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embryology alveolar bone

J Ferri, G Raoul, J Potier, R Nicot
The mandibular condyle is a special structure. Its embryology and physiology provide to the TMJ a particular behavior that explains the occurrence of specific diseases. Condyle hyperplasia is one of these disorders. It can be explained by a dysregulation of the prechondroblast cell layer within the cartilage cap providing an increase in volume first of the condyle, then of the ramus and finally of the entire affected hemiface. Mandible deformation affects the basal bone, leading to dento-alveolar deformations related to compensation attempts...
September 2016: Revue de Stomatologie, de Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale et de Chirurgie Orale
Oliver Hampe, Helena Franke, Christy A Hipsley, Nikolay Kardjilov, Johannes Müller
Being descendants of small terrestrial ungulate mammals, whales underwent enormous transformations during their evolutionary history, that is, extensive changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior were evolved during secondary adaptations to life in water. However, still only little is known about whale ontogenetic development, which help to identify the timing and sequence of critical evolutionary events, such as modification of the cetacean ear. This is particularly true for baleen whales (Mysticeti), the group including the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae...
May 2015: Journal of Morphology
Stefano Eramo, Domenico Delfino, Matteo Confaloni, Carlo De Carolis
"In the year 1562, having noticed that none of the ancient or modern physicians had treated the subject of dental care, I wrote this first book on the teeth". So begins the preface to the five books of the Opuscula medica senilia by Girolamo Cardano, the first organic text on dentistry in history. It competed with the famous Libellus de dentibus by Bartolomeo Eustachio that appeared in 1563 (but was written in 1562). However, our intention is not to establish precedence but bring to reader's attention Cardano's work that complemented Eustachio's anatomy and physiology of the teeth with their pathology and therapy...
2014: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Erika Cvetko
The inferior alveolar nerve block is one of the most common techniques for delivering dental anesthesia. Its success depends on placing the needle tip in close proximity to the mandibular foramen (MF). In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Anatomical variability may be one source of local anesthetic failure and includes bone and nerve variations. A case is presented of a bilateral anomalous high position of the MF, identified from the panoramic radiograph...
August 2014: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Eduardo Moreschi, Claudia Cristina Biguetti, Eliston Comparim, Leandro De Andrade Holgado, Paulo Domingos Ribeiro-Junior, Hugo Nary-Filho, Mariza Akemi Matsumoto
Success of alveolar reconstructions using onlay autogenous block bone grafts depends on their adequate integration to the recipient bed influenced by a number of local molecules. Considering the fundamental role of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in bone repair, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of its inhibition in the integration of endochondral (EC) iliac crest, and intramembranous (IM) calvaria bone grafts. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into 4 groups: Calvaria Control (CC) and Iliac Control--treated with oral 0...
December 2013: Journal of Molecular Histology
Dúcz András, Huszar Tamás, Németh Zsolt, Bogdán Sándor
With the spread of endosteal implants bone grafting has become frequently used procedure in the area of the jaws, primarily for the augmentation of the alveolar process and the sinus maxillaris. Although various assortments of bone replacement materials are available nowadays, autologous bone graft still remains the 'gold standard'. Autologous bone depending on the required quantity for the procedure can be harvested from intra- or extraoral sources. The properties and quality of bone grafts depend on the structure (cortical or/and spongious), the embryological origin (endochondral or membranous) and the donor site (extra- or intraoral)...
September 2012: Fogorvosi Szemle
Nanda Kishore Sahoo, Mohan Rangan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applications, graft uptake, and complications of split-thickness calvarial graft for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects.This retrospective study included 26 patients with craniofacial defects treated between January 2008 and December 2009. This included 17 male and 09 female patients between 9 and 45 years. Depending on the treatment provided, the patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 included 11 patients with cranial defect operated on for cranioplasty...
July 2012: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Caroline Bataille, Cédric Mauprivez, Eric Haÿ, Brigitte Baroukh, Adrian Brun, Catherine Chaussain, Pierre J Marie, Jean-Louis Saffar, Marc Cherruau
Bone remodeling, the mechanism that modulates bone mass adaptation, is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system through the catecholaminergic pathway. However, resorption in the mandible periosteum envelope is associated with cholinergic Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)-positive nerve fibers sensitive to sympathetic neurotoxics, suggesting that different sympathetic pathways may control distinct bone envelopes. In this study, we assessed the role of distinct sympathetic pathways on rat femur and mandible envelopes...
May 2012: Bone
Ma'amon A Rawashdeh, Hani Telfah
Fresh autogenous cancellous bone is ideal for secondary alveolar cleft bone grafting because it supplies living, immunocompatible bony cells that integrate fully with the maxilla and are essential for osteogenesis. Recent animal studies have shown that the dynamics of cancellous inlay bone grafts are different from those of cortical onlay bone grafts, and they refute the assumption that membranous bone grafts are superior to endochondral bone grafts because of their embryological origin. These studies prove that inlay endochondral cancellous specimens have a higher percentage increase in actual bony volume than cortical membranous and cortical endochondral inlay bone grafts...
December 2008: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
F Ide, K Mishima, H Yamada, N Horie, I Saito, T Shimoyama, K Kusama
BACKGROUND: Intraosseous ameloblastoma (IA) is the quintessence of epithelial odontogenic tumor and histologically and behaviorally defined as an undoubted neoplastic process. Current information must lead to the consensus that IA arises from the embryologic inclusions of odontogenic epithelium within the jawbone. Nevertheless, clinically oriented evidence is limited to this day. METHODS: The clinical and radiographic features, behavior, and pathology of 14 cases of small IA confined to the alveolar region were systematically examined...
April 2008: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Anestis Mavropoulos, René Rizzoli, Patrick Ammann
UNLABELLED: Mandibular and systemic bone loss are poorly associated. We compared the effect of isocaloric protein undernutrition and/or ovariectomy on BMD and microstructure of mandibular alveolar and proximal tibia sites in adult rats. Mandibular bone was significantly less affected. INTRODUCTION: Whether mandibular bone and axial or peripheral skeleton respond similarly to systemic bone loss remains a subject of controversy. We have previously shown that mechanical loading during mastication influences bone mass and architecture of the mandibular alveolar bone...
March 2007: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Marina L Sardi, Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi
It is generally accepted that different cranial regions do not follow the same growth pattern. In this study, size changes of the functional cranial components (FCCs) in 228 human skulls of age at death between 0 and 20 years were evaluated. The skull is considered as divided into anteroneural, midneural, posteroneural, otic, optic, respiratory, masticatory and alveolar FCCs. Age-related changes of FCCs were assessed by fitting curves with the smoothing spline method, and quantifying the proportional increments at different stages...
May 2005: Annals of Human Biology
Michael Knecht, Thomas Kittner, Thomas Beleites, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Thomas Hummel, Martin Witt
In several mammals, a direct connection between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity is a common finding. The structure is named the nasopalatine duct (NPD). It has been hypothesized to be functional in terms of transportation of odorants from the oral cavity to the nasal cavity. In humans, the NPD exists during embryological development. The connection between the nasopalatine infundibulum and the incisive fossa is typically closed at the time of birth. We present the case of a 24-year-old man who presented with a persistent NPD...
March 2005: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
A A van Kempen, F A Nabben, B C Hamel
We report a child with right-sided heminasal aplasia in combination with anomalies of the right eye and maxilla. Unilateral aplasia of the nose is a rare congenital malformation. It is often associated with other malformations of the facial region, including abnormalities of the eye and lacrimal system, proboscis lateralis, and facial bone malformations. The eye anomalies in our patient consisted of microphthalmia with blepharophimosis and coloboma of the iris, retina and upper eyelid. Also hypoplasia of the lacrimal apparatus and right maxilla, and a rudimentary alveolar cleft on the same side were present...
April 1997: Clinical Dysmorphology
C A Oostrom, C Vermeij-Keers, P M Gilbert, J C van der Meulen
Median clefts of the lower lip and mandible are rare. In the literature so far, about 62 cases have been described. In addition, three more patients are presented here. These cases show a broad variation in the severity of this deformity, ranging from a simple notch in the vermillion to a complete cleft of the lip involving the tongue, the chin, the mandible, the supporting structures of the median of the neck, and the manubrium sterni. Several hypotheses concerning the pathogenesis of median clefts of the lip and mandible have been proposed...
February 1996: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
R Koole
Bone grafting the alveolar cleft in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients is widely accepted. A traditional graft is the iliac crest. Other bone graft donor sites are briefly discussed. The ratio for an ectomesenchymal bone graft in alveolar cleft repair is explained. Aspects of the embryology, bone graft physiology, and reports on mandibular symphysis bone grafting are discussed.
May 1994: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
B Sejrsen, I Kjaer, J Jakobsen
A paleopathological maxilla and mandible with tooth agenesis were analyzed, focussing on the aetiology of the condition. The jaw material, derived from an adult mediaeval male, was examined by standard anthropological analyses, including radiography. In the maxilla there was agenesis of three permanent incisors and one premolar, and in the mandible of one permanent incisor and two permanent molars. Absence or marked reduction of the incisive foramen and the nasopalatine canal was found. The premaxillary area was reduced without general alveolar bone resorption...
April 1995: European Journal of Oral Sciences
W P Smith, A F Markus, J Delaire
The growth and development of the premaxilla in both normal and cleft lip and palate subjects is described and its relevance in surgery of the cleft alveolus discussed. Embryologically, the cleft alveolus results from failure of fusion of the median nasal and maxillary processes. Consequently, ossification centres in the premaxilla and maxilla cannot migrate and unite such that normal growth and development in the territory of the premaxillary-maxillary suture cannot occur. Functional repair of the cleft lip and soft palate encourages spontaneous alignment of the alveolar segments, facilitating the introduction of vascularized periosteum across the bony defect by gingivoperiosteoplasty...
June 1995: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
J H Schwartz
Study of perinatal individuals from 7-4th c. B.C. Punic Carthage and specimens from more recent sources elucidates: 1. variability in the formation of the infraorbital foramen; 2. the nature of, and variability in, the expression of the incisive suture. With regard to the latter, and in conjunction with data on the embryological formation of the upper jaw and dentition, the following generalization appears warranted in Homo sapiens. The incisors and canine may come to erupt in the alveolar bone associated with the premaxillary region...
1982: Anatomischer Anzeiger
G S LaTrenta, J G McCarthy, A S Breitbart, M May, H A Sissons
The type of fixation (rigid skeletal vs. wire) was assessed against embryologic origin (membranous vs. endochondral) and recipient site (depository vs. resorptive) as variables affecting inlay and onlay bone-graft survival in 20 mature dogs. Wet weight and volume measurements were made at operation and at sacrifice (16 weeks). The results were as follows: (1) Rigid skeletal fixation increased bone-graft volume survival over wire fixation (p less than 0.05). (2) Fixation (i.e., rigid skeletal) and embryologic origin (i...
October 1989: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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