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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520614/incidence-of-neurological-disorders-among-hiv-infected-individuals-with-universal-health-care-in-taiwan-2000-through-2010
#1
Yi-Tseng Tsai, Yen-Chin Chen, Chen-Yang Hsieh, Wen-Chien Ko, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of and factors associated with neurological disorders in a large Taiwanese cohort of HIV-infected persons with free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN: A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database for the years 2000-2010. METHODS: We identified 13,316 HIV-positive persons from 2000 through 2010. We used direct standardization to calculate age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates based on the 2000 World Health Organization world standard population...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512685/modeling-brain-lentiviral-infections-during-antiretroviral-therapy-in-aids
#2
Weston C Roda, Michael Y Li, Michael S Akinwumi, Eugene L Asahchop, Benjamin B Gelman, Kenneth W Witwer, Christopher Power
Understanding HIV-1 replication and latency in different reservoirs is an ongoing challenge in the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. A mathematical model was created to describe and predict the viral dynamics of HIV-1 and SIV infection within the brain during effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The mathematical model was formulated based on the biology of lentiviral infection of brain macrophages and used to describe the dynamics of transmission and progression of lentiviral infection in brain...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487203/mmps-timps-imbalances-in-the-peripheral-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-are-associated-with-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-pilot-study
#3
Yanyan Xing, Nicole Shepherd, Jie Lan, Wei Li, Sushmita Rane, Samir K Gupta, Shanxiang Zhang, Jun Dong, Qigui Yu
HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a major concern in the infected population, despite the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Growing evidence suggests that an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) contributes to the pathogenesis of HAND. In our present study, we examined protein levels and enzymatic activities of MMPs and TIMPs in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from HIV-1 patients with or without HAND and HIV-1-negative controls...
May 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472307/antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-patients-can-harbour-resistant-viruses-in-csf-despite-an-undetectable-viral-load-in-plasma
#4
Cathia Soulie, Maxime Grudé, Diane Descamps, Corinne Amiel, Laurence Morand-Joubert, Stéphanie Raymond, Coralie Pallier, Pantxika Bellecave, Sandrine Reigadas, Mary-Anne Trabaud, Constance Delaugerre, Brigitte Montes, Francis Barin, Virginie Ferré, Hélène Jeulin, Chakib Alloui, Sabine Yerly, Anne Signori-Schmuck, Aurélie Guigon, Samira Fafi-Kremer, Stéphanie Haïm-Boukobza, Audrey Mirand, Anne Maillard, Sophie Vallet, Catherine Roussel, Lambert Assoumou, Vincent Calvez, Philippe Flandre, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin
Background: HIV therapy reduces the CSF HIV RNA viral load (VL) and prevents disorders related to HIV encephalitis. However, these brain disorders may persist in some cases. A large population of antiretroviral-treated patients who had a VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF with detectable or undetectable VL in plasma associated with cognitive impairment was studied, in order to characterize discriminatory factors of these two patient populations. Methods: Blood and CSF samples were collected at the time of neurological disorders for 227 patients in 22 centres in France and 1 centre in Switzerland...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462542/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-hiv-infected-indian-patients
#5
Vipul Shah, Harsh Toshniwal, Manoj Shevkani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the Central nervous system (CNS) caused by the human polyoma virus JC (JCV). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection predisposes to PML. Very sparse data is available regarding the effect of Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART) on clinical outcome of PML in Indian settings. This study was carried out to look into clinical profile, survival and neurological outcome of HIV infected PML patients in HAART era...
March 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462218/syndrome-of-transient-headache-and-neurologic-deficits-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-lymphocytosis-masquerading-as-meningitis-in-hiv-patient
#6
Moayad Al Hadidi, William D Meng, Khalid Jumean, Amer Hawatmeh
Syndrome of transient headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL syndrome) is described as "headache attributed to noninfectious inflammatory disease" featuring, as its name suggests, headache that mimics migraine in addition to neurologic symptoms such as hemiparesis, hemiparesthesia and dysphagia. We report a case of a 50-year-old African-American female who presented with headache, malaise and subsequent hemiparesis. Despite bearing a close resemblance to an acute episode of meningitis clinically, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis of the patient was only positive for isolated elevation in white cell count...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457951/hiv-tat-and-dopaminergic-transmission
#7
REVIEW
Peter Gaskill, Doug Miller, Joyonna-Gamble George, Hideaki Yano, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a progressive infection that targets the immune system, affecting more than 37 million people around the world. While combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) has lowered mortality rates and improved quality of life in infected individuals, the prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders is increasing and HIV associated cognitive decline remains prevalent. Recent research has suggested that HIV accessory proteins may be involved in this decline, and several studies have indicated that the HIV protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) can disrupt normal neuronal and glial function...
April 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447399/genome-wide-association-study-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-hand-a-charter-group-study
#8
Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Todd Hulgan, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Cinnamon S Bloss, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Nicholas Schork, Christina M Marra, Ann C Collier, David B Clifford, Benjamin B Gelman, Ned Sacktor, Susan Morgello, David M Simpson, J Allen McCutchan, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Donald R Franklin, Debralee Rosario, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) often complicates HIV infection despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may be influenced by host genomics. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HAND in 1,050 CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Study participants. All participants underwent standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive, and neuromedical assessments to determine if they had cognitive impairment as assessed by the Global Deficit Score (GDS), and individuals with comorbidities that could confound diagnosis of HAND were excluded...
June 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446129/novel-predictors-of-neurosyphilis-among-hiv-negative-syphilis-patients-with-neurological-symptoms-an-observational-study
#9
Yao Xiao, Man-Li Tong, Li-Li Liu, Li-Rong Lin, Mei-Jun Chen, Hui-Lin Zhang, Wei-Hong Zheng, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Zhi-Feng Lin, Hui-Qin Xing, Jian-Jun Niu, Tian-Ci Yang
BACKGROUND: Known predictors of neurosyphilis were mainly drawn from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected syphilis patients, which may not be applicable to HIV-negative populations as they have different characteristics, particularly those with neurological symptoms. This study aimed to identify novel predictors of HIV-negative symptomatic neurosyphilis (S-NS). METHODS: From June 2005 to June 2015, 370 HIV-negative syphilis patients with neurological symptoms were recruited, consisting of 191 S-NS patients (including 123 confirmed neurosyphilis and 68 probable neurosyphilis patients) and 179 syphilis/non-neurosyphilis (N-NS) patients...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#10
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441414/regional-early-and-progressive-loss-of-brain-pericytes-but-not-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-adult-mice-with-disrupted-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling
#11
Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Zhen Zhao, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424694/immune-responses-in-the-central-nervous-system-are-anatomically-segregated-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#12
Barbara Tavano, Vicky Tsipouri, Gareth A D Hardy, Caroline M Royle, Michael R Keegan, Dietmar Fuchs, Steven Patterson, Neil Almond, Neil Berry, Claire Ham, Deborah Ferguson, Adriano Boasso
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accesses the central nervous system (CNS) early during infection, leading to HIV-associated cognitive impairment and establishment of a viral reservoir. Here, we describe a dichotomy in inflammatory responses in different CNS regions in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, a model for HIV infection. We found increased expression of inflammatory genes and perivascular leukocyte infiltration in the midbrain of SIV-infected macaques. Conversely, the frontal lobe showed downregulation of inflammatory genes associated with interferon-γ and interleukin-6 pathways, and absence of perivascular cuffing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419315/clinical-parameters-routine-inflammatory-markers-and-lta4h-genotype-as-predictors-of-mortality-among-608-patients-with-tuberculous-meningitis-in-indonesia
#13
Arjan van Laarhoven, Sofiati Dian, Carolien Ruesen, Ela Hayati, Michelle S M A Damen, Jessi Annisa, Lidya Chaidir, Rovina Ruslami, Tri Hanggono Achmad, Mihai G Netea, Bachti Alisjahbana, Ahmad Rizal Ganiem, Reinout van Crevel
Background: Damaging inflammation is thought to contribute to the high morbidity and mortality of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), but the link between inflammation and outcome remains unclear. Methods: We performed prospective clinical and routine laboratory analyses of a cohort of adult patients with TBM in Indonesia. We also examined the LTA4H promoter polymorphism, which predicted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte count and survival of Vietnamese patients with TBM...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#14
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410693/clinical-and-radiological-spectrum-of-intracranial-tuberculosis-a-hospital-based-study-in-northeast-india
#15
Baiakmenlang Synmon, Marami Das, Ashok K Kayal, Munindra Goswami, Jogesh Sarma, Lakshya Basumatary, Suvorit Bhowmick
Central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe extra pulmonary TB having a high mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To study the various clinical, biochemical, and radiological spectrum of intracranial TB. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Ninety-three patients were enrolled in this prospective study after ethical clearance and consent from August 2013 to May 2015. The entire clinical course with complications and predictors of mortality were assessed. RESULTS: 36 females (38...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#16
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392757/aspp2-plays-a-dual-role-in-gp120-induced-autophagy-and-apoptosis-of-neuroblastoma-cells
#17
Zhiying Liu, Luxin Qiao, Yulin Zhang, Yunjing Zang, Ying Shi, Kai Liu, Xin Zhang, Xiaofan Lu, Lin Yuan, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Dexi Chen
HIV invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) in the majority of patients infected with HIV-1, leads to dysfunction and injury within the CNS, showing a variety of neurological symptoms which was broadly termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). But the molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. It has been suggested that apoptosis and autophagic dysfunction in neurons may play an important role in the development of HAND. Previous studies have indicated that p53 may be involved in the onset of neurological disorder in AIDS...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392467/predicted-coreceptor-usage-at-end-stage-hiv-disease-in-tissues-derived-from-subjects-on-antiretroviral-therapy-with-an-undetectable-plasma-viral-load
#18
S L Lamers, G B Fogel, E S Liu, D J Nolan, M Salemi, A E Barbier, R Rose, E J Singer, M S McGrath
HIV cure research is increasingly focused on anatomical tissues as sites for residual HIV replication during combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Tissue-based HIV could contribute to low-level immune activation and viral rebound over the course of infection and could also influence the development of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, neurological disorders and cancers. cART-treated subjects have a decreased and irregular presence of HIV among tissues, which has resulted in a paucity of actual evidence concerning how or if HIV persists, replicates and evolves in various anatomical sites during therapy...
April 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383502/the-role-of-hiv-infection-in-neurologic-injury
#19
REVIEW
Rossana Scutari, Claudia Alteri, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Stefano Aquaro
The central nervous system (CNS) is a very challenging HIV-1 sanctuary, in which HIV-1 replication is established early on during acute infection and can persist despite potent antiretroviral treatments. HIV-1 infected macrophages play a pivotal role acting as vehicles for HIV-1 to spread into the brain, and can be the major contributor of an early compartmentalization. HIV-1 infection in CNS may lead to a broad spectrum of neurological syndromes, such as dementia, mild neurocognitive disorders, and asymptomatic impairment...
April 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375918/mitigating-cybersecurity-risks
#20
Rachel V Rose, Joseph S Kass
Cybersecurity issues and their impact on compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act are becoming more of an enforcement focus for a variety of government agencies, including the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Department of Justice. In the case presented in this article, a nurse in a neurology practice opted to speak with a patient about human immunodeficiency virus testing procedures in a manner audible to others in the waiting room...
April 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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