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Carbohydrates and performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340150/xylose-absorption-fermentation-and-post-absorptive-metabolism-in-the-pig
#1
REVIEW
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333721/carbohydrate-dose-influences-liver-and-muscle-glycogen-oxidation-and-performance-during-prolonged-exercise
#2
Andy J King, John P O'Hara, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Roderick F G J King
This study investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) dose and composition on fuel selection during exercise, specifically exogenous and endogenous (liver and muscle) CHO oxidation. Ten trained males cycled in a double-blind randomized order on 5 occasions at 77% V˙O2max for 2 h, followed by a 30-min time-trial (TT) while ingesting either 60 g·h-1 (LG) or 75 g·h-113 C-glucose (HG), 90 g·h-1 (LGF) or 112.5 g·h-113 C-glucose-13 C-fructose ([2:1] HGF) or placebo. CHO doses met or exceed reported intestinal transporter saturation for glucose and fructose...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333378/associations-between-self-reported-sleep-quality-and-duration-and-dietary-consumptions-psychological-symptoms-and-obesity-in-korean-adults
#3
Bori Kang, Miae Doo, Yangha Kim
Sleep pattern disruptions have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of obesity. This study was performed to investigate the association between sleep quality and sleep duration with dietary consumption, psychological factors, and obesity in Korean adults. A total of 288 Korean men and women who visited a public health center were included in this study. Data on general characteristics, health-related habits, psychological symptoms, dietary intake, and sleep patterns (including quality and duration) were collected using self-report questionnaires...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331529/effect-of-acids-produced-from-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-cryoprotectants-on-the-viability-of-freeze-dried-lactobacillus-and-prediction-of-optimal-initial-cell-concentration
#4
Shumao Cui, Feng Hang, Xiaoming Liu, Zhiyuan Xu, Zhenmin Liu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
For the industrial production of probiotics powder, various sugars have been used as cryoprotectants to preserve probiotics during freeze-drying. Some of these sugars can be metabolized by Lactobacillus with the production of acids during the mix. In this study, we investigated the effect of acids on ATPase, β-galactosidase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), integrity and fluidity of cell membrane and the survival rate of Lactobacillus during freeze-drying. In the presence of Lactobacillus, acids were produced from cryoprotectants containing fermentable sugars before freezing, resulting in a decrease in the pH of the bacterial suspension to below 5...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330509/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-carbohydrate-mediated-liver-immune-responses-in-epinephelus-akaara
#5
Yunxia Yang, Tao Han, Jia Xiao, Xinyu Li, Jiteng Wang
As the cheapest energy source, carbohydrates are used in fish feeds to improve physical quality and reduce catabolism of proteins and lipids. The liver is the primary organ for metabolism and is also an important site of immune regulation. Here, we investigated the effect of different dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and health by evaluating the liver transcriptome of Epinephelus akaara. In this study, E. akaara juveniles were fed diets containing few (0% corn starch), moderate (18% corn starch), and high (30% corn starch) levels of dietary carbohydrate...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329517/genome-wide-analyses-of-direct-target-genes-of-four-rice-nac-domain-transcription-factors-involved-in-drought-tolerance
#6
Pil Joong Chung, Harin Jung, Yang Do Choi, Ju-Kon Kim
BACKGROUND: Plant stress responses and mechanisms determining tolerance are controlled by diverse sets of genes. Transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in conferring drought tolerance under drought stress conditions, and the identification of their target genes can elucidate molecular regulatory networks that orchestrate tolerance mechanisms. RESULTS: We generated transgenic rice plants overexpressing the 4 rice TFs, OsNAC5, 6, 9, and 10, under the control of the root-specific RCc3 promoter...
January 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327410/genomic-insights-into-the-acidobacteria-reveal-strategies-for-their-success-in-terrestrial-environments
#7
Stephanie A Eichorst, Daniela Trojan, Simon Roux, Craig Herbold, Thomas Rattei, Dagmar Woebken
Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are abundant and ubiquitous across soils. We performed the largest (to date) comparative genome analysis spanning subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 23 (n=24) with the goal to identify features to help explain their prevalence in soils and understand their ecophysiology. In contrast to earlier studies, our analysis revealed that bacteriophage integration events along with transposable and mobile elements influenced the structure and plasticity of these genomes. Low- and high-affinity respiratory oxygen reductases were detected in multiple genomes, suggesting the capacity for growing across different oxygen gradients...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327229/leopoldia-comosa-prevents-metabolic-disorders-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#8
T Casacchia, F Scavello, C Rocca, M C Granieri, G Beretta, D Amelio, F Gelmini, A Spena, R Mazza, C C Toma, Tommaso Angelone, Giancarlo Statti, T Pasqua
PURPOSE: Obesity is the main feature of a complex illness known as metabolic syndrome. Anti-obesogenic therapies are often associated with side effects and represent a high cost in conventional pharmacological approaches. New strategies based on natural remedies are under continuous investigation. Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. (L. comosa) is a spontaneous plant with diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, a hypoglycemic activity mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion has been identified...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327185/degradation-of-organics-extracted-from-dewatered-sludge-by-alkaline-pretreatment-in-microbial-electrolysis-cell
#9
Kai Hu, Lan Xu, Wei Chen, Shuo-Qiu Jia, Wei Wang, Feng Han
Waste activated sludge in China are mostly subjected to dewatering process before final disposal without stabilization. This study investigated the feasibility of organics degradation and H2 production from non-stabilized dewatered sludge (DS) by microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Alkaline pretreatment was used to disintegrate sludge matrix and solubilize organic matters in DS. Then, the treatment performance of DS supernatant in a single-chamber MEC at various applied voltages was investigated. The COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal rate increased with increasing voltage, which ranged from 26...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325772/the-association-of-snp276g-t-at-adiponectin-gene-with-insulin-resistance-and-circulating-adiponectin-in-response-to-two-different-hypocaloric-diets
#10
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, R Aller, A Ortola, E Gómez, J J Lopez
BACKGROUND: Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism and dietary intake on total adiponectin levels and insulin resistance after two hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Caucasian population of 284 obese patients was enrolled in a randomized clinical trial with two hypocaloric diets (I: moderate carbohydrates vs II: low fat)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#11
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322382/tandem-recruitment-and-foraging-in-the-ponerine-ant-pachycondyla-harpax-fabricius
#12
C Grüter, M Wüst, A P Cipriano, F S Nascimento
Tandem running is a common recruitment strategy in ant species with small colony sizes. During a tandem run, an informed leader guides a usually naïve nestmate to a food source or a nest site. Some species perform tandem runs only during house hunting, suggesting that tandem running does not always improve foraging success in species known to use tandem running as a recruitment strategy, but more natural history information on tandem running under natural conditions is needed to better understand the adaptive significance of tandem recruitment in foraging...
January 10, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322369/proteomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-after-acute-ammonia-exposure
#13
Limei Zhu, Na Gao, Ruifang Wang, Li Zhang
Ammonia is both a highly toxic environmental pollutant and the major nitrogenous waste produced by ammoniotelic teleosts. Although the acute toxic effects of ammonia have been widely studied in fish, the biochemical mechanisms of its toxicity have not been understood comprehensively. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis between ammonia-challenged (1.2 and 2.6 mmol L-1 NH4Cl for 96 h) and control groups of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) to identify changes of the metabolite and protein profiles in response to ammonia stress...
January 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322016/evaluation-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-antileishmanial-potential-of-bergenin-rich-bergenia-ligulata-wall-engl-root-extract-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-inbred-balb-c-mice-through-immunomodulation
#14
Rupinder Kaur, Sukhbir Kaur
Background: Medicinal plants with immunomodulatory properties can provide good alternative therapeutics for curing visceral leishmaniasis. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl. is an interesting plant with strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective properties. Aim: The present study was planned to determine the antileishmanial activity of plant extract by modulating the immune responses of inbred BALB/c mice. Methodology: Bergenin, the principle active component of B...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320582/thyroid-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-different-adaptive-responses-to-cold-environmental-conditions-between-two-chicken-breeds
#15
Shanshan Xie, Xukai Yang, Dehe Wang, Feng Zhu, Ning Yang, Zhuocheng Hou, Zhonghua Ning
Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319785/diagnostic-accuracy-and-prognostic-value-of-simultaneous-hybrid-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#16
Eleanor C Wicks, Leon J Menezes, Anna Barnes, Saidi A Mohiddin, Neha Sekhri, Joanna C Porter, Helen L Booth, Emily Garrett, Riyaz S Patel, Menelaos Pavlou, Ashley M Groves, Perry M Elliott
Aims: Cardiac death is the leading cause of mortality in patients with sarcoidosis, yet cardiac involvement often remains undetected. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) have been used to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) yet never simultaneously in a cohort. This study sought to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of simultaneous hybrid cardiac PET/MR. Methods and results: Fifty-one consecutive patients with suspected CS (age 50 ± 13 years, 31 males) underwent simultaneous PET/MR following a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet and 12-h fast...
January 8, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316276/crispr-disruption-of-tctp-gene-impaired-normal-development-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#17
Zu-Lian Liu, Jun Xu, Lin Ling, Ru Zhang, Peng Shang, Yong-Ping Huang
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved and multifunctional protein with activities ranging from cytoskeletal regulation to transcription regulation in numerous organisms. In insects, TCTP is essential for cell growth and proliferation. Recently, TCTP has been reported to affect the innate intestinal immune pathway in the Bombyx mori silkworm, a lepidopteran model insect. However, the comprehensive physiological roles of TCTP in the silkworm remain poorly understood. Here, we performed functional analysis of BmTCTP by using a binary transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromin repeats/RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases) system...
January 9, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315781/bioconcentration-model-for-non-ionic-polar-and-ionizable-organic-compounds-in-amphipod
#18
Ciara Chun Chen, Dave Ta Fu Kuo
This study presents a bioconcentration model for non-ionic, polar, and ionizable organic compounds in amphipod based on first-order kinetics. Uptake rate constant k1 is modeled as log k1=10.81logKOW+0.15 (root mean square error, RMSE = 0.52). Biotransformation rate constant kM is estimated using an existing polyparameter linear free energy relationship model. Respiratory elimination k2 is calculated as modeled k1 over theoretical biota-water partition coefficient Kbiow considering the contributions of lipid, protein, carbohydrate and water...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315388/galectin-3-and-cancer-stemness
#19
Pratima Nangia-Makker, Victor Hogan, Avraham Raz
Over the last few decades galectin-3, a carbohydrate binding protein, with affinity for N-acetyllactosamine residues, has been unique due to the regulatory roles it performs in processes associated with tumor progression and metastasis such as cell proliferation, homotypic/ heterotypic aggregation, dynamic cellular transformation, migration and invasion, survival and apoptosis. Structure-function association of galectin-3 reveals that it consists of a short amino terminal motif, which regulates its nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling; a collagen α-like domain, susceptible to cleavage by matrix metalloproteases and prostate specific antigen (PSA); accountable for its oligomerization and lattice formation, and a carbohydrate recognition/binding domain containing the anti-death motif of the Bcl2 protein family...
January 5, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314285/modulation-of-broilers-caecal-microflora-and-metabolites-in-response-to-a-potential-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#20
G T Cao, X A Zhan, L L Zhang, X F Zeng, A G Chen, C M Yang
Studies have found that a dietary supplement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved the growth performance, increased the nutrient digestibility of hosts and modulated the intestinal microflora. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into three treatments: a control group with a basal diet, an antibiotic group with a basal diet and added colistin sulphate, and a probiotics group with a basal diet and added Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The HiSeq high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the differences in birds' caecal microflora, and metabolomics was used to analyse changes in caecal metabolites...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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