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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218868/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-national-consensus-guideline-in-hungary-from-15-october-2016
#1
Gábor Horváth, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Judit Gervain, Gabriella Lengyel, Mihály Makara, Alajos Pár, László Rókusz, Ferenc Szalay, István Tornai, Klára Werling, Béla Hunyady
Diagnosis and treatment of HBV/HDV infection means for the patient to be able to maintain working capacity, to increase quality of life, to prevent cancer, and to prolong life expectancy, while society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms for 2017 set by a consensus meeting of physicians involved in the treatment of these diseases. The prevalence of HBV infection in the Hungarian general population is 0...
February 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208098/-don-t-think-i-m-going-to-leave-you-over-it-accounts-of-changing-hepatitis-c-status-among-couples-who-inject-drugs
#2
Jake Rance, Carla Treloar, Suzanne Fraser, Joanne Bryant, Tim Rhodes
BACKGROUND: While the health-related benefits of intimate partnership are well documented, little attention has been paid to couples exposed to high levels of social stigma and exclusion. In this project we investigated an important site of stigma for partnerships by collecting accounts of changing hepatitis C (HCV) status ("sero-change") among couples that inject drugs. We explored what these accounts reveal about the meaning of HCV for these couples, and how this understanding contributes to our collective efforts at prevention and care...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197805/economic-analysis-and-budget-impact-of-tenofovir-and-entecavir-in-the-first-line-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-italy
#3
M Ruggeri, M Basile, S Coretti, C Drago, A Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a common, progressive disease, particularly when viral replication is detected. Oral antivirals can suppress viral replication and prevent or delay the development of cirrhosis and liver-related complications. The treatments of chronic hepatitis B cannot totally cure the disease but can prevent its progression to hepatocellular carcinoma, decreasing the levels of both morbidity and mortality. To date, there are several therapies indicated by the international guidelines as first-line treatments for the management of hepatitis B; two of the most effective are those based on either tenofovir or entecavir...
February 14, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195035/pre-s2-mutant-induced-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signal-pathways-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Chiao-Fang Teng, Han-Chieh Wu, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Long-Bin Jeng, Ih-Jen Su
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pre-S2 mutant represents an HBV oncoprotein that is accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and manifests as type II ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs). Pre-S2 mutant can induce ER stress and initiate multiple ER stress-dependent or -independent cellular signal pathways, leading to growth advantage of type II GGH. Importantly, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathways are consistently activated throughout the liver tumorigenesis in pre-S2 mutant transgenic mice and in human HCC tissues, leading to hepatocyte proliferation, metabolic disorders, and HCC tumorigenesis...
February 14, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193102/identification-of-predictors-for-treatment-failure-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir
#5
Jeffrey W Jansen, Gillian M Powderly, Travis W Linneman
BACKGROUND: New hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies report cure rates of ~90% but are expensive. Identification of predictors for treatment failure could help decrease health care costs, limit unnecessary drug exposure and adverse events, and prevent drug-drug interactions. Failure to achieve rapid viral response (RVR), defined as detectable viral load at 4 weeks, has previously been identified as a predictor of treatment failure with some previous HCV therapies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate RVR, and other potential variables, as predictors of treatment failure in patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF)...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188612/hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-during-pregnancy-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#6
REVIEW
Ahizechukwu C Eke, George U Eleje, Uzoamaka A Eke, Yun Xia, Jiao Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis is a viral infection of the liver. It is mainly transmitted between people through contact with infected blood, frequently from mother to baby in-utero. Hepatitis B poses significant risk to the fetus and up to 85% of infants infected by their mothers at birth develop chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is a purified solution of human immunoglobulin that could be administered to the mother, newborn, or both. HBIG offers protection against HBV infection when administered to pregnant women who test positive for hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or both...
February 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182613/news-on-viral-hepatitis-in-hiv-update-from-the-2016-gehep-conference
#7
Eva Poveda, Massimo Puoti, Miguel García-Deltoro, Juan A Pineda, Francisco Téllez, Rafael Granados, Luis Morano, Federico García
The II Conference of the Group for the Study of Viral Hepatitis (GEHEP) (29 September-1 October, Spain) updated epidemiological, diagnostic and treatment aspects on viral hepatitis. The conference was mostly focused on the latest news related to HCV infection, including the successes achieved since the implementation of direct-acting antiviral agents for HCV therapy, but also in the new, future challenges for a real HCV eradication. The scenario for chronic HCV infection has dramatically changed in the last two years and most patients have been cured after 12 weeks of therapy with minimal side effects...
January 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170421/comprehensive-mapping-of-antigen-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-with-or-without-spontaneous-viral-clearance
#8
Chao Zhang, Rui Hua, Yuanyuan Cui, Shasha Wang, Hongqing Yan, Dongmei Li, Yonghong Zhang, Zhengkun Tu, Pei Hao, Xinyue Chen, Jin Zhong, Junqi Niu, Xia Jin
Elucidating protective immunity against HCV is important for the development of a preventative vaccine. We hypothesize that spontaneous resolution of acute HCV infection offers clue to protective immune responses, and that DAA therapy affects the quality and quantity of HCV-specific T cell responses. To test these hypotheses, we performed T cell epitope mapping in 111 HCV-infected individuals including 61 chronically HCV-1b (CHC-1b) infected, 24 chronically HCV-2a (CHC-2a) infected and 26 spontaneously recovered (SPR) patients with 376 overlapping peptides covering the entire HCV polyprotein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157685/facial-actinomycosis-mimicking-a-cutaneous-tumor
#9
Adem Özkan, Adem Topkara, Ramazan Hakan Özcan
Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection that commonly occurs in the cervicofacial region. Although Actinomcyes is an element of the normal oral flora, infections of the facial skin are very rare because of the entirely endogenous habitation of the organism. The authors report a case of facial actinomycosis, which mimicked a cutaneous tumor both clinically and surgically in a 44-year-old woman with chronic renal failure and Hepatitis C viral infection. The majority of cases can be treated with long-term antibiotics...
January 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131494/immunomodulation-by-hyperimmunoglobulins-after-solid-organ-transplantation-beyond-prevention-of-viral-infection
#10
REVIEW
Rogier van Gent, Herold J Metselaar, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Hyperimmunoglobulins are pharmaceutical formulations of human IgG which contain high titers of antibodies against specific viruses. They have been successfully used in solid organ transplantation (SOT) to prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The introduction of effective and cheaper antiviral drugs has resulted in decreasing usage of hyperimmunoglobulins in SOT. However, it may still be attractive to combine antiviral drug therapy with hyperimmunoglobulins after SOT, as there is some evidence that hyperimmunoglobulins, similar to high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs), might exert anti-inflammatory activity and thereby prevent immunological graft damage and improve graft and patient survival...
January 19, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127942/prevention-of-allograft-hcv-recurrence-with-peri-transplant-human-monoclonal-antibody-mbl-hcv1-combined-with-a-single-oral-direct-acting-antiviral-a-proof-of-concept-study
#11
H L Smith, R T Chung, P Mantry, W Chapman, M P Curry, T D Schiano, E Boucher, P Cheslock, Y Wang, D C Molrine
Patients with active hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at transplantation experience rapid allograft infection, increased risk of graft failure and accelerated fibrosis. MBL-HCV1, a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the HCV envelope, was combined with a licensed oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) to prevent HCV recurrence post-transplant in an open-label exploratory efficacy trial. Eight subjects received MBL-HCV1 beginning on the day of transplant with telaprevir initiated between days 3 and 7 post-transplantation...
March 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121714/hepatitis-delta-and-hiv-infection
#12
Vincent Soriano, Kenneth E Sherman, Pablo Barreiro
Viral liver diseases are frequent co-morbidities and major contributors to death in HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Whereas cure of hepatitis C and control of hepatitis B with antivirals avert liver disease progression in most HIV-coinfected patients, the lack of satisfactory treatment for hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection remains a major threat for developing cirrhosis and liver cancer in this population. In the European Union and North America, sexual contact has replaced injection drug use has major transmission route for HDV in HIV-positive persons...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087399/advances-with-using-crispr-cas-mediated-gene-editing-to-treat-infections-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus
#13
REVIEW
Buhle Moyo, Kristie Bloom, Tristan Scott, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infections with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) account for the majority of cases of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapies for the infections have limitations and improved efficacy is necessary to prevent complications in carriers of the viruses. In the case of HBV persistence, the replication intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is particularly problematic. Licensed therapies have little effect on cccDNA and HBV replication relapses following treatment withdrawal...
January 10, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081594/management-of-direct-antiviral-agent-failures
#14
REVIEW
María Buti, Rafael Esteban
The current standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Most HCV patients treated with these drugs achieve viral elimination, but 1% to 15% fail to attain this objective. Treatment failures are usually related to relapse, and less often to on-treatment viral breakthrough. HCV drug resistant associated substitutions are detected in most patients who do not eliminate the virus. The risk of developing these variants depends on host- and virus-related factors, the properties of the drugs used, and the treatment strategies applied...
December 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073406/-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#15
H Zhuang
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is a major mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission, especially in high endemic areas. Administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine to infants at birth, followed by completion of the vaccine series, prevented approximately 95% of HBV transmission from HBsAg-positive mothers to their infants. However, immunoprophylaxis failure was still observed in 5~10% infants born to mothers with high levels of viremia. It was demonstrated that antiviral nucleot(s)ide analogues (NUCs) provided to pregnant women with high viral loads in late pregnancy further reduced MTCT...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060213/ursodeoxycholyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamide-protects-against-cd95-fas-induced-fulminant-hepatitis
#16
Tanyarath Utaipan, Ann-Christin Otto, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Warangkana Chunglok, Anita Pathil, Wolfgang Stremmel, Walee Chamulitrat
Increased activation of CD95/Fas by Fas ligand in viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is involved in pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis and liver failure. We designed a bile-acid phospholipid conjugate ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE with LPE containing oleate at the sn-1) as a hepatoprotectant that was shown to protect against fulminant hepatitis induced by endotoxin. We herein further assessed the ability of UDCA-LPE to prevent death receptor CD95/Fas-induced fulminant hepatitis. C57BL/6 mice were intravenously administered with CD95/Fas agonistic monoclonal antibody (Jo-2) with or without 1 h pretreatment with 50 mg/kg UDCA-LPE...
January 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052634/treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-2017
#17
REVIEW
Guo-Feng Chen, Cheng Wang, George Lau
Since the registration of the first effective nucleoside analogue against the hepatitis B virus almost two decades ago, major progress has been made in the management of chronic hepatitis B infection. However, hepatitis B-related morbidity and mortality remain a major global health threat. This is partly due to the escalating costs and the decrease in compliance related to the need for prolonged therapy for most patients who cannot be "cured". New biomarkers such as quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen might help to determine if hepatitis B e antigen negative patients can be taken off nucleos(t)ide analogues...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051792/management-strategies-for-liver-fibrosis
#18
Alejandra Altamirano-Barrera, Beatriz Barranco-Fragoso, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
Liver fibrosis resulting from chronic liver injury are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among causes of hepatic fibrosis, viral infection is most common (hepatitis B and C). In addition, obesity rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of liver injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Also liver fibrosis is associated with the consumption of alcohol, or autoimmune hepatitis and chronic cholangiophaties. The response of hepatocytes to inflammation plays a decisive role in the physiopathology of hepatic fibrosis, which involves the recruitment of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cells such as monocytes and macrophages...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029529/ledipasvir-plus-sofosbuvir-fixed-dose-combination-for-6-weeks-in-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-monoinfection-hepnet-acute-hcv-iv-an-open-label-single-arm-phase-2-study
#19
Katja Deterding, Christoph D Spinner, Eckart Schott, Tania M Welzel, Guido Gerken, Hartwig Klinker, Ulrich Spengler, Johannes Wiegand, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Anita Pathil, Markus Cornberg, Andreas Umgelter, Caroline Zöllner, Stefan Zeuzem, Armin Papkalla, Kristina Weber, Svenja Hardtke, Heiko von der Leyen, Armin Koch, Dorothee von Witzendorff, Michael P Manns, Heiner Wedemeyer
BACKGROUND: Early treatment of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with interferon alfa is highly effective, but can be associated with frequent side-effects. We investigated the safety and efficacy of an interferon-free regimen for treatment of acute HCV infection. METHODS: In this prospective, open-label, multicentre, single-arm pilot study, we enrolled adults (≥18 years) with acute HCV genotype 1 monoinfection from ten centres in Germany. Patients were given ledipasvir (90 mg) plus sofosbuvir (400 mg) as a fixed-dose combination tablet once daily for 6 weeks...
2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027590/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-occult-viral-carriers-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-prospective-study
#20
Wai-Kay Seto, Thomas Sau-Yan Chan, Yu-Yan Hwang, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, James Fung, Kevin Sze-Hang Liu, Harinder Gill, Yuk-Fai Lam, Eric H Y Lau, Ka-Shing Cheung, Albert K W Lie, Ching-Lung Lai, Yok-Lam Kwong, Man-Fung Yuen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have not been prospectively studied. HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc positive patients with undetectable HBV DNA undergoing allogeneic HSCT were prospectively monitored every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was HBV reactivation, defined as detectable HBV DNA (≥10 IU/mL). Secondary endpoints included overall survival, HBsAg-positivity, and changes in liver biochemistry and antibody to HBsAg levels...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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