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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029055/prognostic-models-for-9-month-mortality-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#1
Le Thi Phuong Thao, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Ronald B Geskus, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Huu Lan, Do Dang Anh Thu, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Jeremy Day, Jeremy J Farrar, M Estee Torok, Nguyen Duc Bang, Guy E Thwaites, Marcel Wolbers
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. We developed and validated prognostic models for 9-month mortality in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected adults with TBM. Methods: We included 1699 subjects from four randomized clinical trials and one prospective observational study conducted at two major referral hospitals in Southern Vietnam from 2001-2015. Modelling was based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026634/hiv-positive-patient-with-gbs-like-syndrome
#2
Samantha J Shepherd, Heather Black, Emma C Thomson, Rory N Gunson
Introduction. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy which can occur post-infection. Criteria of diagnosis of GBS include areflexia with progressive bilateral weakness in arms and legs. GBS can lead to severe respiratory and cardiac complications. The fatality rate can be up to 5 % in patients, depending on the severity of the symptoms. HIV can cause a range of neurological disorders including, on rare occasions, GBS. GBS can occur at any stage of HIV infection, highlighting the complexity of diagnosis of GBS within HIV patients...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021643/cryptococcal-cerebellitis-in-no-vih-patient
#3
Fabricio Andres Lasso, Tomas Omar Zamora Bastidas, Jorge Andrés Potosí García, Bairon Díaz Idrobo
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection whose etiology is Cryptococcus neofromans / C. gattii, complex which affects immunocompromised patients mainly. Meningeal infection is one of the most common presentations, but cerebellar affection is rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: Male patient with 65 old years, from an area of subtropical climate with chronic exposure to poultry, without pathological antecedents, who presented clinical picture consistent with headache, fever, seizures and altered mental status...
June 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020214/how-well-do-neurologic-symptoms-identify-individuals-with-neurosyphilis
#4
Arielle P Davis, Joshua Stern, Lauren Tantalo, Sharon Sahi, Sarah Holte, Shelia Dunaway, Christina M Marra
Background: Current guidelines recommend lumbar puncture (LP) in patients with syphilis who have neurologic syndromes. Methods: 81 HIV-uninfected individuals and 385 HIV-infected individuals enrolled in a study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities in syphilis underwent LP and a structured symptom history, including assessment of headache; stiff neck; photophobia; ocular inflammation; vision, hearing or sensory loss; or gait incoordination. Neurosyphilis was defined as a reactive CSF-Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020174/the-impact-of-statin-and-ace-inhibitor-angiotensin-receptor-blocker-therapy-on-cognitive-function-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#5
Kristine M Erlandson, Douglas Kitch, William C Wester, Robert C Kalayjian, Edgar Turner Overton, Jose Castillo-Mancilla, Susan L Koletar, Constance A Benson, Thomas B Campbell, Kevin Robertson, Judith J Lok
Background: Although statins and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE/ARB) are generally well-tolerated, the impact of these therapies individually or in combination on the change in neurocognitive function in HIV-infected persons is unknown. Methods: ACTG ALLRT cohort participants not on a statin or ACE/ARB within 30 days of first neurologic assessment (baseline), with assessments by NPZ-3 (z-score of averaged Trailmaking [Tr] A and B, and digit symbol test [DST]) from ≥2 measurements were included...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991888/commonly-prescribed-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-incidence-of-aids-defining-neurological-conditions
#6
Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin, Alan Winston, Roger Logan, John Gill, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Diana Barger, Sara Lodi, Santiago Moreno, José Ramón Arribas, Antonio Pacheco, Sandra W Cardoso, George Chrysos, Charalabos Gogos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez Hoyos, Dominique Braun, Christoph Hauser, Pilar Barrufet, Maria Leyes, Janet Tate, Amy Justice, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991673/mortality-and-morbidity-among-hospitalized-adult-patients-with-neurological-diseases-in-cameroon
#7
Katie Kompoliti, Jacques Doumbe, Yacoumba Njankouo Mapoure, Theophile Nyinyikua, Bichun Ouyang, Hiral Shah, Sara Calvo, Abel Fernandez-Sierra, Maria Esther Cubo Delgado
BACKGROUND: There is inadequate information on the morbidity and mortality (M&M) from neurological diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To record the M&M from neurological diseases in adults in Cameroon from 2013 to 2015 using a registry and surveillance from two urban health care centers. METHODS: Records from all adult admissions from two urban hospitals over a two year period were reviewed. Adult cases with neurological diagnosis as the main cause for admission were identified...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987321/the-role-of-human-dopamine-transporter-in-neuroaids
#8
REVIEW
Jun Zhu, Subramaniam Ananthan, Chang-Guo Zhan
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains highly prevalent in HIV infected individuals and represents a special group of neuropathological disorders, which are associated with HIV-1 viral proteins, such as transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein. Cocaine abuse increases the incidence of HAND and exacerbates its severity by enhancing viral replication. Perturbation of dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk determinant of HAND. The presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is essential for DA homeostasis and dopaminergic modulation of the brain function including cognition...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968020/-molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-from-hiv-patients-guayaquil-ecuador
#9
Sunny Sánchez, Dolores Zambrano, Maylen García, César Bedoya, Carlos Fernández, María Teresa Illnait-Zaragozí
INTRODUCTION: Neurocryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that represents a high cost in human lives and for the economy of countries. Its causative agent, the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex, has a sexual and an asexual phase, four major serotypes and seven molecular varieties with phenotypic, clinical-epidemiological and antifungal susceptibility differences. OBJECTIVE: To characterize by molecular methods clinical isolates of C...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948451/a-diagnostic-approach-to-stroke-in-young-adults
#10
REVIEW
Christopher A Stack, John W Cole
Optimal diagnosis and management of stroke in young adults benefit from a multidisciplinary team, including a vascular neurology specialist. In addition to the "standard" vascular risk factors including smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, one needs to consider alternative etiologies including substance abuse, carotid/vertebral artery dissections, and rare genetic conditions among others. Once a young patient is determined to have had a stroke, the next question a clinician should ask is why did this patient have a stroke? A "heart to head" diagnostic approach is recommended...
September 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946588/changing-the-culture-of-neurodisability-through-language-and-sensitivity-of-providers-creating-a-safe-place-for-lgbtqia-people
#11
Alexander Moreno, Ari Laoch, Nathan D Zasler
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in sexual and gender diversity in neurorehabilitation. Healthcare professionals wanting to improve their practice know the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of specific communities. OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature about neurological disorders in people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and people with other sexual orientations and forms of gender expression (LGBTQIA+)...
September 16, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931682/susceptibility-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#12
Rafael A Contreras-Galindo, Derek Dube, Koh Fujinaga, Mark H Kaplan, David M Markovitz
Human Endogenous Retroviruses make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV-K HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germline and are transcriptionally active. In HIV-1 infection and cancer, HK2 genes produce retroviral particles that appear to be infectious, yet the replication capacity of these viruses and potential pathogenicity has been difficult to ascertain. In this report, we screened the efficacy of commercially available reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of the HK2 RT and HK2 genomic replication...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930847/guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-axonal-polyneuropathy-associated-with-toscana-virus-infection-a-case-report
#13
Eugenia Rota, Nicola Morelli, Paolo Immovilli, Paola De Mitri, Donata Guidetti
RATIONALE: Numerous cases of post-infectious Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported in the literature. Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne emerging pathogen in the Mediterranean area. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital for acute facial weakness, associated to numbness paraesthesias at lower and upper limbs. The neurological examination revealed facial diplegia and reduced tendon reflexes. The nerve conduction studies documented an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN); the lumbar puncture detected albuminocytologic dissociation...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914079/co-infection-of-human-herpesvirus-type-2-hhv-2-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-among-pregnant-women-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#15
Lyana Rodrigues Pinto Lima, Luis Eduardo Barros Costa Fernandes, Daniel A M Villela, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado, José Henrique Pilotto, Vanessa Salete de Paula
Pregnant women who are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are particularly vulnerable to severe and recurrent infections with Human Herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2). Neonatal transmission of HHV-2 has been associated with malformations and neurological sequelae in infants, which makes it very important to perform antenatal monitoring for genital herpes. In the study, 134 pregnant women infected with HIV were tested for HHV-2 IgM and IgG using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and had HHV-2 DNA analyzed by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)...
September 15, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904453/hospital-based-retrospective-study-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-a-large-cohort-from-india
#16
Karkal Ravishankar Naik, Aralikatte Onkarappa Saroja, Darshan Kiran Doshi
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is an important and a fatal neuroinfection. Early diagnosis and treatment is of utmost importance in reducing morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcal meningitis seen in tertiary care hospital were reviewed. Details of demographic profile, clinical data, laboratory parameters, complications, and in-hospital mortality were studied. RESULTS: Among 97 patients with cryptococcal meningitis (79 men, 18 women), 88 were HIV-positive, two were diabetic, and seven were sporadic...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#17
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895099/neurological-and-multiple-organ-involvement-due-to-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-and-hiv-co-infection-diagnosed-at-autopsy
#18
Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, Thiago H Roza, Gabriel L O Salvador, João C B França, Luine Rosele Renaud Vidal, Meri Bordignon Nogueira, Lubomira Veronica Oliva, Luis Fernando Bleggi Torres, Lucia Helena de Noronha
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis among immunocompetent patients in Latin America; it is rare in immunocompromised patients. The estimated frequency of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the HIV/PCM population was 2.5%. We report a case of HIV/P. brasiliensis co-infection, with neurological (NPCM) and multiple organ involvement, indicating a diagnosis of AIDS. PCM diagnosis was established during the autopsy. This is the first described case of HIV/P...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894045/neopterin-as-a-marker-of-cellular-immunological-response
#19
Łukasz Michalak, Magdalena Bulska, Karolina Strząbała, Piotr Szcześniak
Neopterin is a pyrazino-pyrimidine compound that belongs to the pteridine group. It is known to be a biochemical marker associated with cell-mediated immunity. It is produced by human monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) upon stimulation with interferon gamma (IFNγ), which is released by activated limphocytes Th. Neopterin is a very important clinic parameter, though the physiological role has not been exactly definited thus far. The level of neopterin reflects the stage of activation of the cellular immune system, which is important in the pathogenesis and progression of various diseases...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891655/longitudinal-intra-individual-variability-in-neuropsychological-performance-relates-to-white-matter-changes-in-hiv
#20
Jacob D Jones, Taylor Kuhn, Zanjbeel Mahmood, Elyse J Singer, Charles H Hinkin, April D Thames
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that intraindividual variability (IIV) of neuropsychological performance may be sensitive to HIV-associated neurologic compromise. IIV may be particularly dependent upon the integrity of frontal-subcortical systems, and therefore may be a meaningful phenotype in HIV. We examined the relationship between change in IIV and white matter integrity among HIV seropositive (HIV+) and HIV seronegative (HIV-) individuals. METHOD: The sample consisted of 38 HIV+ participants and 26 HIV- control participants who underwent neuroimaging and a neuropsychological evaluation at baseline and at 2-year follow-up evaluation...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychology
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