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Carbohydrates and performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212449/energy-intake-and-energy-expenditure-of-pre-professional-female-contemporary-dancers
#1
Meghan A Brown, Glyn Howatson, Edel Quin, Emma Redding, Emma J Stevenson
Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212341/physicochemical-characterization-and-biological-activities-of-the-triterpenic-mixture-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-amyrenone
#2
Rosilene G S Ferreira, Walter F Silva Júnior, Valdir F Veiga Junior, Ádley A N Lima, Emerson S Lima
α-Amyrenone and β-amyrenone are triterpenoid isomers that occur naturally in very low concentrations in several oleoresins from Brazilian Amazon species of Protium (Burseraceae). This mixture can also be synthesized by oxidation of α,β-amyrins, obtained as major compounds from the same oleoresins. Using a very simple, high yield procedure, and using a readily commercially available mixture of α,β-amyrins as substrate, the binary compound α,β-amyrenone was synthesized and submitted to physico-chemical characterization using different techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H and (13)C), mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
February 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204901/the-effect-of-hydration-status-on-the-measurement-of-lean-tissue-mass-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#3
Clodagh M Toomey, William G McCormack, Phil Jakeman
PURPOSE: Athletes cycle between exercise and recovery. Exercise invokes changes in total body water from thermal sweating, muscle and hepatic glycogen depletion and metabolic water loss. Recovery from exercise results in rehydration, substrate repletion, and possible glycogen supercompensation. Such changes may corrupt the measurement of hydrated tissues, such as lean tissue mass (LTM), by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise and thermal dehydration and subsequent glycogen supercompensation on DXA-based measurement of body composition...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199799/the-efficacy-of-protein-supplementation-during-recovery-from-muscle-damaging-concurrent-exercise
#4
Lee Eddens, Sarah Browne, Emma J Stevenson, Brad Sanderson, Ken van Someren, Glyn Howatson
This study investigated the effect of protein supplementation on recovery following muscle-damaging exercise, which was induced with a concurrent exercise design. Twenty-four well-trained male cyclists were randomised to three independent groups receiving 20 g protein hydrolysate, iso-caloric carbohydrate or low-calorific placebo supplementation, per serve. Supplement serves were provided twice daily, from the onset of the muscle-damaging exercise, for a total of four days and in addition to a controlled diet (6 g•kg<sup>-1</sup>•d<sup>-1</sup> carbohydrate, 1...
February 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196092/characterization-of-cereal-%C3%AE-glucan-extracts-from-oat-and-barley-and-quantification-of-proteinaceous-matter
#5
Claudia Zielke, Ondrej Kosik, Marie-Louise Ainalem, Alison Lovegrove, Anna Stradner, Lars Nilsson
An extraction method for mixed-linkage β-glucan from oat and barley was developed in order to minimize the effect of extraction on the β-glucan structure. β-Glucan were characterized in terms of molecular size and molar mass distributions using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multiangle light scattering (MALS), differential refractive index (dRI) and fluorescence (FL) detection. The carbohydrate composition of the extracts was analysed using polysaccharide analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192880/ameliorating-effect-of-betanin-a-natural-chromoalkaloid-by-modulating-hepatic-carbohydrate-metabolic-enzyme-activities-and-glycogen-content-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-experimental-rats
#6
Indumathi Dhananjayan, Sujithra Kathiroli, Srinivasan Subramani, Vinothkumar Veerasamy
Betanin, a chromoalkaloid of beetroot, has shown significant biological effects of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. So, we attempted to determine whether betanin (a natural pigment) would be protective against hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ) - nicotinamide (NA) induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with STZ (40mg/kgb.w.) 15 mins after the administration of NA (110mg/kgb.w.) by intraperitonially (i.p.) 30days for the induction of experimental diabetes mellitus. After 72h diabetic rats were treated with betanin orally at a doses of 10, 20 and 40mg/kg b...
February 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183444/effects-of-lifestyle-interventions-on-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#7
Christina N Katsagoni, Michael Georgoulis, George V Papatheodoridis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Meropi D Kontogianni
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although lifestyle modifications remain the cornerstone therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the optimal lifestyle intervention is still controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of exercise and/or dietary interventions, type or intensity of exercise and type of diet, on liver function outcomes (liver enzymes, intrahepatic fat and liver histology), as well as on anthropometric and glucose metabolism parameters in NAFLD patients...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183366/effects-of-almond-consumption-on-the-post-lunch-dip-and-long-term-cognitive-function-in-energy-restricted-overweight-and-obese-adults
#8
Jaapna Dhillon, Sze-Yen Tan, Richard D Mattes
The post-lunch dip in cognition is a well-established phenomenon of decreased alertness, memory and vigilance after lunch consumption. Lunch composition reportedly influences the post-lunch dip. Moreover, dieting is associated with cognitive function impairments. The negative effects of dieting have been reversed with nut-supplemented diets. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the acute effect of an almond-enriched high-fat lunch or high-carbohydrate lunch on the post-lunch decline in cognitive function, and (2) evaluate the effects of chronic almond consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet on the memory and attention domains of cognitive function...
February 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183269/transcriptome-profilings-of-two-tall-fescue-festuca-arundinacea-cultivars-in-response-to-lead-pb-stress
#9
Huiying Li, Tao Hu, Erick Amombo, Jinmin Fu
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic heavy metal environmental pollutants. Tall fescue is an important cold season turf grass which can tolerate and accumulate substantial amount of Pb. To estimate genes related to Pb response and the molecular mechanism associated with Pb tolerance and accumulation, we analyzed the transcriptome of tall fescue in response to Pb treatment. RESULTS: RNA-sequencing was performed in two tall fescue cultivars, Pb tolerant Silverado and Pb sensitive AST7001...
February 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182799/in-vivo-acrylamide-exposure-may-cause-severe-toxicity-to-mouse-oocytes-through-its-metabolite-glycidamide
#10
Duru Aras, Zeynep Cakar, Sinan Ozkavukcu, Alp Can, Ozgur Cinar
High acrylamide (ACR) content in heat-processed carbohydrate-rich foods, as well as roasted products such as coffee, almonds etc., has been found to be as a risk factor for carcinogenicity and genotoxicity by The World Health Organization. Glycidamide (GLY), the epoxide metabolite of ACR, is processed by the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system and has also been found to be a genotoxic agent. The aim of this study was to determine whether ACR and/or GLY have any detrimental effect on the meiotic cell division of oocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182508/effects-of-carbohydrate-ingestion-and-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-on-repeat-sprint-performance
#11
Ben M Krings, Timothy J Peterson, Brandon D Shepherd, Matthew J McAllister, JohnEric W Smith
The purpose of this investigation was to examine to the influence of carbohydrate ingestion (CHOI) and carbohydrate mouth rinse (CHOR) on acute repeat maximal sprint performance. Fourteen healthy males (age: 21.7 ± 1.8 years, mass: 82.3 ± 12.3 kg) completed a total of five 15-second maximal repeat sprints on a cycle ergometer against 0.075 kg . kg(-1) body mass each separated by four minutes of active recovery. Subjects completed four experimental trials and were randomly assigned one of four treatments: (1) CHOI, (2) CHOR, (3) placebo mouth rinse (PLAR), (4) placebo ingestion (PLAI)...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182413/targeting-bacillosamine-biosynthesis-in-bacterial-pathogens-development-of-inhibitors-to-a-bacterial-amino-sugar-acetyltransferase-from-campylobacter-jejuni
#12
Joris W De Schutter, James P Morrison, Michael James Morrison, Alessio Ciulli, Barbara Imperiali
The glycoproteins of selected microbial pathogens often include highly modified carbohydrates such as 2,4-diacetamidobacillosamine (diNAcBac). These glycoconjugates are involved in host cell interactions and may be associated with the virulence of medically-significant Gram-negative bacteria. In light of genetic studies demonstrating the attenuated virulence of bacterial strains in which modified carbohydrate biosynthesis enzymes have been knocked out, we are developing small molecule inhibitors of selected enzymes as tools to evaluate whether such compounds modulate virulence...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181776/cardiovascular-adjustments-to-heat-stress-during-prolonged-exercise
#13
Luna Rizzo, Martin W Thompson
Prolonged effort in hot environments is increasing popular in extreme sports. The number of long distance athletes taking part in races in extremely warm condition, as in deserts, is larger than in the past and also the race distances are increased thus. The demanding for the heart function are higher than those challenged in the past only by few athletes and in easier conditions. This puts news challenges on the professional involved in these activities and there is a need to better understand how the cardiocirculatory system responses in these extreme environmental conditions...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178565/multi-dimensional-roles-of-ketone-bodies-in-fuel-metabolism-signaling-and-therapeutics
#14
REVIEW
Patrycja Puchalska, Peter A Crawford
Ketone body metabolism is a central node in physiological homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how ketones serve discrete fine-tuning metabolic roles that optimize organ and organism performance in varying nutrient states and protect from inflammation and injury in multiple organ systems. Traditionally viewed as metabolic substrates enlisted only in carbohydrate restriction, observations underscore the importance of ketone bodies as vital metabolic and signaling mediators when carbohydrates are abundant...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178059/less-restrictive-food-intake-during-labor-in-low-risk-singleton-pregnancies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Andrea Ciardulli, Gabriele Saccone, Hannah Anastasio, Vincenzo Berghella
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of either a relative risk or a mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI)...
February 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177720/free-sugar-total-sugar-fibre-and-micronutrient-intake-within-elite-youth-british-soccer-players-a-nutritional-transition-from-schoolboy-to-fulltime-soccer-player
#16
Robert J Naughton, Barry Drust, Andy O'Boyle, Julie Abayomi, Elizabeth Mahon, James P Morton, Ian G Davies
It is recommended that soccer players consume a high carbohydrate (CHO) diet to augment performance. However, growing evidence suggests that there is a link between high free-sugar (FS) intake (>5% total energy intake; TEI) and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, foods that are often high in sugar, such as processed foods, are typically lacking in nutrient quality. We therefore analysed total- and FS, dietary fibre and micronutrient intake of players from an English Premier League academy under(U) 18 (n=13); U15/16 (n=25); U13/14 (n=21) using a 7-day food diary...
January 10, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177715/gut-training-the-impact-of-two-weeks-repetitive-gut-challenge-during-exercise-on-gastrointestinal-status-glucose-availability-fuel-kinetics-and-running-performance
#17
Ricardo J S Costa, Atlanta Miall, Anthony Khoo, Christopher Rauch, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Peter Gibson
BACKGROUND: Due to gastrointestinal tract adaptability, the study aimed to determine the impact of two weeks gut-training protocol over two weeks on gastrointestinal status, blood glucose availability, fuel kinetics, and running performance. METHODS: Endurance runners (n= 25) performed a gut-challenge trial (GC1), comprising of 2 h running exercise at 60% VO2max whilst consuming gel-discs containing 30 g carbohydrates (2:1 glucose-fructose, 10% w/v) every 20 min, and a 1 h distance test...
January 19, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176548/nutritional-adequacy-of-meals-from-an-independent-catering-facility-versus-chain-restaurants-for-young-adults
#18
Charoula Konstantia Nikolaou, Catherine Ruth Hankey, Michael Ernest John Lean
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Eating out of home has been associated with the increasing prevalence of obesity. While some chain restaurants provide nutritional information for their products, smaller independent catering facilities may not provide such information. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy of meals provided to young adults at an independent catering facility and compare them with meals provided by chain restaurants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Meals were analysed in 2014 in the UK in relation of nutrient provision to targets for macro- and micro-nutrients...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175950/bacterial-community-diversity-associated-with-different-levels-of-dietary-nutrition-in-the-rumen-of-sheep
#19
Yaoyue Wang, Pinghua Cao, Lei Wang, Zhaoyan Zhao, Yulin Chen, Yuxin Yang
The sheep rumen microbial community plays an important role in animal performance and the environment. Few studies have paid close attention to the impact of different levels of dietary nutrition on rumen microbial populations. A total of 112 healthy Tan sheep were selected and randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments (groups I, II, III, and IV). Each treatment included four replicated pens with seven sheep each for a total of 28 sheep per treatment. The sheep were fed four diets with nutrient levels that were 84, 96, 108, or 120% of the recommendation...
February 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173798/spasmogenic-and-spasmolytic-activity-of-rind-of-punica-granatum-linn
#20
Niaz Ali, Ayesha Jamil, Syed Wadood Ali Shah, Ismail Shah, Ghayour Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used in treatment of abdominal cramps and various GIT disorders. So far spasmolytic activity of rind of Punica granatum has been reported using in vitro model. However, its mode of action is not explored yet. Therefore, the current work describes the possible mode of action for spasmolytic activity of methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr). Acute toxicity study is also performed to determine its safe dose range. METHODS: Rind of Punica granatum was subjected to shade drying...
February 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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