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Carbohydrate consumption in athletes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117450/nutrition-strategies-before-and-during-ultra-endurance-event-a-significant-gap-between-science-and-practice
#1
Soyzana K Papadopoulou, Eleni E Xyla, Spyridon Methenitis, Konstantinos G Feidantsis, Yiannis Kotsis, Ioannis G Pagkalos, Maria N Hassapidou
The purpose of the present study was to investigate and assess the nutritional practices of open-water swimmers, during the preparation period and the competition, as well as their implications on performance and anthropometric parameters according to their age. Twenty-four (n=24) men open-water swimmers, twelve young (26.3±4.9yrs) and twelve older athletes (45.8±9.7yrs), participated in the present study. Nutritional behavior - intake-energy consumption, and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated prior to the Toroneos Gulf crossing (26Km)...
November 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082444/taurine-supplementation-can-increase-lipolysis-and-affect-the-contribution-of-energy-systems-during-front-crawl-maximal-effort
#2
Flávia G De Carvalho, Ricardo A Barbieri, Milena B Carvalho, Carla C Dato, Eduardo Z Campos, Ronaldo B Gobbi, Marcelo Papoti, Adelino S R Silva, Ellen Cristini de Freitas
Taurine can affect the energy system metabolism, specifically the lipid metabolism, since an increase in lipid oxidation may promote carbohydrate savings. We hypothesized that taurine supplementation associated with high-intensity exercise could increase levels of lipolysis, benefiting swimmer performance. Nine male competitive swimmers performed two 400-m front crawl maximal efforts with a 1-week washout, and the athletes received 6 g of taurine (TAU) or placebo (PLA) supplementation 120 min before performing the effort...
October 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972854/the-effect-of-milk-on-recovery-from-repeat-sprint-cycling-in-female-team-sport-athletes
#3
Paula Rankin, Michael J Lawlor, Frank A Hills, Phillip G Bell, Emma J Stevenson, Emma Cockburn
The consumption of milk post-eccentric exercise attenuates the effects of muscle damage in team-sport athletes. However, participation in team sport involves both concentric-eccentric loading and metabolic stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of post-exercise milk consumption on recovery from a cycling protocol designed to simulate the metabolic demands of team sport. Ten female team-sport athletes participated in a randomised cross-over investigation. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500ml of milk (MILK) or 500ml of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) drink...
October 3, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883046/case-studies-in-physiology-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-and-respiration-in-response-to-the-energetic-stress-of-an-ultra-endurance-race
#4
Adam R Konopka, William M Castor, Christopher A Wolff, Robert V Musci, Justin J Reid, Jaime L Laurin, Zackary J Valenti, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
The 2016 Colorado Trail Race (CTR) was an ultra-endurance mountain bike race where competitors cycled for up to 24 hrs/day between altitudes of 1675 to 4025 meters to complete 800 kilometers and 21,000 meters of elevation gain. In one athlete, we had the unique opportunity to characterize skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial respiration in response to a normal activity control period (CON) and the CTR. We hypothesized that mitochondrial protein synthesis would be elevated and mitochondrial respiration would be maintained during the extreme stresses of the CTR...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#5
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515835/the-effect-of-acute-hyperglycemia-on-muscular-strength-power-and-endurance
#6
Franklin Lime-Ma, Joshua A Cotter, Evan E Schick
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of acute hyperglycemia on skeletal muscle strength, power, and endurance. Ten male collegiate athletes (age 21.5 ± 1.5 years, height 186 ± 2.03 cm, body mass 108.8 ± 7.6 kg) participated in 2 testing sessions, separated by 7 days and randomized for either high glucose (HG) or control (C) treatment conditions. HG consumed a high glucose drink (2 g glucose/kg body weight) while controls consumed an isocaloric nutrition bar (40% protein, 30% fat, and 30% carbohydrate)...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398950/a-ketone-ester-drink-increases-postexercise-muscle-glycogen-synthesis-in-humans
#7
David A Holdsworth, Peter J Cox, Tom Kirk, Huw Stradling, Samuel G Impey, Kieran Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Physical endurance can be limited by muscle glycogen stores, in that glycogen depletion markedly reduces external work. During carbohydrate restriction, the liver synthesizes the ketone bodies, D-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate from fatty acids. In animals and in the presence of glucose, D-β-hydroxybutyrate promotes insulin secretion and increases glycogen synthesis. Here we determined whether a dietary ketone ester, combined with plentiful glucose, can increase postexercise glycogen synthesis in human skeletal muscle...
September 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383695/effect-of-pre-exercise-carbohydrate-diets-with-high-vs-low-glycemic-index-on-exercise-performance-a-meta-analysis
#8
Stephen Heung-Sang Wong, Feng-Hua Sun, Ya-Jun Chen, Chunxiao Li, Yan-Jie Zhang, Wendy Ya-Jun Huang
Context: Although pre-exercise consumption of a low-glycemic-index (LGI) carbohydrate meal is generally recommended, the findings regarding subsequent exercise performance are inconsistent. Objective: This meta-analytic study was conducted to determine whether a pre-exercise LGI carbohydrate meal leads to greater endurance performance than a pre-exercise high-glycemic-index (HGI) meal. Data sources: The following electronic databases were searched until April 2016: MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
May 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246499/energy-systems-efficiency-influences-the-results-of-2-000-m-race-simulation-among-elite-rowers
#9
Stefan Adrian Martin, Valeriu Tomescu
HYPOTHESIS: Energy efficiency within an elite group of athletes will ensure metabolic adaptation during training. OBJECTIVES: To identify energy system efficiency and contribution according to exercise intensity, and performance obtained during a 2,000 m race simulation in an elite group of rowers. METHOD: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2016 in Bucharest, Romania, on a group of 16 elite rowers. Measurements were performed through Cosmed Quark CPET equipment, and Concept 2 ergometer, by conducting a VO2max test over a standard rowing distance of 2,000 m...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
Background: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise.Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of isocaloric liquid mixed meals containing fat, protein, and either fructose or glucose on the repletion of muscle energy stores over 24 h after a strenuous exercise session...
March 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904629/effect-of-various-kinds-of-beverages-on-stress-oxidative-f2-isoprostane-serum-lipid-and-blood-glucose-of-elite-taekwondo-players
#11
Zahra Maghsoudi, Ashfin Shiranian, Gholamreza Askai, Reza Ghaisvand
BACKGROUND: Athletes' recovery is important in improving their performance. Nutritional strategies can be effective in enhancing recovery rate. Choosing the best food items in appropriate intervals can play effective roles in resynthesis of fuels and recovery of muscle injury. Beverage micro and macronutrient content are helpful in fuel restoration. In this study, we assess the effects of various kinds of beverages on oxidative stress, muscle injury, and metabolic risk factors in taekwondo players...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618089/the-diet-quality-of-competitive-adolescent-male-rugby-union-players-with-energy-balance-estimated-using-different-physical-activity-coefficients
#12
Tracy Burrows, Simon K Harries, Rebecca L Williams, Cheryl Lum, Robin Callister
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA) Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL) coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE) in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes...
September 7, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556488/comparison-of-watermelon-and-carbohydrate-beverage-on-exercise-induced-alterations-in-systemic-inflammation-immune-dysfunction-and-plasma-antioxidant-capacity
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
R Andrew Shanely, David C Nieman, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Dru A Henson, Mary P Meaney, Amy M Knab, Lynn Cialdell-Kam
Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study...
August 22, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455598/-daily-calorie-and-macronutrient-consumption-in-girls-of-different-somatotypes-with-different-shares-of-body-fat-muscle-and-bone-components
#14
V V Fefelova, Yu A Fefelova, T P Koloskova, T V Kazakova, E Yu Sergeeva
211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1...
2016: Voprosy Pitaniia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329516/nighttime-feeding-likely-alters-morning-metabolism-but-not-exercise-performance-in-female-athletes
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michael J Ormsbee, Katherine A Gorman, Elizabeth A Miller, Daniel A Baur, Lisa A Eckel, Robert J Contreras, Lynn B Panton, Maria T Spicer
The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232559/a-case-study-on-the-effect-of-professional-dietary-counseling-elite-basketball-players-eat-healthier-during-competition-days
#16
Anastasia Tsoufi, Maria I Maraki, Leonidas Dimitrakopoulos, Konstantinos Famisis, Maria G Grammatikopoulou
BACKGROUND: Literature suggests that dietary intake of elite athletes may differ between training and competition days. In addition, despite the importance of nutrition in sports and the popularity of basketball, studies on the diet of basketball players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess dietary intake and diet quality in training and competition days in a team of elite basketball players receiving daily professional nutritional counseling. METHODS: One elite basketball team (15 players) participating in Euroleague volunteered for the study...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042167/critical-evaluation-of-food-intake-and-energy-balance-in-young-modern-pentathlon-athletes-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Leticia Azen Alves Coutinho, Cristiana Pedrosa Melo Porto, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha Pierucci
BACKGROUND: Modern pentathlon comprises five sports: fencing, swimming, equestrian jumping, and a combined event of pistol shooting and running. Despite the expected high energy demand of this sport, there are few studies that provide support for the nutritional recommendations for pentathletes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate young modern pentathlon athletes with respect to body composition, biochemical profile, and consumption of food and supplements. METHODS: Fifty-six young modern pentathletes aged 13...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918583/gluconeogenesis-during-endurance-exercise-in-cyclists-habituated-to-a-long-term-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet
#18
Christopher C Webster, Timothy D Noakes, Shaji K Chacko, Jeroen Swart, Tertius A Kohn, James A H Smith
KEY POINTS: Blood glucose is an important fuel for endurance exercise. It can be derived from ingested carbohydrate, stored liver glycogen and newly synthesized glucose (gluconeogenesis). We hypothesized that athletes habitually following a low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet would have higher rates of gluconeogenesis during exercise compared to those who follow a mixed macronutrient diet. We used stable isotope tracers to study glucose production kinetics during a 2 h ride in cyclists habituated to either a LCHF or mixed macronutrient diet...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664337/nutritional-behaviour-and-beliefs-of-ski-mountaineers-a-semi-quantitative-and-qualitative-study
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Caroline Praz, Mélanie Granges, Céline Burtin, Bengt Kayser
BACKGROUND: Endurance athletes are advised to optimize nutrition prior to races. Little is known about actual athletes' beliefs, knowledge and nutritional behaviour. We monitored nutritional behaviour of amateur ski-mountaineering athletes during 4 days prior to a major competition to compare it with official recommendations and with the athletes' beliefs. METHODS: Participants to the two routes of the 'Patrouille des Glaciers' were recruited (A, 26 km, ascent 1881 m, descent 2341 m, max altitude 3160 m; Z, 53 km, ascent 3994 m, descent 4090 m, max altitude 3650 m)...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26634839/immunological-aspects-of-sport-nutrition
#20
REVIEW
Michael Gleeson
Prolonged bouts of exercise and heavy training regimens are associated with depression of immune system functions that can increase the risk of picking up opportunistic infections such as the common cold and influenza. Some common sport nutrition practices including high-carbohydrate diets and carbohydrate ingestion during exercise, training with low-glycogen stores, intentional dieting for weight loss, ingestion of high-dose antioxidant supplements and protein ingestion post exercise may influence immune system status in athletes...
February 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
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