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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144836/autophagy-and-inflammation
#1
Yu Matsuzawa-Ishimoto, Seungmin Hwang, Ken Cadwell
The cellular degradative pathway of autophagy has a fundamental role in immunity. Here, we review the function of autophagy and autophagy proteins in inflammation. We discuss how the autophagy machinery controls the burden of infectious agents while simultaneously limiting inflammatory pathologies, which often involves processes that are distinct from conventional autophagy. Among the newly emerging processes we describe are LC3-associated phagocytosis and targeting by autophagy proteins, both of which require many of the same proteins that mediate conventional autophagy...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103907/myeloid-atg16l1-does-not-affect-adipose-tissue-inflammation-or-body-mass-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diet
#2
Evelyn M S Litwinoff, Merav Y Gold, Karan Singh, Jiyuan Hu, Huilin Li, Ken Cadwell, Ann Marie Schmidt
BACKGROUND: An influx of lipid-loaded macrophages characterizes visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation, which is an important factor in the development of insulin resistance (IR) in obesity. Depletion of macrophage lipids accompanies increased whole body insulin sensitivity, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Deficiency of autophagy protein ATG16L1 is associated with increases in inflammatory diseases and lipid metabolism, but the connection between ATG16L1, IR, and obesity remains elusive...
November 2, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089374/autophagy-protein-atg16l1-prevents-necroptosis-in-the-intestinal-epithelium
#3
Yu Matsuzawa-Ishimoto, Yusuke Shono, Luis E Gomez, Vanessa M Hubbard-Lucey, Michael Cammer, Jessica Neil, M Zahidunnabi Dewan, Sophia R Lieberman, Amina Lazrak, Jill M Marinis, Allison Beal, Philip A Harris, John Bertin, Chen Liu, Yi Ding, Marcel R M van den Brink, Ken Cadwell
A variant of the autophagy gene ATG16L1 is associated with Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and poor survival in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We demonstrate that ATG16L1 in the intestinal epithelium is essential for preventing loss of Paneth cells and exaggerated cell death in animal models of virally triggered IBD and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Intestinal organoids lacking ATG16L1 reproduced this loss in Paneth cells and displayed TNFα-mediated necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979151/current-recommendations-on-the-estimation-of-transition-probabilities-in-markov-cohort-models-for-use-in-health-care-decision-making-a-targeted-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Elena Olariu, Kevin K Cadwell, Elizabeth Hancock, David Trueman, Helene Chevrou-Severac
OBJECTIVE: Although Markov cohort models represent one of the most common forms of decision-analytic models used in health care decision-making, correct implementation of such models requires reliable estimation of transition probabilities. This study sought to identify consensus statements or guidelines that detail how such transition probability matrices should be estimated. METHODS: A literature review was performed to identify relevant publications in the following databases: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894149/a-single-early-in-life-macrolide-course-has-lasting-effects-on-murine-microbial-network-topology-and-immunity
#5
Victoria E Ruiz, Thomas Battaglia, Zachary D Kurtz, Luc Bijnens, Amy Ou, Isak Engstrand, Xuhui Zheng, Tadasu Iizumi, Briana J Mullins, Christian L Müller, Ken Cadwell, Richard Bonneau, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Martin J Blaser
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently prescribed to children. Early childhood represents a dynamic period for the intestinal microbial ecosystem, which is readily shaped by environmental cues; antibiotic-induced disruption of this sensitive community may have long-lasting host consequences. Here we demonstrate that a single pulsed macrolide antibiotic treatment (PAT) course early in life is sufficient to lead to durable alterations to the murine intestinal microbiota, ileal gene expression, specific intestinal T-cell populations, and secretory IgA expression...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821240/avbd1-nucleotide-polymorphisms-peptide-antimicrobial-activities-and-microbial-colonisation-of-the-broiler-chicken-gut
#6
Kevin Cadwell, Sherko S Niranji, Vanessa L Armstrong, Catherine A Mowbray, Richard Bailey, Kellie A Watson, Judith Hall
BACKGROUND: The importance of poultry as a global source of protein underpins the chicken genome and associated SNP data as key tools in selecting and breeding healthy robust birds with improved disease resistance. SNPs affecting host peptides involved in the innate defences tend to be rare, but three non-synonymous SNPs in the avian β-defensin (AvBD1) gene encoding the variant peptides NYH, SSY and NYY were identified that segregated specifically to three lines of commercial broiler chickens Line X (LX), Line Y(LY) and Line Z...
August 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714476/modulation-of-nongenomic-activation-of-pi3k-signalling-by-tetramerization-of-n-terminally-cleaved-rxr%C3%AE
#7
Liqun Chen, Alexander E Aleshin, Gulimiran Alitongbieke, Yuqi Zhou, Xindao Zhang, Xiaohong Ye, Mengjie Hu, Gaoang Ren, Ziwen Chen, Yue Ma, Duo Zhang, Shuai Liu, Weiwei Gao, Lijun Cai, Lingjuan Wu, Zhiping Zeng, Fuquan Jiang, Jie Liu, Hu Zhou, Gregory Cadwell, Robert C Liddington, Ying Su, Xiao-Kun Zhang
Retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRα) binds to DNA either as homodimers or heterodimers, but it also forms homotetramers whose function is poorly defined. We previously discovered that an N-terminally-cleaved form of RXRα (tRXRα), produced in tumour cells, activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling by binding to the p85α subunit of PI3K and that K-80003, an anti-cancer agent, inhibits this process. Here, we report through crystallographic and biochemical studies that K-80003 binds to and stabilizes tRXRα tetramers via a 'three-pronged' combination of canonical and non-canonical mechanisms...
July 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679385/q-a-using-patch-seq-to-profile-single-cells
#8
Cathryn R Cadwell, Rickard Sandberg, Xiaolong Jiang, Andreas S Tolias
Individual neurons vary widely in terms of their gene expression, morphology, and electrophysiological properties. While many techniques exist to study single-cell variability along one or two of these dimensions, very few techniques can assess all three features for a single cell. We recently developed Patch-seq, which combines whole-cell patch clamp recording with single-cell RNA-sequencing and immunohistochemistry to comprehensively profile the transcriptomic, morphologic, and physiologic features of individual neurons...
July 6, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593089/injury-incidence-dance-exposure-and-the-use-of-the-movement-competency-screen-mcs-to-identify-variables-associated-with-injury-in-full-time-pre-professional-dancers
#9
Linda Lee, Duncan Reid, Jill Cadwell, Priya Palmer
BACKGROUND/PURPOSES: Prospective studies utilizing standardized injury and exposure measures are needed to consolidate our knowledge of injury incidence and associated risk factors for musculoskeletal injury amongst pre-professional dancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the injury incidence amongst pre-professional dancers attending a fulltime training school in New Zealand. The secondary purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between dance exposure and injury risk, and the relationship between risk factors (specifically the MCS outcome scores) and injury risk...
June 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591190/statistical-methods-used-in-the-public-health-literature-and-implications-for-training-of-public-health-professionals
#10
Matthew J Hayat, Amanda Powell, Tessa Johnson, Betsy L Cadwell
Statistical literacy and knowledge is needed to read and understand the public health literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify basic and advanced statistical methods used in public health research. We randomly sampled 216 published articles from seven top tier general public health journals. Studies were reviewed by two readers and a standardized data collection form completed for each article. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency distributions. Results were summarized for statistical methods used in the literature, including descriptive and inferential statistics, modeling, advanced statistical techniques, and statistical software used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581446/tregs-restrain-dendritic-cell-autophagy-to-ameliorate-autoimmunity
#11
Themis Alissafi, Aggelos Banos, Louis Boon, Tim Sparwasser, Alessandra Ghigo, Kajsa Wing, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios Boumpas, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Ken Cadwell, Panayotis Verginis
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450029/call-for-improved-military-policy-to-support-breastfeeding-among-u-s-armed-forces
#12
Emily Drake, Karin Cadwell, Joan E Dodgson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346406/diabetes-reversal-by-inhibition-of-the-low-molecular-weight-tyrosine-phosphatase
#13
Stephanie M Stanford, Alexander E Aleshin, Vida Zhang, Robert J Ardecky, Michael P Hedrick, Jiwen Zou, Santhi R Ganji, Matthew R Bliss, Fusayo Yamamoto, Andrey A Bobkov, Janna Kiselar, Yingge Liu, Gregory W Cadwell, Shilpi Khare, Jinghua Yu, Antonio Barquilla, Thomas D Y Chung, Tomas Mustelin, Simon Schenk, Laurie A Bankston, Robert C Liddington, Anthony B Pinkerton, Nunzio Bottini
Obesity-associated insulin resistance plays a central role in type 2 diabetes. As such, tyrosine phosphatases that dephosphorylate the insulin receptor (IR) are potential therapeutic targets. The low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) is a proposed IR phosphatase, yet its role in insulin signaling in vivo has not been defined. Here we show that global and liver-specific LMPTP deletion protects mice from high-fat diet-induced diabetes without affecting body weight. To examine the role of the catalytic activity of LMPTP, we developed a small-molecule inhibitor with a novel uncompetitive mechanism, a unique binding site at the opening of the catalytic pocket, and an exquisite selectivity over other phosphatases...
June 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971100/evolutions-in-the-peer-review-publication-landscape-and-their-implications-for-systematic-literature-reviews
#14
E Adkins, K Cadwell, N Pooley, D Fox, D Floyd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27970677/making-sense-of-clinical-data-reported-in-secondary-conditions-the-epidemiology-and-clinical-burden-of-hyperglycaemia
#15
K Cadwell, N Pooley, E Olariu, G Jones, C Papageorgakopoulou, D Fox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27970560/recommendations-for-the-calculation-of-transition-probabilities-in-markov-cohort-models-a-targeted-literature-review
#16
E Olariu, K Cadwell, D Fox, E Hancock, D Trueman, M Ratcliffe, R Grieve, H Chevrou-Severac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798235/p120-catenin-regulates-ve-cadherin-endocytosis-and-degradation-induced-by-the-kaposi-sarcoma-associated-ubiquitin-ligase-k5
#17
Benjamin A Nanes, Cynthia M Grimsley-Myers, Chantel M Cadwell, Brian S Robinson, Anthony M Lowery, Peter A Vincent, Marina Mosunjac, Klaus Früh, Andrew P Kowalczyk
Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin undergoes constitutive internalization driven by a unique endocytic motif that also serves as a p120-catenin (p120) binding site. p120 binding masks the motif, stabilizing the cadherin at cell junctions. This mechanism allows constitutive VE-cadherin endocytosis and recycling to contribute to adherens junction dynamics without resulting in junction disassembly. Here we identify an additional motif that drives VE-cadherin endocytosis and pathological junction disassembly associated with the endothelial-derived tumor Kaposi sarcoma...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782139/antibiotic-mediated-gut-microbiome-perturbation-accelerates-development-of-type-1-diabetes-in-mice
#18
Alexandra E Livanos, Thomas U Greiner, Pajau Vangay, Wimal Pathmasiri, Delisha Stewart, Susan McRitchie, Huilin Li, Jennifer Chung, Jiho Sohn, Sara Kim, Zhan Gao, Cecily Barber, Joanne Kim, Sandy Ng, Arlin B Rogers, Susan Sumner, Xue-Song Zhang, Ken Cadwell, Dan Knights, Alexander Alekseyenko, Fredrik Bäckhed, Martin J Blaser
The early life microbiome plays important roles in host immunological and metabolic development. Because the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing substantially in recent decades, we hypothesized that early-life antibiotic use alters gut microbiota, which predisposes to disease. Using non-obese diabetic mice that are genetically susceptible to T1D, we examined the effects of exposure to either continuous low-dose antibiotics or pulsed therapeutic antibiotics (PAT) early in life, mimicking childhood exposures...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694913/crosstalk-between-autophagy-and-inflammatory-signalling-pathways-balancing-defence-and-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Ken Cadwell
Autophagy has broad functions in immunity, ranging from cell-autonomous defence to coordination of complex multicellular immune responses. The successful resolution of infection and avoidance of autoimmunity necessitates efficient and timely communication between autophagy and pathways that sense the immune environment. The recent literature indicates that a variety of immune mediators induce or repress autophagy. It is also becoming increasingly clear that immune signalling cascades are subject to regulation by autophagy, and that a return to homeostasis following a robust immune response is critically dependent on this pathway...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624909/cadherin-tales-regulation-of-cadherin-function-by-endocytic-membrane-trafficking
#20
REVIEW
Chantel M Cadwell, Wenji Su, Andrew P Kowalczyk
Cadherins are the primary adhesion molecules in adherens junctions and desmosomes and play essential roles in embryonic development. Although significant progress has been made in understanding cadherin structure and function, we lack a clear vision of how cells confer plasticity upon adhesive junctions to allow for cellular rearrangements during development, wound healing and metastasis. Endocytic membrane trafficking has emerged as a fundamental mechanism by which cells confer a dynamic state to adhesive junctions...
December 2016: Traffic
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