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903740/protective-t-cell-responses-featured-by-concordant-recognition-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-derived-cd8-t-cell-epitopes-and-host-mhc
#13
William J Liu, Jiaming Lan, Kefang Liu, Yao Deng, Yanfeng Yao, Shaolian Wu, Hong Chen, Lingling Bao, Haifeng Zhang, Min Zhao, Qihui Wang, Lingxia Han, Yan Chai, Jianxun Qi, Jincun Zhao, Songdong Meng, Chuan Qin, George F Gao, Wenjie Tan
The coordinated recognition of virus-derived T cell epitopes and MHC molecules by T cells plays a pivotal role in cellular immunity-mediated virus clearance. It has been demonstrated that the conformation of MHC class I (MHC I) molecules can be adjusted by the presented peptide, which impacts T cell activation. However, it is still largely unknown whether the conformational shift of MHC I influences the protective effect of virus-specific T cells. In this study, utilizing the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus-infected mouse model, we observed that through the unusual secondary anchor Ile5, a CD8(+) T cell epitope drove the conformational fit of Trp(73) on the α1 helix of murine MHC I H-2K(d) In vitro renaturation and circular dichroism assays indicated that this shift of the structure did not influence the peptide/MHC I binding affinity...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903308/joint-spatial-time-series-epidemiological-analysis-of-malaria-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-infection
#14
O A Adegboye, M Al-Saghir, D H Y Leung
Malaria and leishmaniasis are among the two most important health problems of many developing countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa. It is common for vector-borne infectious diseases to have similar hotspots which may be attributed to the overlapping ecological distribution of the vector. Hotspot analyses were conducted to simultaneously detect the location of local hotspots and test their statistical significance. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect and test hotspots of malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan in 2009...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903067/predicting-the-spatial-distribution-of-biomphalaria-straminea-a-potential-intermediate-host-for-schistosoma-mansoni-in-china
#15
Mohamed R Habib, Yun-Hai Guo, Shan Lv, Wen-Biao Gu, Xiao-Heng Li, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases impacting human health in the tropics and sub-tropics. The geographic distribution of Schistosoma mansoni, the most widespread species, includes areas in Africa, the Middle East, South America and the Caribbean. Snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate host for S. mansoni. Biomphalaria straminea is not indigenous in China but was accidentally introduced to Hong Kong from South America and has spread to other habitats in the southern parts of the country...
November 29, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901465/livestock-susceptibility-to-infection-with-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#16
Júlia Vergara-Alert, Judith M A van den Brand, W Widagdo, Marta Muñoz, Stalin Raj, Debby Schipper, David Solanes, Ivan Cordón, Albert Bensaid, Bart L Haagmans, Joaquim Segalés
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential reservoirs, we inoculated MERS-CoV into llamas, pigs, sheep, and horses and collected nasal and rectal swab samples at various times. The presence of MERS-CoV in the nose of pigs and llamas was confirmed by PCR, titration of infectious virus, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization; seroconversion was detected in animals of both species...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900364/analysis-of-intrapatient-heterogeneity-uncovers-the-microevolution-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#17
Donghyun Park, Hee Jae Huh, Yeon Jeong Kim, Dae-Soon Son, Hyo-Jeong Jeon, Eu-Hyun Im, Jong-Won Kim, Nam Yong Lee, Eun-Suk Kang, Cheol In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jin-Hyun Ahn, Kyong Ran Peck, Sun Shim Choi, Yae-Jean Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Woong-Yang Park
Genome sequence analysis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) variants from patient specimens has revealed the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of pathogenesis of the virus. However, most studies have analyzed the consensus sequences of MERS-CoVs, precluding an investigation of intrapatient heterogeneity. Here, we analyzed non-consensus sequences to characterize intrapatient heterogeneity in cases associated with the 2015 outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Deep-sequencing analysis of MERS-CoV genomes performed on specimens from eight patients revealed significant intrapatient variation; therefore, sequence heterogeneity was further analyzed using targeted deep sequencing...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899370/benign-reactive-lymphoid-hyperplasia-of-the-conjunctiva-in-childhood
#18
Adel G AlAkeely, Hind M Alkatan, Adel H Alsuhaibani, Hisham AlKhalidi, Leen Abu Safieh, Sarah E Coupland, Deepak P Edward
BACKGROUND/AIM: Our aim is to the report the clinical and histopathological features of benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (BRLH) of the conjunctiva in children and the outcomes of treatment. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for children aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with conjunctival BRLH from January 2000 to December 2013 at two large ophthalmology hospitals in the Middle East. Data were collected on patient demographics, features of the lesions, the site of the lesion, location, adnexal involvement, lymph nodes involvement, local spread, histopathology and molecular genetic studies of the cases (if available), outcomes of treatment and recurrence...
November 29, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899228/the-recombinant-n-terminal-domain-of-spike-proteins-is-a-potential-vaccine-against-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-infection
#19
Lan Jiaming, Yao Yanfeng, Deng Yao, Hu Yawei, Bao Linlin, Huang Baoying, Yan Jinghua, George F Gao, Qin Chuan, Tan Wenjie
The persistent public health threat of infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) highlights the need for an effective MERS-CoV vaccine. Previous studies have focused mainly on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) on the spike protein of MERS-CoV. Herein, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective potential of the recombinant N-terminal domain (rNTD) of spike proteins as a vaccine candidate. BALB/c mice vaccinated with 5 or 10μg of rNTD protein demonstrated a significant humoral immune response (serum IgG and neutralizing activity)...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899100/clinical-determinants-of-the-severity-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Ryota Matsuyama, Hiroshi Nishiura, Satoshi Kutsuna, Kayoko Hayakawa, Norio Ohmagari
BACKGROUND: While the risk of severe complications of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and its determinants have been explored in previous studies, a systematic analysis of published articles with different designs and populations has yet to be conducted. The present study aimed to systematically review the risk of death associated with MERS as well as risk factors for associated complications. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical and epidemiological studies on confirmed cases of MERS...
November 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
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