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Carbohydrates and performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771364/broad-genomic-sampling-reveals-a-smut-pathogenic-ancestry-of-the-fungal-clade-ustilaginomycotina
#1
Teeratas Kijpornyongpan, Stephen J Mondo, Kerrie Barry, Laura Sandor, Juna Lee, Anna Lipzen, Jasmyn Pangilinan, Kurt LaButti, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Igor V Grigoriev, Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime
Ustilaginomycotina is home to a broad array of fungi including important plant pathogens collectively called smut fungi. Smuts are biotrophs that produce characteristic perennating propagules called teliospores, one of which, Ustilago maydis, is a model genetic organism. Broad exploration of smut biology has been hampered by limited phylogenetic resolution of Ustilaginiomycotina as well as an overall lack of genomic data for members of this subphylum. In this study, we sequenced eight Ustilaginomycotina genomes from previously unrepresented lineages, deciphered ordinal-level phylogenetic relationships for the subphylum, and performed comparative analyses...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770605/emerging-carbon-nanofiber-aerogels-chemosynthesis-versus-biosynthesis
#2
Zhen-Yu Wu, Hai-Wei Liang, Bi-Cheng Hu, Shu-Hong Yu
Carbon aerogels that are typically prepared using sol-gel chemistry have unique three dimensional networks of interconnected nanometer-sized particles and thus exhibit many fascinating physical properties and great application potentials in widespread fields. To boost the practical applications, it is urgent to develop efficient and low-cost methods to produce high-performance carbon aerogels in large-scale, preferably in a sustainable way. In 2012, two new classes of aerogels consisting of carbon nanofiber (CNF) networks were prepared from biomass-derived precursor by chemosynthesis (i...
May 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769827/effects-of-a-4-week-very-low-carbohydrate-diet-on-high-intensity-interval-training-responses
#3
Lukas Cipryan, Daniel J Plews, Alessandro Ferretti, Phil B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of altering from habitual mixed Western-based (HD) to a very low-carbohydrate high-fat (VLCHF) diet over a 4-week timecourse on performance and physiological responses during high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Eighteen moderately trained males (age 23.8 ± 2.1 years) consuming their HD (48 ± 13% carbohydrate, 17 ± 3% protein, 35 ± 9% fat) were assigned to 2 groups. One group was asked to remain on their HD, while the other was asked to switch to a non-standardized VLCHF diet (8 ± 3% carbohydrate, 29 ± 15% protein, 63 ± 13% fat) for 4 weeks...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769818/carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-and-hydration-strategies-on-cycling-performance-in-30-km-time-trial-a-randomized-crossover-controlled-trial
#4
Amanda M J Ferreira, Luiz F Farias-Junior, Thaynan A A Mota, Hassan M Elsangedy, Aline Marcadenti, Telma M A M Lemos, Alexandre H Okano, Ana P T Fayh
The aim of this study was to investigate whether carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) improves physical performance of cyclists during a 30-km time trial test and its influence on water balance compared to other strategies of fluid intake. Eleven recreationally trained male cyclists completed a 30 km time trial cycle ergometer under three experimental interventions: (a) CMR, (b) drinking to replace all weight loss (DWL), and (c) drinking "ad libitum" (DAL). Time to complete the 30 km time trial, heart rate, average power, velocity, weight loss, urine color, urine density and pH were evaluated...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765221/surgical-treatment-of-an-esophageal-bronchogenic-cyst-with-massive-upper-digestive-tract-hematoma-without-esophagectomy-a-case-report-and-the-review-of-the-literature
#5
Yuanjun Cheng, Donglai Chen, Li Shi, Wentao Yang, Yonghua Sang, Shanzhou Duan, Yongbing Chen
Esophageal bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare. Here we report a case of massive upper digestive tract hematoma and bronchogenic cyst mimicking aortic dissection that was safely removed without esophagectomy. A 30-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of a mediastinal cystic tumor located in the submucosa of the distal esophagus. His chief complaints were dysphagia > 1 week and severe persistent upper abdominal pain mimicking aortic dissection with constant vomiting for 1 day after gastroscopy examination...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762371/posttranslational-processing-and-function-of-mucosal-maltases
#6
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
The final step of carbohydrate digestion in the intestine is performed by 2 major α-glucosidases of the intestinal mucosa, sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase. Both of these enzymes are type II membrane glycoproteins, which share a significant level of homology in gene and protein structures and yet have differences in the posttranslational processing, substrate specificity and functional capacity. Insufficient activity of these disaccharidases particularly SI as a result of genetic mutations or secondary intestinal pathologies is associated with carbohydrate maldigestion and gastrointestinal intolerances...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761433/quantification-of-soluble-sugars-and-sugar-alcohols-by-lc-ms-ms
#7
Regina Feil, John Edward Lunn
Sugars are simple carbohydrates composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They play a central role in metabolism as sources of energy and as building blocks for synthesis of structural and nonstructural polymers. Many different techniques have been used to measure sugars, including refractometry, colorimetric and enzymatic assays, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this chapter we describe a method that combines an initial separation of sugars by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with detection and quantification by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760332/dry-thermotropic-glycolipid-self-assembly-a-review
#8
Rauzah Hashim, N Idayu Zahid, T S Velayutham, Nurul Fadhilah Kamalul Aripin, Shigesaburo Ogawa, Akihiko Sugimura
Also recognized as carbohydrate liquid crystals, glycolipids are amphiphiles whose basic unit comprises of a sugar group attached to an alkyl chain. Glycolipids are amphitropic, which means these materials form liquid crystal self-assemblies when dry (thermotropic) as well as when dissolved in solvents (lyotropic/surfactants) such as water. Many glycolipids are also naturally derived since these can be found in cell membranes. Their membrane and surfactant functions are largely understood through their lyotropic properties...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757053/applying-a-low-fodmap-dietary-intervention-to-a-female-ultra-endurance-runner-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-during-a-multi-stage-ultra-marathon
#9
Stephanie K Gaskell, Ricardo J S Costa
Malabsorption of Fermentable Oligo- Di- and Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs) in response to prolonged exercise may increase incidence of upper- and lower-gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), which are known to impair exercise performance. The case-study aimed to explore the impact of a low-FODMAP diet on exercise-associated GIS in a female ultra-endurance runner diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), competing in a six-day 186.7 km mountainous multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM). IBS symptom severity score at diagnosis was 410 and following a low-FODMAP diet (3...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757051/weight-regain-but-not-weight-loss-is-related-to-competitive-success-in-real-life-mixed-martial-arts-competition
#10
Victor Silveira Coswig, Bianca Miarka, Daniel Alvarez Pires, Levy Mendes da Silva, Charles Bartel, Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio
We aimed to describe the nutritional and behavioural strategies for rapid weight loss (RWL), investigate the effects of RWL and weight regain (WRG) in winners and losers and verify mood state and technical-tactical/time-motion parameters in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). The sample consisted of MMA athletes after a single real match and was separated into two groups: Winners (n=8, age: 25.4±6.1yo., height: 173.9±0.2cm, habitual body mass (BM): 89.9±17.3kg) and Losers (n=7, age: 24.4±6.8yo., height: 178.4±0...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756972/dietary-patterns-physical-activity-body-mass-index-weight-related-behaviours-and-their-interrelationship-among-romanian-university-students-trends-from-2003-to-2016
#11
Lucia Maria Lotrean, Ovidiu Stan, Lencu Codruta, Valeria Laza
INTRODUCTION: promotion of a healthy diet and involvement in physical activity among young people has an important impact on their actual and future lifestyle, health and well being. OBJECTIVES: this study investigates dietary patterns, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and weight-related behaviours as well as their interrelationship among Romanian university students. METHODS: the study used anonymous questionnaires and was performed in Cluj-Napoca, Romania in 2003 (n = 320) and 2016 (n = 320)...
January 19, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755906/rare-forms-of-castleman-disease-mimicking-malignancy-mesenteric-and-pancreatic-involvement
#12
Mustafa Ozsoy, Zehra Ozsoy, Suleyman Sahin, Yuksel Arıkan
Castleman disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. While the disease may involve all parts of the body, the mediastinum appears to be the most common part of involvement. In this study, we present two cases of Castleman disease with different localizations that mimicked malignancy. A 62-year-old female patient presented with jaundice. Laboratory analysis indicated aspartate aminotransferase: 250 U/L, total bilirubin: 4 mg/dl, and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9: 900 U/ml...
March 12, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752561/searching-whole-genome-sequences-for-biochemical-identification-features-of-emerging-and-reemerging-pathogenic-corynebacterium-species
#13
André S Santos, Rommel T Ramos, Artur Silva, Raphael Hirata, Ana L Mattos-Guaraldi, Roberto Meyer, Vasco Azevedo, Liza Felicori, Luis G C Pacheco
Biochemical tests are traditionally used for bacterial identification at the species level in clinical microbiology laboratories. While biochemical profiles are generally efficient for the identification of the most important corynebacterial pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae, their ability to differentiate between biovars of this bacterium is still controversial. Besides, the unambiguous identification of emerging human pathogenic species of the genus Corynebacterium may be hampered by highly variable biochemical profiles commonly reported for these species, including Corynebacterium striatum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Corynebacterium xerosis...
May 11, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751248/evaluation-of-glucose-and-insulin-response-to-haylage-diets-with-different-content-of-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-2-breeds-of-horses
#14
S Lindåse, C Müller, K Nostell, J Bröjer
Information about the effect of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in forage on the postprandial glucose and insulin response in horses is scarce. This is of interest as postprandial hyperinsulinemia in horses is a risk factor for laminitis. In addition, insulin sensitivity (IS) differs between breeds. The aim was to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different NSC content in horses of 2 different breeds and to evaluate the relationship between the postprandial insulin response and measures of IS derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT)...
April 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746639/branched-chain-amino-acids-are-the-primary-limiting-amino-acids-in-the-diets-of-endurance-trained-men-after-a-bout-of-prolonged-exercise
#15
Hiroyuki Kato, Katsuya Suzuki, Makoto Bannai, Daniel R Moore
Background: The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method estimates the protein intake required to maximize whole-body protein synthesis and identify the daily protein requirement in a variety of populations. However, it is unclear whether the greater requirements for endurance athletes previously determined by the IAAO reflect an increased demand for all or only some amino acids. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the primary rate-limiting amino acids in endurance-trained athletes after prolonged exercise, by measuring the oxidation of ingested [1-13C]phenylalanine in response to variable amino acid intake...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746587/metabolic-reprogramming-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpes-virus-infected-b-cells-in-hypoxia
#16
Rajnish Kumar Singh, Fengchao Lang, Yonggang Pei, Hem Chandra Jha, Erle S Robertson
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection stabilizes hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). The interaction between KSHV encoded factors and HIFs plays a critical role in KSHV latency, reactivation and associated disease phenotypes. Besides modulation of large-scale signaling, KSHV infection also reprograms the metabolic activity of infected cells. However, the mechanism and cellular pathways modulated during these changes are poorly understood. We performed comparative RNA sequencing analysis on cells with stabilized hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) of KSHV negative or positive background to identify changes in global and metabolic gene expression...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745978/discovery-of-amadori-type-conjugates-in-a-peptide-maillard-reaction-and-their-corresponding-influence-on-the-formation-of-pyrazines
#17
Tingting Zou, Jianbin Liu, Huanlu Song, Ye Liu
Knowledge of the role of peptides in the Maillard reaction is rather limited. In this study, peptide Maillard reaction model systems were established. Volatile and nonvolatile MRPs (Maillard reaction products) were investigated by GC-O-MS and LC-MS. Carbohydrate module labeling (CAMOLA) experiments were performed to elucidate the carbon skeleton of these compounds. Results showed that the peptide reaction system generated more pyrazines than the free amino acid group. Several new Amadori-type conjugates were identified as novel Maillard reaction products that could greatly influence the formation of pyrazines...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743827/the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-on-performance-biochemical-and-psychophysiological-variables-during-a-cycling-time-trial-a-crossover-randomized-trial
#18
Amanda M J Ferreira, Luiz F Farias-Junior, Thaynan A A Mota, Hassan M Elsangedy, Aline Marcadenti, Telma M A M Lemos, Alexandre H Okano, Ana P T Fayh
Background: The hypothesis of the central effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) on performance improvement in a fed state has not been established, and its psychophysiological responses have not yet been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CMR in athletes fed state on performance, biochemical and psychophysiological responses compared to ad libitum water intake. Methods: Eleven trained male cyclists completed a randomized, crossover trial, which consisted of a 30 km cycle ergometer at self-selected intensity and in a fed state...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740082/transcriptome-analyses-reveal-reduced-hepatic-lipid-synthesis-and-accumulation-in-more-feed-efficient-beef-cattle
#19
Robert Mukiibi, Michael Vinsky, Kate A Keogh, Carolyn Fitzsimmons, Paul Stothard, Sinéad M Waters, Changxi Li
The genetic mechanisms controlling residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle are still largely unknown. Here we performed whole transcriptome analyses to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and their functional roles in liver tissues between six extreme high and six extreme low RFI steers from three beef breed populations including Angus, Charolais, and Kinsella Composite (KC). On average, the next generation sequencing yielded 34 million single-end reads per sample, of which 87% were uniquely mapped to the bovine reference genome...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739849/a-novel-inhibitor-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-stimulates-myocardial-carbohydrate-oxidation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Cheng-Yang Wu, Santhosh Satapati, Wenjun Gui, Richard M Wynn, Gaurav Sharma, Mingliang Lou, Xiangbing Qi, Shawn C Burgess, Craig Malloy, Chalermchai Khemtong, A Dean Sherry, David Chuang, Matthew E Merritt
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a key control point of energy metabolism and is subject to regulation by multiple mechanisms, including post-translational phosphorylation by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Pharmacological modulation of PDC activity could provide a new treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy, as dysregulated substrate selection is concomitant with decreased heart function. Dichloroacetate (DCA), a classic PDK inhibitor, has been used to treat diabetic cardiomyopathy, but the lack of specificity and side effects of DCA indicate a more specific inhibitor of PDK is needed...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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