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Carbohydrates and performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#1
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#2
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332114/training-the-gut-for-athletes
#3
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in delivering carbohydrate and fluid during prolonged exercise and can therefore be a major determinant of performance. The incidence of GI problems in athletes participating in endurance events is high, indicating that GI function is not always optimal in those conditions. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the GI system is highly adaptable. Gastric emptying as well as stomach comfort can be "trained" and perceptions of fullness decreased; some studies have suggested that nutrient-specific increases in gastric emptying may occur...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330953/your-mitochondria-are-what-you-eat-a-high-fat-or-a-high-sucrose-diet-eliminates-metabolic-flexibility-in-isolated-mitochondria-from-rat-skeletal-muscle
#4
Wenche Jørgensen, Kasper A Rud, Ole H Mortensen, Lis Frandsen, Niels Grunnet, Bjørn Quistorff
Extreme diets consisting of either high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) may lead to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not known if these diets alter normal interactions of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation at the level of the mitochondria. Here, we report that rat muscle mitochondria does show the normal Randle-type fat-carbohydrate interaction seen in vivo. The mechanism behind this metabolic flexibility at the level of the isolated mitochondria is a regulation of the flux-ratio: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)/β-oxidation to suit the actual substrate availability, with the PDH flux as the major point of regulation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330564/proteomic-analysis-of-stipe-explants-reveals-differentially-expressed-proteins-involved-in-early-direct-somatic-embryogenesis-of-the-tree-fern-cyathea-delgadii-sternb
#5
Lucyna Domżalska, Sylwia Kędracka-Krok, Urszula Jankowska, Małgorzata Grzyb, Mirosław Sobczak, Jan J Rybczyński, Anna Mikuła
Using cyto-morphological analysis of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the tree fern Cyathea delgadii as a guide, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis in stipe explants undergoing direct SE. Plant material was cultured on hormone-free medium supplemented with 2% sucrose. Phenol extracted proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry was performed for protein identification. A total number of 114 differentially regulated proteins was identified during early SE, i...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326097/different-proteome-profiles-between-male-and-female-populus-cathayana-exposed-to-uv-b-radiation
#6
Yunxiang Zhang, Lihua Feng, Hao Jiang, Yuanbin Zhang, Sheng Zhang
With increasing altitude, solar UV-B radiation is enhanced. Based on the phenomenon of male-biased sex ratio of Populus cathayana Rehder in high altitude alpine area, we hypothesized that males have a faster and more sophisticated responsive mechanism to high UV-B radiation than that of females. Our previous studies have shown sexually different responses to high UV-B radiation were existed in P. cathayana at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. However, the responses at the proteomic level remain unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323574/the-effects-of-an-increased-calorie-breakfast-consumed-prior-to-simulated-match-play-in-academy-soccer-players
#7
Marc A Briggs, Liam D Harper, Ged McNamee, Emma Cockburn, Penny L S Rumbold, Emma J Stevenson, Mark Russell
Dietary analysis of Academy soccer players highlights that total energy and carbohydrate intakes are less than optimal, especially, on match-days. As UK Academy matches predominantly kick-off at ∼11:00 h, breakfast is likely the last pre-exercise meal and thus may provide an intervention opportunity on match-day. Accordingly, the physiological and performance effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed ∼135-min before soccer-specific exercise was investigated. English Premier League Academy soccer players (n = 7) repeated a 90-min soccer match simulation on two occasions after consumption of habitual (Bhab; ∼1100 kJ) or increased (Binc; ∼2100 kJ) energy breakfasts standardised for macronutrient contributions (∼60% carbohydrates, ∼15% proteins and ∼25% fats)...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323273/hydrogen-and-methane-based-breath-testing-in-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-north-american-consensus
#8
Ali Rezaie, Michelle Buresi, Anthony Lembo, Henry Lin, Richard McCallum, Satish Rao, Max Schmulson, Miguel Valdovinos, Salam Zakko, Mark Pimentel
OBJECTIVES: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. METHODS: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322729/standardisation-and-use-of-the-alcohol-biomarker-carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin-cdt
#9
Anders Helander, Jos Wielders, Raymond Anton, Torsten Arndt, Vincenza Bianchi, Jean Deenmamode, Jan-Olof Jeppsson, John B Whitfield, Cas Weykamp, François Schellenberg
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a glycoform profile of serum transferrin that increases in response to sustained high alcohol intake and over the last decades has become an important alcohol biomarker with clinical and forensic applications. However, the wide range of CDT measurement procedures has resulted in lack of uniform results and reference limits, and hampered comparison of results. In 2005, the IFCC therefore founded a special working group (WG) aiming for standardisation of CDT measurement...
March 18, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322146/chemical-composition-and-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-activities-of-cultured-mycelia-of-four-clavicipitaceous-mushrooms-ascomycetes-from-the-indian-himalayas
#10
Sapan Kumar Sharma, Nandini Gautam
Cultured mycelia of 4 clavicipitaceous fungi belonging to 2 genera, Cordyceps (C. gracilis, C. cicadae, C. sinclairii) and Metacordyceps (M. dhauladharensis), were analyzed for their chemical composition and antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Experiments to determine these characteristics were performed following standard methods. The fatty acid profiles of mycelia of all the species were analysed using gas chromatography. Chemical composition analysis of mycelial samples revealed carbohydrates (46.72 ± 0...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321232/chronological-sequence-of-leaf-phenology-xylem-and-phloem-formation-and-sap-flow-of-quercus-pubescens-from-abandoned-karst-grasslands
#11
Martina Lavrič, Klemen Eler, Mitja Ferlan, Dominik Vodnik, Jožica Gričar
Intra-annual variations in leaf development, radial growth, including the phloem part, and sap flow have rarely been studied in deciduous trees from drought-prone environments. In order to understand better the chronological order and temporal course of these processes, we monitored leaf phenology, xylem and phloem formation and sap flow in Quercus pubescens from abandoned karst grasslands in Slovenia during the growing season of 2014. We found that the initial earlywood vessel formation started before bud opening at the beginning of April...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320464/impact-of-different-dietary-approaches-on-glycemic-control-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#12
Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Georg Hoffmann, Carolina Schwedhelm, Heiner Boeing
BACKGROUND: Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in order to induce weight loss. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal approaches to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a systematic review including a standard pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized trials...
March 20, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319546/gastric-fluid-volume-change-after-oral-rehydration-solution-intake-in-morbidly-obese-and-normal-controls-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-analysis
#13
Toshie Shiraishi, Dai Kurosaki, Mitsuyo Nakamura, Taiji Yazaki, Satomi Kobinata, Yosuke Seki, Kazunori Kasama, Hideki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Although preoperative fluid intake 2 hours before anesthesia is generally considered safe, there are concerns about delayed gastric emptying in obese subjects. In this study, the gastric fluid volume (GFV) change in morbidly obese subjects was investigated after ingesting an oral rehydration solution (ORS) and then compared with that in nonobese subjects. METHODS: GFV change over time after the ingestion of 500 mL of ORS containing 2.5% carbohydrate (OS-1) was measured in 10 morbidly obese subjects (body mass index [BMI], >35) scheduled for bariatric surgery and 10 nonobese (BMI, 19-24) using magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319379/immobilization-of-%C3%AE-galactosidases-from-lactobacillus-on-chitin-using-chitin-binding-domain
#14
Mai Lan Mai Pham, Tatjana Leister, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Bien-Cuong Do, Tuan-Anh Pham, Dietmar Haltrich, Montarop Yamabhai, Thu-Ha Nguyen, Tien-Thanh Nguyen
Two β-galactosidases from Lactobacillus including a heterodimeric, LacLM type enzyme from L. reuteri L103 and a homodimeric LacZ type β-galactosidase from L. bulgaricus DSM 20081 were studied for immobilization on chitin using a carbohydrate-binding domain (chitin-binding domain, ChBD) from a chitinolytic enzyme. Three recombinant enzymes, namely LacLM-ChBD, ChBD-LacLM and LacZ-ChBD, were constructed and successfully expressed in L. plantarum WCFS1. Depending on the structure of the enzymes, either homodimeric or heterodimeric, as well as the positioning of the chitin-binding domain in relation to the catalytic domains, i...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316796/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-dietary-carbohydrate-restriction-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Ole Snorgaard, Grith M Poulsen, Henning K Andersen, Arne Astrup
OBJECTIVE: Nutrition therapy is an integral part of self-management education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004-2014 for guidelines, meta-analyses, and randomized trials assessing the outcomes HbA1c, BMI, weight, LDL cholesterol, quality of life (QoL), and attrition...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315941/prospective-associations-between-dietary-patterns-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-european-children-the-idefics-study
#16
Esther María González-Gil, Gianluca Tognon, Lauren Lissner, Timm Intemann, Valeria Pala, Claudio Galli, Maike Wolters, Alfonso Siani, Toomas Veidebaum, Nathalie Michels, Denes Molnar, Jaakko Kaprio, Yannis Kourides, Arno Fraterman, Licia Iacoviello, Catalina Picó, Juan Miguel Fernández-Alvira, Luis Alberto Moreno Aznar
PURPOSE: This prospective study explores high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in relation to dietary patterns at two time points in European children. METHODS: Out of the baseline sample of the IDEFICS study (n = 16,228), 4020 children, aged 2-9 years at baseline, with available hs-CRP levels and valid data from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline (T0) and 2 years later (T1) were included. K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between relative food consumption frequencies of the FFQ was applied...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301944/orientation-and-characterization-of-immobilized-antibodies-for-improved-immunoassays-review
#17
Nicholas G Welch, Judith A Scoble, Benjamin W Muir, Paul J Pigram
Orientation of surface immobilized capture proteins, such as antibodies, plays a critical role in the performance of immunoassays. The sensitivity of immunodiagnostic procedures is dependent on presentation of the antibody, with optimum performance requiring the antigen binding sites be directed toward the solution phase. This review describes the most recent methods for oriented antibody immobilization and the characterization techniques employed for investigation of the antibody state. The introduction describes the importance of oriented antibodies for maximizing biosensor capabilities...
March 16, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301509/genome-wide-association-mapping-in-winter-barley-for-grain-yield-and-culm-cell-wall-polymer-content-using-the-high-throughput-compp-technique
#18
Andrea Bellucci, Alessandro Tondelli, Jonatan U Fangel, Anna Maria Torp, Xin Xu, William G T Willats, Andrew Flavell, Luigi Cattivelli, Søren K Rasmussen
A collection of 112 winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in the field for two years (2008/09 and 2009/10) in northern Italy and grain and straw yields recorded. In the first year of the trial, a severe attack of barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) strongly influenced final performances with an average reduction of ~ 50% for grain and straw harvested in comparison to the second year. The genetic determination (GD) for grain yield was 0.49 and 0.70, for the two years respectively, and for straw yield GD was low in 2009 (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300544/pre-analytical-and-analytical-aspects-affecting-clinical-reliability-of-plasma-glucose-results
#19
REVIEW
Sara Pasqualetti, Federica Braga, Mauro Panteghini
The measurement of plasma glucose (PG) plays a central role in recognizing disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism, with established decision limits that are globally accepted. This requires that PG results are reliable and unequivocally valid no matter where they are obtained. To control the pre-analytical variability of PG and prevent in vitro glycolysis, the use of citrate as rapidly effective glycolysis inhibitor has been proposed. However, the commercial availability of several tubes with studies showing different performance has created confusion among users...
March 11, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299519/insights-into-the-effects-of-glycosylation-and-the-monosaccharide-binding-activity-of-the-plant-lectin-cratabl
#20
Laercio Pol-Fachin
CrataBL is a glycoprotein isolated from Crataeva tapia bark, containing two N-glycosylation sites. It has been identified to present lectin activity with some specificity for binding glucose over galactose. However, to date, no information on the effects of glycosylation or CrataBL monosaccharide-binding sites and monosaccharide specificity has been obtained. Thus, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to characterize the glycosylated CrataBL conformation and dynamics in aqueous solutions, as well as the molecular basis for its binding specificity...
March 15, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
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