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Carbohydrates and performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548389/night-shift-work-is-associated-with-poorer-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Areesa Manodpitipong, Sunee Saetung, Hataikarn Nimitphong, Nantaporn Siwasaranond, Thanawat Wongphan, Chotima Sornsiriwong, Pranee Luckanajantachote, Prasitchai Mangjit, Prasit Keesukphan, Stephanie J Crowley, Megan M Hood, Sirimon Reutrakul
The circadian system plays a role in regulating metabolism. Night-shift work, a form of circadian misalignment, is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. This study aimed to determine if night-shift workers with type 2 diabetes experience poorer glycaemic control than non-shift workers. Patients with type 2 diabetes (104 unemployed, 85 day workers and 60 night-shift workers) participated. Sleep duration, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness preference, depressive symptoms and dietary intake were assessed using standardized questionnaires...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543565/lactate-supplementation-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injured-adults-by-primed-constant-infusion-of-sodium-l-lactate
#2
Stephanie M Wolahan, Howard C Mao, Courtney Real, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
Carbohydrate fuel augmentation following traumatic brain injury may be a viable treatment to improve recovery when cerebral oxidative metabolism of glucose is depressed. We performed a primed constant sodium L-lactate infusion in 11 moderate to severely brain injured adults. Blood was collected before and periodically during the infusion study. We quantified global cerebral uptake of glucose and lactate and other systemic metabolites associated with energy metabolism. Our hypothesis was that cerebral lactate uptake, as measured by the arteriovenous difference of lactate (AVDlac), would increase in severely injured TBI patients in the neurocritical care unit...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542566/proteomic-analysis-in-the-dufour-s-gland-of-africanized-apis-mellifera-workers-hymenoptera-apidae
#3
Aparecida das Dores Teixeira, Patricia D Games, Benjamin B Katz, John M Tomich, José C Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
The colony of eusocial bee Apis mellifera has a reproductive queen and sterile workers performing tasks such as brood care and foraging. Chemical communication plays a crucial role in the maintenance of sociability in bees with many compounds released by the exocrine glands. The Dufour's gland is a non-paired gland associated with the sting apparatus with important functions in the communication between members of the colony, releasing volatile chemicals that influence workers roles and tasks. However, the protein content in this gland is not well studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540944/an-ultrasensitive-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-platinum-luminol-nanocomposite-based-electrochemiluminescence-immunosensor
#4
Xin Zhang, Hong Ke, Zhiming Wang, Weiwei Guo, Amin Zhang, Chusen Huang, Nengqin Jia
An ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) detection using multi-walled carbon nanotube-platinum-luminol nanocomposites (MWCNT-Pt-luminol) as nanointerface and signal tags was designed. First, the MWCNT-Pt-luminol nanocomposite was decorated on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through the film-forming properties of chitosan (Chi). Then, the CA19-9 antibody (anti-CA19-9) was attached to the modified electrode surface via crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA)...
May 25, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539747/botanical-and-chemical-fingerprinting-of-medicinal-roots-of-justicia-gendarussa-burm-f
#5
Deepa Yadav, Mohd Salim Reshi, Chhavi Uthra, Sadhana Shrivastava, Nalini Srivastava, Sunil Kumar Koppala Narayana, Sangeeta Shukla
BACKGROUND: Justicia gendarussa Burm f. of family Acanthaceae is medicinally important herb used in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, asthma, hepatic injuries, pathogenic infection and also shows antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacognostical evaluation (macro-microscopy, physicochemical analysis and preliminary phytochemical analysis), high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting and chemical profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) of dried roots of J...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539721/phytochemical-and-biological-evaluations-of-arum-hygrophilum-boiss-araceae
#6
Fatma U Afifi, Violet Kasabri, Simona Litescu, Ismail F Abaza, Khalid Tawaha
BACKGROUND: Arum hygrophilum is a traditional medicinal plant indigenous to Jordan. The present study explores its phytochemistry, antioxidative, antidiabesity, and antiproliferative potentialities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Column chromatography and HPLC-MS analysis were used for its phytochemical evaluation. Using leaf crude water and ethanol extracts, the antioxidative capacities, their modulation of pancreatic β-cell proliferation, and insulin secretion as well as glucose diffusion and enzymatic bioassays were evaluated...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539039/isolated-pyogenic-pancreatic-abscess-successfully-treated-via-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-drainage
#7
Jung Yeop Lee, Tae Hyeon Kim, Hyung Ku Chon
An isolated pyogenic pancreatic abscess (IPPA) without pancreatitis is extremely rare but can occur in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. This pathologic condition poses a clinical challenge in diagnosis and management because it can be confused easily with a malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may be a useful diagnostic modality for indeterminate pancreatic lesions and IPPA. Here, we report two cases with elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels and pancreatic masses on cross sectional imaging. The patients were subsequently diagnosed with IPPA by EUS...
May 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538327/quantifying-the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-on-exercise-performance
#8
Daniel J Peart
Peart, DJ. Quantifying the effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1737-1743, 2017-The purpose of this study was to review the existing literature investigating carbohydrate mouth rinsing as an ergogenic aid using the effect sizes (ES) and percentage change in performance of the respective studies as outcome measures. A trivial-small average overall ES was present for the 25 studies included in the review (0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-0.27). Effect sizes for the subgroups were ≥25 minutes (0...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536698/the-critical-role-of-long-noncoding-rna-in-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Xiaoling Qiu, Bo Jia, Xiang Sun, Weitao Hu, Hongxing Chu, Shuaimei Xu, JianJiang Zhao
Objective. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to regulate many biological processes including differentiation. However, their role in osteogenic differentiation was poorly known. Materials and Methods. In this study, we first globally profiled the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs during osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs). Bioinformatics analysis was performed to further analyze these significantly changed molecules. Then the role of lncRNA ENST00000502125...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533314/exercise-metabolism-fuels-for-the-fire
#10
Mark Hargreaves, Lawrence L Spriet
During exercise, the supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is essential for the energy-dependent processes that underpin ongoing contractile activity. These pathways involve both substrate-level phosphorylation, without any need for oxygen, and oxidative phosphorylation that is critically dependent on oxygen delivery to contracting skeletal muscle by the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and on the supply of reducing equivalents from the degradation of carbohydrate, fat, and, to a limited extent, protein fuel stores...
May 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532078/enhancement-of-fibroblast-growing-on-the-mannosylated-surface-of-cellulose-membranes
#11
Simone Birkheur, Paula Cristina de Sousa Faria-Tischer, Cesar A Tischer, Elisângela Flávia Pimentel, Marcio Fronza, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Anna Paola Butera, Renato Márcio Ribeiro-Viana
Bacterial cellulose membrane is a biomaterial with high value in the biomedical field. Many groups have been making efforts to promote chemical modifications of its structure and, consequently, add new characteristics. Recently, our group has developed a methodology to insert monoester succinic acid in bacterial cellulose membrane without disrupting the microfibril network and bind a protein on it. Considering the role of carbohydrates in the molecular recognition process in biological events, we continued these studies by inserting covalently multiples copies of aryl monosaccharide to bacterial cellulose succinylated and to study the in vitro tissue compatibility using fibroblasts...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530448/carbohydrates-alone-or-mixing-with-beef-or-whey-protein-promote-similar-training-outcomes-in-resistance-training-males-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Fernando Naclerio, Marco Seijo-Bujia, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Conrad P Earnest
Beef powder is a new high-quality protein source scarcely researched relative to exercise performance. The present study examined the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on strength performance (1RM), body composition (via plethysmography), limb circumferences and muscular thickness (via ultrasonography), following an 8-week resistance-training program. After being randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Beef, Whey, or Carbohydrate, twenty four recreationally physically active males (n=8 per treatment) ingested 20 g of supplement, mixed with orange juice, once a day (immediately after workout or before breakfast)...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529155/metabolic-insights-into-the-cold-survival-strategy-and-overwintering-of-the-common-cutworm-spodoptera-litura-fabricius-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#13
Wei Zhu, Huan Zhang, Qian Meng, Menglong Wang, Guiling Zhou, Xuan Li, Hongtuo Wang, Lin Miao, Qilian Qin, Jihong Zhang
The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive pest in Asia. Although overwintering in the field has not been reported for this species, their larvae are capable of long-term survival in fluctuating temperatures, i.e., 5°C (12 h) plus 13°C (12 h), if food is available. With an increase in climate change due to global warming and the widespread use of greenhouses, further understanding of their cold survival strategy is needed to predict and control their population in the future...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527863/over-production-of-fermentable-sugar-for-bioethanol-production-from-carbohydrate-rich-malaysian-food-waste-via-sequential-acid-enzymatic-hydrolysis-pretreatment
#14
Halimatun Saadiah Hafid, Abdul Rahman Nor 'Aini, Mohd Noriznan Mokhtar, Ahmad Tarmezee Talib, Azhari Samsu Baharuddin, Md Shah Umi Kalsom
In Malaysia, the amount of food waste produced is estimated at approximately 70% of total municipal solid waste generated and characterised by high amount of carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and sugars. Considering the beneficial organic fraction contained, its utilization as an alternative substrate specifically for bioethanol production has receiving more attention. However, the sustainable production of bioethanol from food waste is linked to the efficient pretreatment needed for higher production of fermentable sugar prior to fermentation...
May 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526376/the-excessive-caloric-intake-and-micronutrient-deficiencies-related-to-obesity-after-a-long-term-interdisciplinary-therapy
#15
Vanessa Fadanelli Schoenardie Poli, Ricardo Badan Sanches, Amanda Dos Santos Moraes, João Pedro Novo Fidalgo, Maythe Amaral Nascimento, Paula Bresciani, Stephan Garcia Andrade-Silva, Marcos Alberto Taddeo Cipullo, José Carlos Clemente, Danielle Arisa Caranti
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle modification therapy on food intake, body composition, and anthropometric measurements of obese women. METHODS: Seventy obese women (age 41 ± 5.9 y) attended the interdisciplinary therapy, with nutrition, physical exercise, physiotherapy, and psychological support during the course of 1 y. Usual food intake was estimated by 3-d dietary record. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed to determine body fat and fat-free mass...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524103/potential-impact-of-nutrition-on-immune-system-recovery-from-heavy-exertion-a-metabolomics-perspective
#16
REVIEW
David C Nieman, Susan Hazels Mitmesser
This review describes effective and ineffective immunonutrition support strategies for the athlete, with a focus on the benefits of carbohydrates and polyphenols as determined from metabolomics-based procedures. Athletes experience regular cycles of physiological stress accompanied by transient inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune perturbations, and there are increasing data indicating that these are sensitive to nutritional influences. The most effective nutritional countermeasures, especially when considered from a metabolomics perspective, include acute and chronic increases in dietary carbohydrate and polyphenols...
May 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523632/co-spray-drying-with-hpmc-as-a-platform-to-improve-direct-compaction-properties-of-various-tablet-fillers
#17
JinZhi Li, LiJie Zhao, Xiao Lin, Lan Shen, Yi Feng
Many commonly used tablet fillers are not suitable for direct compaction process due to insufficient properties, mainly of flowability and compactability. This work therefore aimed to use co-spray drying with HPMC as a platform to improve direct compaction properties of various tablet fillers. Starch, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and mannitol were chosen as a representative of three types of commonly used fillers (i.e. organic macromolecules, water-insoluble inorganic salts, and water-soluble small molecular carbohydrates), respectively...
May 18, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523604/chemo-enzymatic-synthesis-of-a-glycosylated-peptide-containing-a-complex-n-glycan-based-on-unprotected-oligosaccharides-by-using-dmt-mm-and-endo-m
#18
Yusuke Tomabechi, Toshihiko Katoh, Munetaka Kunishima, Toshiyuki Inazu, Kenji Yamamoto
For chemo-enzymatic synthesis of a glycosylated peptide, 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) was used for the synthesis of a N-acetylglucosaminyl peptide and a pseudoglycopeptide by solid-phase peptide synthesis without the requirement of protecting groups on the carbohydrate. We also performed transglycosylation of an N-glycan to the N-acetylglucosaminyl peptide using endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Mucor hiemalis (Endo-M) to synthesize a glycopeptide containing a complex N-glycan...
May 18, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521878/combining-a-nontargeted-and-targeted-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-metabolic-pathways-significantly-altered-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#19
Alice Y Chang, Antigoni Z Lalia, Gregory D Jenkins, Tumpa Dutta, Rickey E Carter, Ravinder J Singh, K Sreekumaran Nair
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Both groups met criteria for MetS but could not have diabetes mellitus or take medications that treat PCOS or affect lipids or insulin sensitivity...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521223/modeling-the-effects-of-microalga-biochemical-content-on-the-kinetics-and-biocrude-yields-from-hydrothermal-liquefaction
#20
James D Sheehan, Phillip E Savage
A kinetic model for the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae was developed and its performance in predicting biocrude yields was tested. Kinetic interactions between algal proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were also included for the first time. These interactions provided a better fit of the data used to determine model parameters, but the kinetics model lacking interactions provided a better prediction of published biocrude yields. This model predicted 70 published biocrude yields to within ±5wt% given the biochemical composition of the alga and the HTL temperature and time as model inputs...
May 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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