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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102218/neurologic-mtb-hiv-complications
#1
Laurie A Dempsey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100210/prevalence-of-psychiatric-morbidity-in-a-community-sample-in-western-kenya
#2
Edith Kwobah, Steve Epstein, Ann Mwangi, Debra Litzelman, Lukoye Atwoli
BACKGROUND: About 25% of the worldwide population suffers from mental, neurological and substance use disorders but unfortunately, up to 75% of affected persons do not have access to the treatment they need. Data on the magnitude of the mental health problem in Kenya is scarce. The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence and the socio-demographic factors associated with mental and substance use disorders in Kosirai division, Nandi County, Western Kenya. METHODS: This was a cross sectional descriptive study in which participants were selected by simple random sampling...
January 18, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079886/hiv-1-nef-is-released-in-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-astrocytes-evidence-for-nef-mediated-neurotoxicity
#3
A Sami Saribas, Stephanie Cicalese, Taha Mohseni Ahooyi, Kamel Khalili, Shohreh Amini, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disorders (HANDs) affect the majority of AIDS patients and are a significant problem among HIV-1-infected individuals who live longer because of combined anti-retroviral therapies. HIV-1 utilizes a number of viral proteins and subsequent cytokine inductions to unleash its toxicity on neurons. Among HIV-1 viral proteins, Nef is a small protein expressed abundantly in astrocytes of HIV-1-infected brains and has been suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of HAND...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074347/pattern-and-motion-related-visual-evoked-potentials-in-hiv-infected-adults
#4
Jana Szanyi, Jan Kremlacek, Zuzana Kubova, Miroslav Kuba, Pavel Gebousky, Jaroslav Kapla, Juraj Szanyi, Frantisek Vit, Jana Langrova
PURPOSE: The goal of the current study was to explore visual function in virally suppressed HIV patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) by using pattern-reversal and motion-onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs). METHODS: The pattern-reversal and motion-onset VEPs were recorded in 20 adult HIV+ patients with a mean age of 38 years and CD4 cell counts ≥230 × 10(6) cells/L of blood. RESULTS: Nine out of 20 patients displayed VEP abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057973/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-with-pulmonary-and-neurological-cryptococcosis-in-an-hiv-negative-patient
#5
Rodolfo Mendes Queiroz, Lara Zupelli Lauar, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento Valentin, Cecília Hissae Miyake, Lucas Giansante Abud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054000/a-comparative-study-of-cidp-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-patients
#6
Kaminie Moodley, Pierre L A Bill, Vinod Bhagu Patel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in clinical presentation, electrodiagnostic measures, CSF changes, and treatment outcome measures in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records of all patients meeting the European Federation of Neurology diagnostic criteria for idiopathic CIDP was performed in 2 neuromuscular units in Kwa-Zulu Natal between 2003 and 2015...
March 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034850/assessment-of-self-awareness-of-cognitive-function-correlations-of-self-ratings-with-actual-performance-ranks-for-tests-of-processing-speed-memory-and-executive-function-in-non-clinical-samples
#7
Johannes Rothlind, Paul Dukarm, Matthew Kraybill
OBJECTIVE: For individuals with neurologic disorders, self-awareness of cognitive impairment is associated with improved treatment course and clinical outcome. However, methods for assessment of levels of self-awareness are limited, and most require collateral information, which may not be readily available. Although distortions in self-awareness are most often associated with low cognitive ability, the frequently mixed pattern of cognitive strengths and deficits in individuals with neurologic disorders complicates assessment...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017149/htlv-1-associated-neurological-disorders
#8
Muhammad Yasir Khan, Ishaq Nasib Khan, Muhammad Farman, Saleh Al Karim, Ishtiaq Qadri, Muhammad Amjad Kamal, Khalid Al Ghamdi, Steve Harakeh
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus which is endemic to certain regions of the world and infects around 10-20 million people. HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated neurological disorders including mainly HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis. The involvement of the central nervous diseases occurs among: HTLV-1 infected patients from endemic areas, HIV positive individuals and drug users. The ability of HTLV-1 to cause associated neuropathies starts with the virus crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB), then entering and infecting the cells of the central nervous system...
December 22, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012729/neurologic-emergencies-in-hiv-negative-immunosuppressed-patients
#9
J A Guzmán-De-Villoria, P Fernández-García, P J Borrego-Ruiz
HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients comprise a heterogeneous group including transplant patients, patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressors, uremic patients, alcoholics, undernourished patients, diabetics, patients on dialysis, elderly patients, and those diagnosed with severe or neoplastic processes. Epileptic seizures, focal neurologic signs, and meningoencephalitis are neurologic syndromes that require urgent action. In most of these situations, neuroimaging tests are necessary, but the findings can be different from those observed in immunocompetent patients in function of the inflammatory response...
December 21, 2016: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011613/spinal-arachnoiditis-as-a-complication-of-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-non-hiv-previously-healthy-adults
#10
Anil A Panackal, Mika Komori, Peter Kosa, Omar Khan, Dima A Hammoud, Lindsey B Rosen, Sarah K Browne, Yen-Chih Lin, Elena Romm, Charu Ramaprasad, Bettina C Fries, John E Bennett, Bibiana Bielekova, Peter R Williamson
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. METHODS: We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005232/hiv-1-glycoprotein-120-enhancement-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-mediated-excitatory-postsynaptic-currents-implications-for-hiv-1-associated-neural-injury
#11
Yan Zhou, Jianuo Liu, Huangui Xiong
It is widely accepted that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) plays an important role in HIV-1-induced neural injury and pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAND). Multiple pathways have been proposed for gp120-induced neurotoxicity, amongst is the activation of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). It has been shown that gp120 causes neuronal injury or death and gp120 transgenic mice exhibit neurological similarity to that of HAND, all of which can be blocked or attenuated by NMDAR antagonists...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003289/burden-of-multimorbidity-in-relation-to-age-gender-and-immigrant-status-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-administrative-data
#12
Jacopo Lenzi, Vera Maria Avaldi, Paola Rucci, Giulia Pieri, Maria Pia Fantini
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated multimorbidity, whose prevalence varies according to settings and data sources. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted in Italy, a country with universal healthcare and one of the most aged populations in the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in a Northern Italian region, to investigate its distribution by age, gender and citizenship and to analyse the correlations of diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on administrative data...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993382/syphilis
#13
REVIEW
Edward W Hook
Syphilis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is endemic in low-income countries and and occurs at lower rates in middle-income and high-income countries. The disease is of both individual and public health importance and, in addition to its direct morbidity, increases risk of HIV infection and can cause lifelong morbidity in children born to infected mothers. Without treatment the disease can progress over years through a series of clinical stages and lead to irreversible neurological or cardiovascular complications...
December 16, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932622/inflammasome-activation-underlies-central-nervous-system-deterioration-in-hiv-associated-tuberculosis
#14
Suzaan Marais, Rachel P J Lai, Katalin A Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Anne O'Garra, Robert J Wilkinson
Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is a frequent cause of meningitis in HIV-infected individuals, resulting in death in ~ 40% of affected patients. A severe complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in these patients is neurological TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), but its underlying cause remains poorly understood. To investigate the pathogenesis of TBM-IRIS, we performed longitudinal whole blood microarray analysis of HIV-infected TBM patients and reflected the findings at the protein level...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913201/early-mortality-and-associated-factors-among-patients-with-stroke-admitted-to-a-large-teaching-hospital-in-tanzania
#15
Kigocha Okeng'o, Pilly Chillo, William K Gray, Richard W Walker, William Matuja
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death worldwide and 85.5% of stroke deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries due to stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate correlates and predictors of 30-day mortality in stroke patients in urban Tanzania. METHODS: A prospective 30-day follow-up study was conducted at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We recruited all patients with stroke seen at the Emergency Medicine Department and medical wards...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905840/combining-cell-and-gene-therapy-in-an-effort-to-eradicate-hiv
#16
Thor A Wagner
More than 30 million people are infected with HIV, and HIV remains the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically decreases mortality rate, but there are side effects, long-term toxicities, expenses, stigmas, and inconveniences associated with chronic treatment, and HIV-infected individuals on ART have an increased risk of malignancies, cardiovascular disease, neurologic disease, and shortened life expectancy. Therefore, a cure for HIV remains an important goal...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903304/association-between-taenia-solium-infection-and-hiv-aids-in-northern-tanzania-a-matched-cross-sectional-study
#17
Veronika Schmidt, Christian Kositz, Karl-Heinz Herbinger, Hélène Carabin, Bernard Ngowi, Ezra Naman, Patricia P Wilkins, John Noh, William Matuja, Andrea Sylvia Winkler
BACKGROUND: The frequency of Taenia solium, a zoonotic helminth, is increasing in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high. However, little is known about how these two infections interact. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of HIV positive (+) and negative (-) individuals who are infected with Taenia solium (TSOL) and who present with clinical and neurological manifestations of cysticercosis (CC)...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895248/neurologic-signs-and-symptoms-frequently-manifest-in-acute-hiv-infection
#18
Joseph Kamtchum-Tatuene, Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Alain Lekoubou, Joanna Hellmuth, Victor Valcour, Serena Spudich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894270/evaluation-of-tolerability-with-the-co-formulation-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-post-hiv-exposure-prophylaxis
#19
Nadia Valin, Laurent Fonquernie, Anne Daguenel, Pauline Campa, Theresita Anthony, Marguerite Guiguet, Pierre Marie Girard, Marie Caroline Meyohas
BACKGROUND: The preferred regimen for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is based mainly on safety and tolerability because it is given to immunocompetent people without HIV infection for a limited time (28 days). The frequency of adverse events (AEs) may be > 60%. Although AEs are generally not severe, they can lead to lack of adherence and failure to complete the regimen. We evaluated the co-formulation elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Stribild(®)) prescribed as one pill taken once daily for HIV PEP in terms of tolerability and adherence...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889886/association-of-midlife-smoking-status-with-change-in-processing-speed-and-mental-flexibility-among-hiv-seropositive-and-hiv-seronegative-older-men-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#20
Wajiha Z Akhtar-Khaleel, Robert L Cook, Steve Shoptaw, Eric N Miller, Ned Sacktor, Pamela J Surkan, Jim Becker, Linda A Teplin, Rebecca J Beyth, Catherine Price, Michael Plankey
Smoking is a potential risk factor for age-related cognitive decline. To date, no study has examined the association between smoking and cognitive decline in men living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this present study is to examine whether smoking status and severity in midlife is associated with a rate of decline in cognitive processing speed among older HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men. Data from 591 older HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were examined...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
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