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viral hepatitis prevention, treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642806/the-efficacy-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-green-tea-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-pre-clinical-studies-and-translational-perspectives-in-clinical-practice
#1
REVIEW
Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte, Maria Rosaria Muzio, Vincenzo Schiavone, Arturo Cuomo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia characterized by cognitive and memory impairment. One of the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of AD, is the oxidative stress being involved in AD's development and progression. In addition, several studies proved that chronic viral infections, mainly induced by Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2), and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could be responsible for AD's neuropathology...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641714/hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-porphyria-cutanea-tarda
#2
Ashwani K Singal, Krishna V R Venkata, Sarat Jampana, Fakhar-Ul Islam, Karl E Anderson
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common susceptibility factor for porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). Experience on HCV treatment in patients with PCT is limited. Recently, HCV treatment has improved with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). We review our experience on HCV treatment in patients with PCT with older and newer regimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted. HCV treatment was attempted 22 times in 13 patients with PCT (5 attempts in 1, 2 in 5 and 1 in the other 7 patients)...
June 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636622/inhibition-of-hepatitis-b-viral-entry-by-nucleic-acid-polymers-in-heparg-cells-and-primary-human-hepatocytes
#3
Clément Guillot, Nora Martel, Françoise Berby, Isabelle Bordes, Olivier Hantz, Matthieu Blanchet, Camille Sureau, Andrew Vaillant, Isabelle Chemin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health concern worldwide with 240 million individuals chronically infected and at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments rarely cure chronic hepatitis B infection, highlighting the need for new anti-HBV drugs. Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) are phosphorothioated oligonucleotides that have demonstrated a great potential to inhibit infection with several viruses. In chronically infected human patients, NAPs administration lead to a decline of blood HBsAg and HBV DNA and to HBsAg seroconversion, the expected signs of functional cure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598793/croi-2017-highlights-of-advances-in-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#4
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, Washington, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major focus in the context of HIV-associated liver disease. Well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have enabled effective treatment of the populations that are hardest to cure, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, and many studies examined the impact of HCV cure on hepatitis and extrahepatic outcomes. Scaling up access to DAA, and the impact that their universal availability can have on reducing prevalence were key topics...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582320/hepatitis-e-viral-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients
#5
Stanley Y Fang, Hyosun Han
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature published in the past 10 years with focus to the best literatures published since 2015 regarding chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients who received solid organ transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Diagnosis of this disease relies primarily on identification of HEV RNA in serum and more recently in stool as way of predicting relapse and guide therapy duration. Current management focuses primarily on primary prevention and supportive care, because additional research is needed to identify efficacious pharmacologic therapy, though use of ribavirin has shown promise in case series in treatment of some genotypes...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567168/nurses-knowledge-toward-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-in-guilan-iran
#6
Farahnaz Joukar, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Mohammad Reza Naghipour, Tolou Hasandokht
BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) represent high risk population for viral hepatitis infection. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the knowledge of HCWs regarding hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection. METHODS: In a multi-center cross sectional study, all HCWs from eight teaching hospitals were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1008 eligible HCWs have responded to the study...
2017: Open Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539842/a-review-of-antiviral-use-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women
#7
Ariel Jaffe, Robert S Brown
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains high even with the proper use of active-passive immunoprophylaxis in newborns. Mothers with significant viremia are at a much higher risk of MTCT; therefore, treatments aimed at lowering HBV DNA levels during pregnancy may ultimately decrease global disease burden. The exact threshold for treatment remains controversial; however, most studies have accepted levels greater than 2 × 5 log10 IU/mL as significant viremia. We reviewed the most recent literature on antiviral efficacy, maternal and fetal safety, and viral resistance patterns when used for short-duration therapy in pregnancy...
March 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534962/galectin%C3%A2-9-ameliorates-fulminant-liver-injury
#8
Tomoko Tadokoro, Asahiro Morishita, Teppei Sakamoto, Shintaro Fujihara, Koji Fujita, Shima Mimura, Kyoko Oura, Takako Nomura, Joji Tani, Hirohito Yoneyama, Hisakazu Iwama, Takashi Himoto, Toshiro Niki, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Tsutomu Masaki
Fulminant hepatitis is a severe liver disease resulting in hepatocyte necrosis. Galectin‑9 (Gal‑9) is a tandem‑repeat‑type galectin that has been evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases that regulate the host immune system. Concanavalin A (ConA) injection into mice results in serious, immune‑mediated liver injury similar to human viral, autoimmune and fulminant hepatitis. The present study investigated the effects of Gal‑9 treatment on fulminant hepatitis in vivo and the effect on the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), in order to identify specific miRNAs associated with the immune effects of Gal‑9...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478826/novel-aspects-of-defensins-involvement-in-virus-induced-autoimmunity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
Evangelos I Kazakos, Jannis Kountouras, Stergios A Polyzos, Georgia Deretzi
Recent research on re-circulation of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma to the periphery and its inferred importance in immune surveillance dysregulation are changing our conceptualization of the pathophysiology of virus-induced autoimmunity. In this context, it is necessary to reassess the immunomodulatory properties of human defensins that are variably expressed by cerebral microglia, astrocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells and exhibit complex and often confounding roles in neuroinflammatory processes...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464899/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-infection-in-persons-living-with-hiv-enrolled-in-care-in-rwanda
#10
Justine Umutesi, Bryony Simmons, Jean D Makuza, Donatha Dushimiyimana, Aimable Mbituyumuremyi, Jean Marie Uwimana, Nathan Ford, Edward J Mills, Sabin Nsanzimana
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The burden of these co-infections in sub-Saharan Africa is still unclear. We estimated the prevalence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb) among HIV-infected individuals in Rwanda and identified factors associated with infection. METHODS: Between January 2016 and June 2016, we performed systematic screening for HBsAg and HCVAb among HIV-positive individuals enrolled at public and private HIV facilities across Rwanda...
May 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464883/late-presentation-of-chronic-viral-hepatitis-for-medical-care-a-consensus-definition
#11
Stefan Mauss, Stanislas Pol, Maria Buti, Erika Duffell, Charles Gore, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Hilje Logtenberg-van der Grient, Jens Lundgren, Antons Mozalevskis, Dorthe Raben, Eberhard Schatz, Stefan Wiktor, Jürgen K Rockstroh
INTRODUCTION: We present two consensus definitions of advanced and late stage liver disease being used as epidemiological tools. These definitions can be applied to assess the morbidity caused by liver diseases in different health care systems. We focus is on hepatitis B and C virus infections, because effective and well tolerated treatments for both of these infections have greatly improved our ability to successfully treat and prevent advanced and late stage disease, especially if diagnosed early...
May 3, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458139/chlorogenic-acid-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Yuan Yan, Na Liu, Ni Hou, Lei Dong, Jie Li
Curative treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poor. There is an urgent need to develop more effective strategies for the chemoprevention of HCC. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a type of polyphenol present in the diet, especially from coffee, has many biological activities. Patients with viral hepatitis who drank coffee everyday experienced a reduction in the incidence of HCC. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of CGA on HCC. CGA inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro and the progression of HepG2 xenograft in vivo...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449246/review-article-hepatitis-e-a-concise-review-of-virology-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-and-therapy
#13
REVIEW
M C Donnelly, L Scobie, C L Crossan, H Dalton, P C Hayes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute icteric hepatitis and acute liver failure in the developing world. During the last decade, there has been increasing recognition of autochthonous (locally acquired) HEV infection in developed countries. Chronic HEV infection is now recognised, and in transplant recipients this may lead to cirrhosis and organ failure. AIM: To detail current understanding of the molecular biology of HEV, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and propose future directions for basic science and clinical research...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447325/interferon-free-therapy-with-sofosbuvir-plus-ribavirin-for-successful-treatment-of-genotype-2-hepatitis-c-virus-with-lichen-planus-a-case-report
#14
Ayumu Yoshikawa, Katsumi Terashita, Kenichi Morikawa, Soichiro Matsuda, Takahiro Yamamura, Koichiro Sarashina, Shintaro Nakano, Yoshimitsu Kobayashi, Susumu Sogabe, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Shin Haba, Hisashi Oda, Tatsuro Takahashi, Takuto Miyagishima, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains the main cause of liver disease and can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV may also develop extrahepatic manifestations in the skin, eyes, joints, kidneys, nervous system, and immune system. In fact, several studies reported that up to 70% of HCV patients experienced extrahepatic manifestations. Lichen planus (LP), which is an immune system disorder that is triggered by viral infections, allergens, and stress, can affect the skin, mouth, nails, and scalp...
June 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436552/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-tenofovir-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#15
REVIEW
M H Hyun, Y-S Lee, J H Kim, J H Je, Y J Yoo, J E Yeon, K S Byun
BACKGROUND: Preventing mother to child transmission of chronic hepatitis B infection in the setting of a high maternal viral load is challenging. The idea has emerged from antepartum tenofovir treatment with combination immunoprophylaxis. AIMS: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir to prevent mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched through August 16, 2016...
April 24, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434087/hepatitis-b-during-pregnancy-in-endemic-areas-screening-treatment-and-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission
#16
REVIEW
Naichaya Chamroonkul, Teerha Piratvisuth
The proper management of pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is necessary to prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and to protect the baby from HBV infection. In the majority of cases, vertical transmission can be prevented with a universal screening program, HBV vaccine immunoprophylaxis, and administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) for babies born to mothers with HBV. However, in mothers with a high viral load (>200,000 or >1,000,000 IU/ml, depending on the guideline), the chance of immunoprophylaxis failure remains high...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428345/proliferation-of-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reinfection-efficiently-deplete-nuclear-cccdna-in-vivo
#17
Lena Allweiss, Tassilo Volz, Katja Giersch, Janine Kah, Giuseppina Raffa, Joerg Petersen, Ansgar W Lohse, Concetta Beninati, Teresa Pollicino, Stephan Urban, Marc Lütgehetmann, Maura Dandri
OBJECTIVE: The stability of the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in nuclei of non-dividing hepatocytes represents a key determinant of HBV persistence. Contrarily, studies with animal hepadnaviruses indicated that hepatocyte turnover can reduce cccDNA loads but knowledge on the proliferative capacity of HBV-infected primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) in vivo and the fate of cccDNA in dividing PHHs is still lacking. This study aimed to determine the impact of human hepatocyte division on cccDNA stability in vivo...
April 20, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427875/easl-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#18
(no author information available yet)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors including vaccination policies and migration. This Clinical Practice Guideline presents updated recommendations for the optimal management of HBV infection. Chronic HBV infection can be classified into five phases: (I) HBeAg-positive chronic infection, (II) HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis, (III) HBeAg-negative chronic infection, (IV) HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis and (V) HBsAg-negative phase...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407288/efficient-replication-of-blood-borne-hepatitis-c-virus-in-human-fetal-liver-stem-cells
#19
Xuan Guo, Shu Wang, Zhi-Gang Qiu, Ya-Ling Dou, Wei-Li Liu, Dong Yang, Zhi-Qiang Shen, Zhao-Li Chen, Jing-Feng Wang, Bin- Zhang, Xin-Wei Wang, Xiang-Fei Guo, Xue-Lian Zhang, Min Jin, Jun-Wen Li
The development of pathogenic mechanisms, specific antiviral treatments and preventive vaccines for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been limited due to lack of cell culture model that could naturally imitate the entire HCV life cycle. Here, we established a HCV cell culture model based on human fetal liver stem cells (hFLSCs) that supports the entire blood-borne hepatitis C virus (bbHCV) life cycle. More than 90% of cells remained infected by various genotypes. bbHCV was efficiently propagated, and progeny virus were infectious to hFLSCs...
April 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399146/interferon-inducible-ribonuclease-isg20-inhibits-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-through-directly-binding-to-the-epsilon-stem-loop-structure-of-viral-rna
#20
Yuanjie Liu, Hui Nie, Richeng Mao, Bidisha Mitra, Dawei Cai, Ran Yan, Ju-Tao Guo, Timothy M Block, Nadir Mechti, Haitao Guo
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates its DNA genome through reverse transcription of a viral RNA pregenome. We report herein that the interferon (IFN) stimulated exoribonuclease gene of 20 KD (ISG20) inhibits HBV replication through degradation of HBV RNA. ISG20 expression was observed at basal level and was highly upregulated upon IFN treatment in hepatocytes, and knock down of ISG20 resulted in elevation of HBV replication and attenuation of IFN-mediated antiviral effect. The sequence element conferring the susceptibility of HBV RNA to ISG20-mediated RNA degradation was mapped at the HBV RNA terminal redundant region containing epsilon (ε) stem-loop...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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