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Carbohydrates and athletic performance

Sarah J Burkhart, Fiona E Pelly
International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete's competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Philip B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
While the words "fit" and "healthy" are often used synonymously in everyday language, the terms have entirely separate meanings. Fitness describes the ability to perform a given exercise task, and health explains a person's state of well-being, where physiological systems work in harmony. Although we typically view athletes as fit and healthy, they often are not. The global term we place on unhealthy athletes is the overtraining syndrome. In this current opinion, we propose that two primary drivers may contribute to the development of the overtraining syndrome, namely high training intensity and the modern-day highly processed, high glycemic diet...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Brooke L Devlin, Michael D Leveritt, Michael Kingsley, Regina Belski
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hour recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and sub-elite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Joseph Kizzi, Alvin Sum, Fraser E Houston, Lawrence D Hayes
Attenuated performance during intense exercise with limited endogenous carbohydrate (CHO) is well documented. Therefore, this study examined whether caffeine (CAF) mouth rinsing would augment performance during repeated sprint cycling in participants with reduced endogenous CHO. Eight recreationally active males (aged 23 ± 2 yr, body mass 84 ± 4 kg, stature 178 ± 7 cm) participated in this randomized, single-blind, repeated-measures crossover investigation. Following familiarization, participants attended two separate evening glycogen depletion sessions...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Janice L Daniels, Richard J Bloomer, Marie van der Merwe, Samantha L Davis, Karyl K Buddington, Randal K Buddington
BACKGROUND: Endurance athletes search for diet regimens that will improve performance and decrease gastrointestinal disturbances during training and events. Although the intestine can adapt to changes in the amount and composition of dietary inputs, the responses to the combination of endurance exercise and diet are poorly understood. METHODS: We evaluated small intestinal dimensions and mucosal architecture and calculated the capacities of the entire small intestine to digest maltose and maltodextrin and absorb glucose in response to two different diet types; a western human diet and the Daniel Fast, a vegan style diet, and with moderate intensity endurance training or a no-exercise sedentary lifestyle for a 13 week period (n = 7 per group)...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony L Almada, Leighsa E Van Eck, Meena Shah, Joel B Mitchell, Margaret T Jones, Andrew R Jagim, David S Rowlands
Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW) carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW) carbohydrate ingestion...
2016: PloS One
Andreas Zafeiridis, Anastasia Chrysovalantou Chatziioannou, Haralambos Sarivasiliou, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Ioannis S Vrabas, Alexandros Pechlivanis, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Constantinos Baskakis, Konstantina Dipla, Georgios A Theodoridis
The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied (1)H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
R Andrew Shanely, David C Nieman, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Dru A Henson, Mary P Meaney, Amy M Knab, Lynn Cialdell-Kam
Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study...
2016: Nutrients
Barbara Frączek, Maja Warzecha, Florentyna Tyrała, Aleksandra Pięta
BACKGROUND: Athletic performance can be substantially enhanced with supplements and functional food which are considered by scientists as efficient, safe and legal, such as protein, carbohydrate and protein-carbohydrate supplements, isotonic sports drinks, carbohydrate-protein bars, carbohydrate bars, creatine and caffeine. OBJECTIVE: The study is aimed at an analysis and evaluation of the prevalence of using effective ergogenic aids (creatine, caffeine, isotonic drinks, carbohydrates, and proteins) in a group of Polish professional athletes...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
H Braun
Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes...
August 2016: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Pete J Cox, Tom Kirk, Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J Murray, Brianna Stubbs, James West, Stewart W McLure, M Todd King, Michael S Dodd, Cameron Holloway, Stefan Neubauer, Scott Drawer, Richard L Veech, Julian L Griffin, Kieran Clarke
Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration...
August 9, 2016: Cell Metabolism
V V Fefelova, Yu A Fefelova, T P Koloskova, T V Kazakova, E Yu Sergeeva
211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1...
2016: Voprosy Pitaniia
Javier T Gonzalez, Cas J Fuchs, James A Betts, Luc J C van Loon
Carbohydrate and fat are the main substrates utilized during prolonged endurance-type exercise. The relative contribution of each is determined primarily by the intensity and duration of exercise, along with individual training and nutritional status. During moderate- to high-intensity exercise, carbohydrate represents the main substrate source. Because endogenous carbohydrate stores (primarily in liver and muscle) are relatively small, endurance-type exercise performance/capacity is often limited by endogenous carbohydrate availability...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Philippe J M Pinckaers, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, David Bailey, Luc J C van Loon
Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
July 18, 2016: Sports Medicine
Martin Pöchmüller, Lukas Schwingshackl, Paolo C Colombani, Georg Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate supplements are widely used by athletes as an ergogenic aid before and during sports events. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at synthesizing all available data from randomized controlled trials performed under real-life conditions. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched systematically up to February 2015. Study groups were categorized according to test mode and type of performance measurement...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Dana M Lis, James W Fell, Kiran D K Ahuja, Cecilia M Kitic, Trent Stellingwerff
Recent explosion in the prevalence of gluten-free athletes, exacerbated by unsubstantiated commercial health claims, has led to some professional athletes touting gluten-free diet as the secret to their success. Forty-one percent of athletes report adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD), which is four-fold higher than the population-based clinical requirements. Many nonceliac athletes believe that gluten avoidance improves gastrointestinal well-being, reduces inflammation, and provides an ergogenic edge, despite the fact that limited data yet exist to support any of these benefits...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Neil D Clarke, James R Thomas, Marion Kagka, Roger Ramsbottom, Anne Delextrat
Oral carbohydrate rinsing has been demonstrated to provide beneficial effects on exercise performance of durations of up to one hour, albeit predominately in a laboratory setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different concentrations of carbohydrate solution mouth-rinse on 5 km running performance. Fifteen healthy men (n=9; mean±SD age: 42±10 years; height: 177.6±6.1 cm; body mass: 73.9±8.9 kg) and women (n=6; mean±SD age: 43±9 years; height: 166.5±4.1 cm; body mass: 65...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Claire E Badenhorst, Brian Dawson, Gregory R Cox, Marc Sim, Coby M Laarakkers, Dorine W Swinkels, Peter Peeling
PURPOSE: This investigation examined if a high carbohydrate (CHO) diet, maintained across a seven-day training period, could attenuate post-exercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum hepcidin levels. METHODS: Twelve endurance-trained male athletes completed two seven-day running training blocks whilst consuming either a high (8 g kg(-1)) versus a low (3 g kg(-1)) CHO isoenergetic diet. Each training block consisted of five running sessions performed on days 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7, with the intensity and duration of each session matched between training weeks...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Daniel A Baur, Fernanda de C S Vargas, Christopher W Bach, Jordan A Garvey, Michael J Ormsbee
While prior research reported altered fuel utilization stemming from pre-exercise modified starch ingestion, the practical value of this starch for endurance athletes who consume carbohydrates both before and during exercise is yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting a hydrothermally-modified starch supplement (HMS) before and during cycling on performance, metabolism, and gastrointestinal comfort. In a crossover design, 10 male cyclists underwent three nutritional interventions: (1) a commercially available sucrose/glucose supplement (G) 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 15 min during exercise (60 g∙h(-1)); (2) HMS consumed at the same time points before and during exercise in isocaloric amounts to G (Iso HMS); and (3) HMS 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 60 min during exercise (30 g·h(-1); Low HMS)...
June 25, 2016: Nutrients
Daniel König, Denise Zdzieblik, Anja Holz, Stephan Theis, Albert Gollhofer
(1) OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of isomaltulose (Palatinose™, PSE) vs. maltodextrin (MDX) ingestion on substrate utilization during endurance exercise and subsequent time trial performance; (2) METHODS: 20 male athletes performed two experimental trials with ingestion of either 75 g PSE or MDX 45 min before the start of exercise. The exercise protocol consisted of 90 min cycling (60% VO₂max) followed by a time trial; (3) RESULTS: Time trial finishing time (-2.7%, 90% CI: ±3.0%, 89% likely beneficial; p = 0...
2016: Nutrients
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