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Carbohydrates and performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437200/effects-of-dietary-macronutrient-composition-on-fndc5-and-irisin-in-mice-skeletal-muscle
#1
Simone Moreira de Macêdo, Deborah de Farias Lelis, Keila Lopes Mendes, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho Fraga, Igor V Brandi, Jonh David Feltenberger, Lucyana Conceição Farias, André Luiz Sena Guimarães, Alfredo Maurício Batista de Paula, Sérgio Henrique de Sousa Santos
BACKGROUND: Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and its protein product Irisin are therapeutic targets for obesity-associated disorders. Irisin plays an important role in energy regulation, inducing browning of white adipocytes, and improving obesity. We aimed to investigate the association between muscle Irisin expression and dietary quality. METHODS: Twenty-eight female mice were divided into four groups and fed the following experimental diets for 60 days: standard diet (SD), high-carbohydrate diet (HCD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-protein diet (HPD)...
February 23, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436682/kinetics-biochemical-and-factorial-analysis-of-chromium-uptake-in-a-multi-ion-system-by-tradescantia-pallida-rose-d-r-hunt
#2
Vibha Sinha, Kannan Pakshirajan, N Arul Manikandan, Rakhi Chaturvedi
Effluent from electroplating and leather industries is a major concern for the environment due to the presence of chromium (Cr) and other ions, such as sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, etc., which needs to be regulated prior to its discharge into the environment. This study evaluated the potential of Tradescantia pallida, a plant species known for its Cr bioaccumulation, for the simultaneous removal of Cr(6+), SO4(2-), NO3(-) and PO4(3-). Different combination levels of Cr(6+) and the co-ions were planned as per the Plackett-Burman design of experiments performed using hydroponics system...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435105/organ-specific-proteomics-of-soybean-seedlings-under-flooding-and-drought-stresses
#3
Xin Wang, Ehsaneh Khodadadi, Baratali Fakheri, Setsuko Komatsu
Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434787/integrated-ecotechnology-approach-towards-treatment-of-complex-wastewater-with-simultaneous-bioenergy-production
#4
Manupati Hemalatha, J Shanthi Sravan, Dileep Kumar Yeruva, S Venkata Mohan
Sequential integration of three stage diverse biological processes was studied by exploiting the individual process advantage towards enhanced treatment of complex chemical based wastewater. A successful attempt to integrate sequence batch reactor (SBR) with bioelectrochemical treatment (BET) and finally with microalgae treatment was studied. The sequential integration has showed individual substrate degradation (COD) of 55% in SBR, 49% in BET and 56% in microalgae, accounting for a consolidated treatment efficiency of 90%...
March 22, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434716/a-bioinformatics-analysis-of-3400-lytic-polysaccharide-oxidases-from-family-aa9
#5
Nicolas Lenfant, Matthieu Hainaut, Nicolas Terrapon, Elodie Drula, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases of family AA9 catalyze the oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose and related polysaccharides. The N-terminal half of AA9 LPMOs displays a huge sequence variability that is in contradiction with the substrate simplicity so far observed for these enzymes. To understand the cause of the high multigenicity that prevails in the family, we have performed a clustering analysis of the N-terminal region of 3400 sequences of family AA9 LPMOs, and have evaluated the coincidence of the clusters with distal visible features that may accompany functional differences...
April 13, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433617/induced-and-controlled-dietary-ketosis-as-a-regulator-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-pathologies
#6
Madeline K Gibas, Kelly J Gibas
A worsening epidemic of diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is engulfing America. A healthy individual, with proper glucose regulation has an ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates. It has been suggested that signaling errors within this homeostatic system, characterized by impaired switching of substrate oxidation from glucose to fat in response to insulin, can contribute to the etiology of metabolic syndrome and occurs before the development of type II diabetes. Glucose regulation with restored insulin sensitivity facilitated through clinically regulated, benign dietary ketosis (BDK), may significantly reduce, regulate and reverse the adverse pathologies common to MetS and obesity...
March 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433168/evaluation-of-the-physical-properties-and-conservation-of-the-antioxidants-content-employing-inulin-and-maltodextrin-in-the-spray-drying-of-blueberry-juice
#7
S B Araujo-Díaz, C Leyva-Porras, P Aguirre-Bañuelos, C Álvarez-Salas, Z Saavedra-Leos
In this work, two carbohydrate polymers, inulin (I) and maltodextrin (MX), were compared as carrying agents in the spray drying of blueberry juice (BJ). The physicochemical properties and the conservation of the antioxidants content were characterized. Both systems, showed non-agglomerated particles and light-purple color appearance. Powders were subjected to the adsorption of water, and the glass transition temperature (Tg) decreased with the water activity. The evolution of the microstructure in the MX-BJ remained unchanged, while the I-BJ presented an abrupt change from amorphous to crystalline...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433061/graphene-coated-polymeric-anion-exchangers-for-ion-chromatography
#8
Kai Zhang, Minyi Cao, Chaoyan Lou, Shuchao Wu, Peimin Zhang, Mingyu Zhi, Yan Zhu
Carbonaceous stationary phases have gained much attention for their peculiar selectivity and robustness. Herein we report the fabrication and application of a graphene-coated polymeric stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography. The graphene-coated particles were fabricated by a facile evaporation-reduction method. These hydrophilic particles were proven appropriate substrates for grafting of hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) to make pellicular anion exchangers. The new phase was characterized by zeta potentials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscope...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432876/effect-of-pistachio-consumption-on-the-modulation-of-urinary-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-in-prediabetic-subjects
#9
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Daniel Cañueto, Simona Giardina, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nicolau Cañellas, Xavier Correig, Mònica Bulló
The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432541/genome-characteristics-of-the-proteorhodopsin-containing-marine-flavobacterium-polaribacter-dokdonensis-dsw-5
#10
Kiyoung Yoon, Ju Yeon Song, Min-Jung Kwak, Soon-Kyeong Kwon, Jihyun F Kim
Bacteria in the genus Polaribacter, belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae, are typically isolated from marine environments. Polaribacter dokdonensis DSW-5, the type strain of the species, is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the East Sea of Korea. Whole genome shotgun sequencing was performed with the HiSeq 2000 platform and paired-end reads were generated at 188-fold coverage. The sequencing reads were assembled into two contigs with a total length of 3.08 Mb. The genome sequences of DSW-5 contain 2,776 proteincoding sequences and 41 RNA genes...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428821/genome-wide-search-for-candidate-genes-for-yeast-robustness-improvement-against-formic-acid-reveals-novel-susceptibility-trk1-and-positive-regulators-and-resistance-haa1-regulon-determinants
#11
Sílvia F Henriques, Nuno P Mira, Isabel Sá-Correia
BACKGROUND: Formic acid is an inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Understanding the complex molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to this weak acid at the system level is instrumental to guide synthetic pathway engineering for robustness improvement of industrial strains envisaging their use in lignocellulosic biorefineries. RESULTS: This study was performed to identify, at a genome-wide scale, genes whose expression confers protection or susceptibility to formic acid, based on the screening of a haploid deletion mutant collection to search for these phenotypes in the presence of 60, 70 and 80 mM of this acid, at pH 4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427079/diagnostic-accuracy-of-combinations-of-tumor-markers-for-malignant-pleural-effusion-an-updated-meta-analysis
#12
Yuan Yang, Ya-Lan Liu, Huan-Zhong Shi
BACKGROUND: The role of combinations of tumor markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigens (CA) 125, 15-3, and 19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 (a fragment of cytokeratin 19) in diagnosing malignant pleural effusion (MPE) has not been clearly established. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis was performed to establish the overall diagnostic accuracies of combinations of these pleural fluid tumor markers for MPE. METHODS: The PubMed, Ovid, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane bibliographic databases were searched...
April 21, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425921/plasma-micro-rna-alterations-appear-late-in-pancreatic-cancer
#13
Oskar Franklin, Pär Jonsson, Ola Billing, Erik Lundberg, Daniel Öhlund, Hanna Nyström, Christina Lundin, Henrik Antti, Malin Sund
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to study whether plasma microRNAs (miRNA) can be used for early detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) by analyzing prediagnostic plasma samples collected before a PC diagnosis. BACKGROUND: PC has a poor prognosis due to late presenting symptoms and early metastasis. Circulating miRNAs are altered in PC at diagnosis but have not been evaluated in a prediagnostic setting. METHODS: We first performed an initial screen using a panel of 372 miRNAs in a retrospective case-control cohort that included early-stage PC patients and healthy controls...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423655/sequence-based-predictive-modeling-to-identify-cancerlectins
#14
Hong-Yan Lai, Xin-Xin Chen, Wei Chen, Hua Tang, Hao Lin
Lectins are a diverse type of glycoproteins or carbohydrate-binding proteins that have a wide distribution to various species. They can specially identify and exclusively bind to a certain kind of saccharide groups. Cancerlectins are a group of lectins that are closely related to cancer and play a major role in the initiation, survival, growth, metastasis and spread of tumor. Several computational methods have emerged to discriminate cancerlectins from non-cancerlectins, which promote the study on pathogenic mechanisms and clinical treatment of cancer...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422122/infant-milk-fat-droplet-size-and-coating-affect-postprandial-responses-in-healthy-adult-men-a-proof-of-concept-study
#15
S Baumgartner, B J M van de Heijning, D Acton, R P Mensink
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fat droplets in human milk (HM) are larger and surrounded by a phospholipid membrane compared with infant milk formulas (IMF). Since the physical structure of fat droplets might affect digestion and postprandial metabolism, an IMF was developed more mimicking HM lipid structure than current IMF. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 29 fasted healthy men (aged 18-25 years, BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2)) to compare 5-hour postprandial responses after consumption of an experimental IMF (Concept, Nuturis) with a current IMF (Control)...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420550/effect-of-a-moderate-caffeine-dose-on-endurance-cycle-performance-and-thermoregulation-during-prolonged-exercise-in-the-heat
#16
Ross E Beaumont, Lewis J James
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of a moderate caffeine dose on endurance cycle performance and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in high ambient temperature. DESIGN: Double-blind cross-over study. METHODS: Eight healthy, recreationally active males (mean±SD; age: 22±1 years; body mass: 71.1±8.5kg; VO2peak: 55.9±5.8mLkg(-1)min(-1); Wmax: 318±37W) completed one VO2peak test, one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419799/synthesis-of-protected-3-deoxy-3-fluoro-and-4-deoxy-4-fluoro-d-galactopyranosides-from-levoglucosan
#17
Danny Lainé, Vincent Denavit, Denis Giguère
Fluorinated carbohydrates are invaluable tools to study various biochemical processes. Herein, we describe a new strategy to access orthogonally protected 3-deoxy-3-fluorogalactopyranose and acetylated 4-deoxy-4-fluorogalactopyranose. Starting from inexpensive levoglucosan, most reactions were performed on a gram scale and allowed excellent regio- and stereocontrol with a minimal use of protection/deprotection cycles. Hence, we developed practical alternatives to the decade-long reported method to access both 3-deoxy-3-fluoro- and 4-deoxy-4-fluorogalactopyranose...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418793/wide-variability-in-caloric-density-of-expressed-human-milk-can-lead-to-major-underestimation-or-overestimation-of-nutrient-content
#18
Charles W Sauer, Mallory A Boutin, Jae H Kim
BACKGROUND: Very-low-birth-weight infants continue to face significant difficulties with postnatal growth. Human milk is the optimal form of nutrition for infants but may exhibit variation in nutrient content. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform macronutrient analysis on expressed human milk from mothers whose babies are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Up to five human milk samples per participant were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, and fat content using reference chemical analyses (Kjeldahl for protein, high pressure liquid chromatography for carbohydrates, and Mojonnier for fat)...
May 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417910/effects-of-three-commercially-available-sports-drinks-on-substrate-metabolism-and-subsequent-endurance-performance-in-a-postprandial-state
#19
Lu Qin, Qi-Rong Wang, Zi-Long Fang, Ting Wang, Ai-Qi Yu, Yu-Jie Zhou, Yi Zheng, Mu-Qing Yi
Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) participated in both study I and study II...
April 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417362/analyzing-activities-of-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases-by-liquid-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#20
Bjørge Westereng, Magnus Ø Arntzen, Jane Wittrup Agger, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad, Vincent G H Eijsink
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases perform oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds in various polysaccharides. The majority of LMPOs studied so far possess activity on either cellulose or chitin and analysis of these activities is therefore the main focus of this review. Notably, however, the number of LPMOs that are active on other polysaccharides is increasing. The products generated by LPMOs from cellulose are either oxidized in the downstream end (at C1) or upstream end (at C4), or at both ends. These modifications only result in small structural changes, which makes both chromatographic separation and product identification by mass spectrometry challenging...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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