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Emg, nerve,

Jessica E Steele, Ian R Woodcock, Adrian D Murphy, Monique M Ryan, Tony J Penington, Christopher J Coombs
INTRODUCTION: Masticatory muscles or their nerve supply are options for facial reanimation surgery, but their ability to create spontaneous smile has been questioned. This study assessed the percentage of healthy adults who activate the temporalis and masseter muscles during voluntary and spontaneous smile. METHODS: Healthy volunteer adults underwent electromyography (EMG) studies of the temporalis and masseter muscles during voluntary and spontaneous smile. Responses were repeated three times and recorded as negative, weakly positive, or strongly positive according to the activity observed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Moniek A M Munneke, Chantal D Bakker, Eline A Goverde, Jaco W Pasman, Dick F Stegeman
After stroke, motor pathways are often affected, leading to paresis. It remains difficult to reliably predict motor recovery of the upper extremity, for which transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may add to clinical examination. Placement of the surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes in TMS is essential for information about specific muscle groups and corticospinal pathways. This study primarily aimed to determine the optimal sEMG electrode positions for recording activity of forearm flexor and extensor muscles...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Ida K Fox, Christine B Novak, Emily M Krauss, Gwendolyn M Hoben, Craig Zaidman, Rimma Ruvinskaya, Neringa Juknis, Anke C Winter, Susan E Mackinnon
BACKGROUND: Nerve transfer surgery to restore upper extremity (UE) function in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is novel and may transform treatment. Determining candidacy even years post-SCI is ill-defined and deserves investigation. OBJECTIVE: To develop a diagnostic algorithm, focusing on electrodiagnostic studies (EDX), to determine eligibility for nerve transfer surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive case series SETTING: Tertiary university-based institution PATIENTS: Individuals with cervical SCI (n = 45) METHODS: The electronic medical records of people referred to the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery UE Surgery in SCI clinic from 2010-2015 were reviewed...
March 15, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Magdalena Lachowska, Paulina Glinka, Kazimierz Niemczyk
BACKGROUND: Air-conducted and skull-tap cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (AC-cVEMP and Tap-cVEMP) have been shown to be very promising tools in clinical practice. They are noninvasive, easy to obtain and - importantly - they require little time and the cost of the instruments is low. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the combined use of ACand Tap-cVEMPs as a diagnostic tool for advanced assessment of vestibular schwannoma in determining tumor origin, and to investigate whether the results are helpful for a surgeon as an additional source of information about the tumor before surgery...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Xiaoli Liu, Daqi Zhang, Guang Zhang, Lina Zhao, Le Zhou, Yantao Fu, Shijie Li, Yishen Zhao, Changlin Li, Che-Wei Wu, Feng-Yu Chiang, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Hui Sun
AIM: We assess the prevalence and mechanism of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury in central neck dissection (CND) for thyroid cancer. METHODS: CND with intraoperative neural monitoring was outlined in 1.273 nerves at risk (NAR). RLN lesions were stratified according to: timing (during thyroidectomy versus CND), segmental vs. diffuse injury, mechanism, severity, location, number of lymph nodes dissected and metastastatic. EMG parameters were recorded. RESULTS: 49/1...
January 31, 2018: Surgical Oncology
Lu-Mei Chi, Yu Gao, Guang-Xian Nan
RATIONALE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) represent recurrent autoimmune diseases, generally beginning with optic nerve neuritis or acute transverse myelitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male with long-term alcohol intake was hospitalized because of limb numbness. EMG examination showed the peripheral sensory nerve was in demyelination and an axonal injury was found. His symptoms could not be improved by vitamin B injection but were later significantly attenuated by dexamethasone treatment...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shmuel Springer, Zvi Kozol, Zvi Reznic
The aim of this study was to test the effects of kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) surface stimulation applied to the ulnar nerve on force and myoelectrical activity of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle. Eighteen healthy volunteers (age: 27.6 ± 7.9 years; 10 males, 8 females) were included in the study. Each subject participated in one session during which a biphasic 7 kHz rectangular pulse was delivered above the medial epicondyle of the humerus to induce ulnar nerve blocking. ADM electromyographic (EMG) activity and contraction force were measured before (Pre), immediately after, and following 5 and 10 min post stimulation (post 1, post 2)...
March 8, 2018: Artificial Organs
Rola A Mahmoud, Charles K Abrams
Peripheral neurological complications of lymphomas are rare and much less frequent than central complications. Nonetheless, on occasion, systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may directly infiltrate the peripheral nervous system at various levels. This report describes a man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leptomeningeal disease who developed progressive areflexic quadraparesis. Initial electromyography (EMG) was consistent with a polyradiculopathy and a repeat EMG performed 1 month later for worsening symptoms showed evidence of demyelination...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Michael R Riley, Adam T Doan, Richard W Vogel, Alexander O Aguirre, Kayla S Pieri, Edward H Scheid
Background Context Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has gained rather wide-spread acceptance as a method to mitigate risk to the lumbar plexus during Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LLIF) surgery. The most common approach to IONM involves using only electromyography (EMG) monitoring, and the rate of postoperative deficit remains unacceptably high. Other test modalities, such as transcranial electric motor-evoked potentials (tcMEPs) and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs), may be more suitable for monitoring neural integrity but they have not been widely adopted during LLIF...
March 2, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Yun Wang, Lan-Fang Yu, Meng-Ya Wang
To observe the plasticity changes of trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5) and masseter H-reflex in unilateral mastication model rats and explore the possible mechanism of functional plasticity in motor center involved in unilateral mastication, 54 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 1-month (n = 10), 3-month (n = 10), and 16-month (n = 7) model groups and their corresponding control groups, respectively. Unilateral mastication model rats were prepared by intermittent removal of clinical crowns of left teeth (model side)...
February 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Emad Kandil, Khuzema Mohsin, Mohammad A Murcy, Gregory W Randolph
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (CIONM) of the vagus nerve was proposed to obtained frequent repetitive electromyography (EMG) data to recognize early change in intraoperative function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We examine our initial experience using this technology. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: Data for all patients who underwent neck surgery by a single surgeon at a North American institution over a 5-year period were reviewed...
February 26, 2018: Laryngoscope
Özlenen Özkan, Ömer Özkan, Anı Çinpolat, Mehmet Can Ubur, Gamze Bektaş, Adil Jumshudov, Hilmi Uysal
BACKGROUND: The repair of extensive lower lip defects is difficult due to the presence of both functional and esthetic requirements. This report describes functional lip repair using the partial latissimus dorsi free flap without nerve coaptation. METHODS: Reconstruction of the lower lip due to subtotal and total tissue defects was performed using latissimus dorsi free flap on twelve patients, between 2013 and 2017. The etiology was squamous cell carcinoma in six patients, malignant melanoma in one, firearm injury in three and microstomia in two...
February 23, 2018: Microsurgery
Sumit Verma, Parul Goyal, Lokesh Guglani, Charlotte Peinhardt, Diane Pelzek, Paul E Barkhaus
OBJECTIVES: COL6A and LAMA2 are subtypes of congenital muscular dystrophy. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of clinical findings, spirometry, muscle histology, muscle ultrasound, neuroimaging, and Electromyography (EMG)/Nerve Conduction Study data in genetically confirmed COL6A and LAMA2 subjects. RESULTS: We identified 8 COL6A and 6 LAMA2 subjects: the female-to-male ratio was 1.3:1 and the mean age was 11.9 ± 3.6 years. Gross motor delays since birth, proximal muscle weakness, and contractures were noted in both groups...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Simona D Marino, Laura Schiavone, Flavia M C La Mendola, Tiziana Timpanaro, Maria Elena Cucuzza, Filippo Greco, Pierluigi Smilari, Agata Fiumara, Andrea Domenico Praticò
Unilateral palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is a rare complication of orthodontic procedures. The main reported causes of HNP are: orthopedic and otorhinolaryngology surgical interventions, and in particular maneuvers involving compression or overstretching of the hypoglossal nerve, dental procedures and traumas, and also infections, motoneuron disorders, tumors, vascular diseases. Diagnosis is usually performed by electrophysiology studies (EMG-VCN), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to exclude other causes...
February 6, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Maria Anna Hulens, Wim Dankaerts, Ricky Rasschaert, Frans Bruyninckx, Marie-Laure Willaert, Charlotte Vereecke, Greet Vansant
BACKGROUND: Tarlov cysts (TCs) are expanded nerve root sheaths that occur near the dorsal root ganglion and result from increased intraspinal hydrostatic pressure. TCs most frequently affect the lumbosacral plexus and therefore may cause specific symptoms such as perineal pain and neurogenic bladder, bowel, and sphincter problems. It has been estimated that 1% of the population has symptomatic Tarlov cysts (STCs). However, STCs appear to be underdiagnosed, with the pain reported by patients commonly attributed to degenerative alterations seen on MRI...
February 17, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Philip P Vu, Zachary T Irwin, Autumn J Bullard, Shoshana W Ambani, Ian C Sando, Melanie G Urbanchek, Paul S Cederna, Cynthia A Chestek
Loss of the upper limb imposes a devastating interruption to everyday life. Full restoration of natural arm control requires the ability to simultaneously control multiple degrees of freedom of the prosthetic arm and maintain that control over an extended period of time. Current clinically available myoelectric prostheses do not provide simultaneous control or consistency for transradial amputees. To address this issue, we have implemented a standard Kalman filter for continuous hand control using intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from both regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNI) and an intact muscle within non-human primates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Francis Renault, Roberto Flores-Guevara, Bernard Sergent, Jean Jacques Baudon, Jessie Aouizerate, Marie-Paule Vazquez, Cyril Gitiaux
INTRODUCTION: We designed a retrospective study of 59 patients with congenital sporadic non-progressive bilateral facial and abducens palsies. METHODS: Examinations included needle EMG of facial and oral muscles, facial nerve motor latency and conduction velocity (FNCV), and blink responses (BRs). RESULTS: Neurogenic EMG changes were found in one or more muscles in 55/59 patients, with no abnormal spontaneous activity. EMG changes were homogeneously neurogenic in 17 patients, homogeneously myopathic in one, and heterogeneous in 41/59 patients...
February 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
O Lara-García, M Lara-García, D Perez-Hernandez, E Cuevas, M Martínez-Gómez, P Pacheco
Evoked EMG reflex activity from the pubococcygeus muscle of female Wistar rats has been reported, but has not been carefully analyzed. Here, we studied this reflex activity through mechanical stimulation of the clitoris, perigenital skin, caudal vagina and foot, all of which produced bilateral reflex multiunit electromyographic (MEMG) tonic "on" activity and displayed a rapid adaptation. However, deep vagina and cervical stimulation did not modify MEMG baseline activity even if it was combined with clitoris, perigenital skin and foot stimulation...
January 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Unai García de Cortázar, Sabino Padilla, Enrique Lobato, Diego Delgado, Mikel Sánchez
The radial nerve is the most frequently injured nerve in the upper extremity. Numerous options in treatment have been described for radial nerve injury, such as neurolysis, nerve grafts, or tendon transfers. Currently, new treatment options are arising, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), an autologous product with proved therapeutic effect for various musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that this treatment is a promising alternative for this type of nerve pathology. The patient was a healthy 27-year-old man who suffered a deep and long cut in the distal anterolateral region of the right arm...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Takanori Tsujimura, Taku Suzuki, Midori Yoshihara, Shogo Sakai, Naomi Koshi, Hirokazu Ashiga, Naru Shiraishi, Kojun Tsuji, Jin Magara, Makoto Inoue
Swallowing pressure generation is important to ensure safe transport of an ingested bolus without aspiration or leaving residue in the pharynx. To clarify the mechanism, we measured swallowing pressure at the oropharynx (OP), upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and cervical esophagus (CE) using a specially designed manometric catheter in anesthetized rats. A swallow-evoked by punctate mechanical stimulation to the larynx-was identified by recording activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles using electromyography (EMG)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
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