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Carbohydrates and performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811027/design-of-carbohydrate-electron-transfer-peptides-for-human-histocytic-lymphoma-cell-sensing
#1
Kazuharu Sugawara, Toshihiko Kadoya, Hideki Kuramitz, Yoshihiro Mihara
A carbohydrate/electro-transfer peptide probe was fabricated to perform cell sensing. The probe consisted of a cello-oligosaccharide that was created by the conjugation of an electron-transfer peptide (Y5C) and a carbohydrate via a Schiff base. An oxidation wave due to a phenolic hydroxyl group was obtained by scanning with a glassy carbon electrode. This cell-sensing system was based on a competitive reaction between carbohydrates on a cell surface and the probe as each reacted to a protein that recognized the carbohydrate...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808723/plasma-metabolite-abundances-are-associated-with-urinary-enterolactone-excretion-in-healthy-participants-on-controlled-diets
#2
Fayth L Miles, Sandi L Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Timothy W Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Mario Kratz, Meredith A J Hullar, Paul D Lampe, Marian L Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W Lampe
Enterolignans, products of gut bacterial metabolism of plant lignans, have been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases, but their association with other plasma metabolites is unknown. We examined plasma metabolite profiles according to urinary enterolignan excretion in a cross-sectional analysis using data from a randomized crossover, controlled feeding study. Eighty healthy adult males and females completed two 28-day feeding periods differing by glycemic load, refined carbohydrate, and fiber content...
August 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806968/cardamom-powder-supplementation-prevents-obesity-improves-glucose-intolerance-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-liver-of-high-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#3
Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Anayt Ulla, Farzana Akther Sumi, Nusrat Subhan, Trisha Khan, Bishwajit Sikder, Hemayet Hossain, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Md Ashraful Alam
BACKGROUND: Cardamom is a well-known spice in Indian subcontinent, used in culinary and traditional medicine practices since ancient times. The current investigation was untaken to evaluate the potential benefit of cardamom powder supplementation in high carbohydrate high fat (HCHF) diet induced obese rats. METHOD: Male Wistar rats (28 rats) were divided into four different groups such as Control, Control + cardamom, HCHF, HCHF + cardamom. High carbohydrate and high fat (HCHF) diet was prepared in our laboratory...
August 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806275/effects-of-creatine-and-carbohydrate-loading-on-cycling-time-trial-performance
#4
Kristyen A Tomcik, Donny M Camera, Julia L Bone, Megan L Ross, Nikki A Jeacocke, Bill Tachtsis, Joan Senden, Luc J C van Loon, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
INTRODUCTION: Creatine- and carbohydrate-loading are dietary strategies used to enhance exercise capacity. This study examined the metabolic and performance effects of a combined creatine and CHO-loading regiment on time-trial (TT) cycling bouts. METHODS: Eighteen well-trained (~65mL[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min VO2peak) males completed three performance trials (PT) comprised of a 120-km cycling TT interspersed with alternating 1- and 4-km sprints (6 sprints each) performed every 10-km followed by an inclined ride to fatigue (~90% VO2peak)...
August 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805274/quantitative-characterization-of-galectin-3-c-affinity-mass-spectrometry-measurements-comprehensive-data-analysis-obstacles-shortcuts-and-robustness
#5
Marko Haramija, Jasna Peter-Katalinić
RATIONALE: Affinity mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging tool in the field of study of protein-carbohydrate complexes. However, experimental obstacles and data analysis is preventing faster integration of AMS methods in the field of glycosciences. Here we show how analysis of direct ESI-MS AMS data can be simplified for screening purposes, even for complex AMS spectra. METHODS: Direct ESI-MS assay was tested in this study, and binding data for the galectin-3C•lactose complex were analyzed using comprehensive and simplified data analysis approach...
August 14, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801776/effects-of-training-status-on-pdh-regulation-in-human-skeletal-muscle-during-exercise
#6
Anders Gudiksen, Lærke Bertholdt, Tomasz Stankiewicz, Jonas Tybirk, Peter Plomgaard, Jens Bangsbo, Henriette Pilegaard
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the gateway enzyme for carbohydrate-derived pyruvate feeding into the TCA cycle. PDH may play a central role in regulating substrate shifts during exercise, but the influence of training state on PDH regulation during exercise is not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of training state on post-translational regulation of PDHa activity during submaximal and exhaustive exercise. Eight untrained and nine endurance exercise-trained healthy male subjects performed incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer: 40 min at 50% incremental peak power output (IPPO), 10 min at 65% (IPPO), followed by 80% (IPPO) until exhaustion...
August 11, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800704/qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-carbohydrate-modification-on-glycoproteins-from-seeds-of-ginkgo-biloba
#7
Ting Wang, Xiao-Chun Hu, Zhi-Peng Cai, Josef Voglmeir, Li Liu
Recent progress in the relationship between carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants (CCDs) and allergic response highlights the importance of carbohydrate moieties in innate immune system. A previous research pointed out that the protein allergen in Ginkgo biloba seeds are glycosylated and the oligosaccharides conjugated to these proteins might also contribute to the allergy. The aim of this study was to analyze carbohydrate moieties, especially the N-linked glycans, of glycoproteins from Ginkgo seeds originated from different places for detailed structures, to enable further research on the roles that N-glycans play in Ginkgo-caused allergy...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799224/genomic-insights-into-the-pathogenicity-and-environmental-adaptability-of-enterococcus-hirae-r17-isolated-from-pork-offered-for-retail-sale
#8
Zixin Peng, Menghan Li, Wei Wang, Hongtao Liu, Séamus Fanning, Yujie Hu, Jianzhong Zhang, Fengqin Li
Genetic information about Enterococcus hirae is limited, a feature that has compromised our understanding of these clinically challenging bacteria. In this study, comparative analysis was performed of E. hirae R17, a daptomycin-resistant strain isolated from pork purchased from a retail market in Beijing, China, and three other enterococcal genomes (Enterococcus faecium DO, Enterococcus faecalis V583, and E. hirae ATCC(™) 9790). Some 1,412 genes were identified that represented the core genome together with an additional 139 genes that were specific to E...
August 10, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798080/long-term-programming-effect-of-early-hypoxia-and-high-carbohydrate-diet-at-first-feeding-on-glucose-metabolism-in-rainbow-trout-juveniles
#9
Jingwei Liu, Karine Dias, Elisabeth Plagnes-Juan, Vincent Véron, Stéphane Panserat, Lucie Marandel
Environmental conditions experienced during early life play an important role in the long-term metabolic status of individuals. The present study investigated whether early hypoxia exposure (24 h, 2.5 mg·l(-1), 20% dissolved O2) during embryo stage alone (hypoxic history) or combined with a 5-day high carbohydrate diet (60%) stimulus at first-feeding (high carbohydrate diet history) can affect the glucose metabolism later in life, i.e. in fish juveniles. After 19 weeks of growth, we observed a decrease in final body weight in fish with a high carbohydrate diet history...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797654/do-differences-in-the-activities-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-enzymes-between-lake-whitefish-ecotypes-match-predictions-from-transcriptomic-studies
#10
Anne C Dalziel, Martin Laporte, Helga Guderley, Louis Bernatchez
Transcriptomic studies are facilitating the search for the molecular bases of adaptation in natural populations, but the impact of these differences in mRNA content on animal physiology are often unknown. One way to determine if molecular changes have the potential to influence animal physiology and performance is to test for correlated changes at higher levels of biological organization, including enzyme activity. Here, we measure the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes to test if previously documented genetic and transcriptomic variation between 'dwarf' and 'normal' Lake Whitefish ecotypes are associated with corresponding changes in enzyme activity (measured as maximal rate, Vmax) in liver and skeletal muscle...
August 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792134/serum-cea-and-ca-19-9-levels-are-associated-with-the-presence-and-severity-of-colorectal-neoplasia
#11
Nam Hee Kim, Mi Yeon Lee, Jung Ho Park, Dong Il Park, Chong Il Sohn, Kyuyong Choi, Yoon Suk Jung
PURPOSE: Limited data are available regarding the association between circulating serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) concentrations and colorectal adenoma. We aimed to investigate whether elevated serum CEA and CA 19-9 levels are correlated with the presence of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) and whether the levels of these antigens vary according to CRN severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on asymptomatic subjects who underwent colonoscopy between 2010 and 2014 as part of a comprehensive health screening program in Korea...
September 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791994/-expression-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-patients-with-insulin-resistance-and-seborrheic-keratomas
#12
V A Smolyannikova, A K Alexandrova
AIM: to study the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in patients with seborrheic keratomas (SK) and insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)) and in those without concomitant carbohydrate metabolic disturbances. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 80 patients with SK were examined. According to the presence or absence of DM2, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) 40 patients with concomitant DM2; 2) 40 people without carbohydrate metabolic disturbances...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790981/determination-of-resistant-starch-assimilating-bacteria-in-fecal-samples-of-mice-by-in-vitro-rna-based-stable-isotope-probing
#13
Elena Herrmann, Wayne Young, Douglas Rosendale, Ralf Conrad, Christian U Riedel, Markus Egert
The impact of the intestinal microbiota on human health is becoming increasingly appreciated in recent years. In consequence, and fueled by major technological advances, the composition of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease has been intensively studied by high throughput sequencing approaches. Observations linking dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota with a number of serious medical conditions including chronic inflammatory disorders and allergic diseases suggest that restoration of the composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota may be a treatment option at least for some of these diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#14
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782601/metabolomic-profile-in-hyperthyroid-patients-before-and-after-antithyroid-drug-treatment-correlation-with-thyroid-hormone-and-tsh-concentration
#15
Cristina Piras, Nicolò Arisci, Simone Poddighe, Sonia Liggi, Stefano Mariotti, Luigi Atzori
Hyperthyroidism (HT) is characterized by an intense metabolic impact which affects the lipid, carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism, with increased resting energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Metabolomics is a new comprehensive technique that allows to capture an instant metabolic picture of an organism, reflecting peculiar molecular and pathophysiological states. The aim of the present prospective study was to identify a distinct metabolomic profile in HT patients using (1)H NMR spectroscopy before and after antithyroid drug treatment...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780102/the-effects-of-high-sugar-ryegrass-red-clover-silage-diets-on-intake-production-digestibility-and-n-utilization-in-dairy-cows-as-measured-in-vivo-and-predicted-by-the-norfor-model
#16
J Bertilsson, M Åkerlind, T Eriksson
Grass silage-based diets often result in poor nitrogen utilization when fed to dairy cows. Perennial ryegrass cultivars with high concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) have proven potential for correcting this imbalance when fed fresh, and have also been shown to increase feed intake, milk production, and N utilization. The possibility of achieving corresponding effects with silage-based diets was investigated in change-over experiments in an incomplete block design with 16 (yr 1) or 12 (yr 2) Swedish Red dairy cows in mid lactation...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780091/production-performance-and-milk-fatty-acid-profile-in-grazing-dairy-cows-offered-ground-corn-or-liquid-molasses-as-the-sole-supplemental-nonstructural-carbohydrate-source
#17
A F Brito, K J Soder, P Y Chouinard, S F Reis, S Ross, M D Rubano, M D Casler
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of ground corn or liquid molasses fed as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) source on production performance, milk fatty acid (FA) profile, grazing behavior, and N metabolism in grazing dairy cows. A strip-grazing management system was used, with cows offered a new strip of fresh herbage after each milking, resulting in approximately 16 h of access to pasture daily. Animals were fed a diet formulated to yield an 86:14 forage-to-concentrate ratio consisting [dry matter (DM) basis] of 74% mixed grass-legume herbage, 12% mixed-mostly legume baleage, 12% NSC source, and 2% mineral-vitamin premix...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769938/unraveling-the-root-proteome-changes-and-its-relationship-to-molecular-mechanism-underlying-salt-stress-response-in-radish-raphanus-sativus-l
#18
Xiaochuan Sun, Yan Wang, Liang Xu, Chao Li, Wei Zhang, Xiaobo Luo, Haiyan Jiang, Liwang Liu
To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768898/morphological-and-functional-consequences-and-quality-of-life-following-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#19
Dorota Koziel, Edyta Suliga, Urszula Grabowska, Stanislaw Gluszek
In this study, we evaluated pancreatic morphology and function as well as nutritional status and quality of life among patients who experienced severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 99 patients with SAP and 51 with mild acute pancreatitis (MAP). Computed tomography was performed one year following the disease. Endocrine function was evaluated by measuring hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and C peptide levels. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed by the concentration of fecal elastase-1...
June 23, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767594/retroperitoneal-bronchogenic-cyst-resembling-an-adrenal-tumor-with-high-levels-of-serum-carbohydrate-antigen-19-9-a-case-report
#20
Min Wang, Xu He, Xia Qiu, Chuan Tian, Jian Li, Mingnan Lv
RATIONALE: Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts without specific clinical manifestations are extremely rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively and are easily misdiagnosed as left adrenal or pancreatic tumors. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 48-year-old woman with the chief complaint of obscure epigastric pain for 1 month and with no other gastrointestinal symptoms and no significant medical history. The patient had signed informed consent for publication of this case report...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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