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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812869/entry-inhibitors-a-perspective-for-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-organ-transplantation
#1
Che C Colpitts, Raymond T Chung, Thomas F Baumert
Entry inhibitors are emerging as an attractive class of therapeutics for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Entry inhibitors target either virion-associated factors or cellular factors necessary for infection. By blocking entry into cells, entry inhibitors prevent both the establishment of persistent reservoirs and the emergence of resistant variants during viral replication. Furthermore, entry inhibitors protect naïve cells from virus-induced alterations. Combining entry inhibitors with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) may therefore improve treatment outcomes, particularly in the context of organ transplantation...
August 16, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#2
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806922/hepatitis-b-reactivation-characterized-by-hbsag-negativity-and-anti-hbsag-antibodies-persistence-in-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplanted-patient-after-lamivudine-withdrawal
#3
C Cerva, G Maffongelli, V Svicher, R Salpini, L Colagrossi, A Battisti, B Mariotti, R Cerretti, L Cudillo, L Sarmati
BACKGROUND: HBV reactivation is associated with high mortality rates in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and prophylactic lamivudine (LMV) treatment is suggested to prevent this phenomenon. However, the duration of LMV treatment in HSCT patients is not fully defined and the time of immune recovery is considered the best parameter for a drug to be safely interrupted. In patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, the time of immune recovery is not easy to define and may take years after transplantation and prolonged LMV treatments, which can lead to drug-resistant viral strains...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765688/impact-of-hepatitis-c-oral-therapy-in-portal-hypertension
#4
EDITORIAL
Diogo Libânio, Rui Tato Marinho
Chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly related to fibrosis/cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Direct antiviral agents are highly effective and safe and can now cure > 90% of the patients. Sustained viral response (SVR) after interferon-based regimens has been associated with improvement in liver function, fibrosis and portal hypertension in a significant proportion of patients, although a point of no return seems to exist from which viral elimination is no longer capable of preventing portal hypertension progression and liver decompensation...
July 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762691/hiv-associated-complications-a-systems-based-approach
#5
REVIEW
Carolyn Chu, Lealah C Pollock, Peter A Selwyn
Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop complications related directly to the infection, as well as to treatment. Aging, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities increase the risk of developing chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. HIV-associated neurologic complications encompass a wide spectrum of pathophysiology and symptomatology. Cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions are common among persons with HIV infection. Although some specific antiretroviral medications have been linked to disease development, traditional risk factors (e...
August 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752768/effects-of-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-cirrhosis
#6
Masako Okada, Masaru Enomoto, Norifumi Kawada, Mindie H Nguyen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major cause of cirrhosis worldwide. The ultimate goal of current antiviral treatments for chronic hepatitis B (nucleos(t)ide analogs and interferon-α) is to prevent the development of end-stage liver diseases. Areas covered: We present a review of the current literature on antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis. Medline search was performed to identify relevant literature from 1993 through January of 2017. Expert commentary: One randomized controlled trial and a number of observational studies have shown that nucleos(t)ide analogs can decrease the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B patients with advanced fibrosis...
July 28, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736138/how-viral-genetic-variants-and-genotypes-influence-disease-and-treatment-outcome-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-time-for-an-individualized-approach
#7
REVIEW
Neil Rajoriya, Christophe Combet, Fabien Zoulim, Harry L A Janssen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global problem. Several HBV (sub)genotypes exist with different biology and geographical preponderances. While the future aim of HBV treatment remains virus eradication, current strategies of treatment aim to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of liver disease. Current strategies also involve identification of patients for treatment - those at risk of progressive liver disease. Identification of HBV genotype, HBV mutants and other predictive factors allow for tailored treatments, and also risk-surveillance pathways such as for hepatocellular cancer screening...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732085/point-of-care-screening-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-at-an-antenatal-clinic-a-south-african-experience
#8
Nafiisah Chotun, Wolfgang Preiser, Christoffel Johannes van Rensburg, Pedro Fernandez, Gerhard Barnard Theron, Dieter Glebe, Monique Ingrid Andersson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elimination of HIV and syphilis mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has received much attention but little consideration has been given to the possibility of elimination of HBV MTCT. In sub-Saharan Africa, HBV vertical transmission continues to be reported and it remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of screening pregnant women for HBV using a point-of-care (POC) test and implementing interventions to prevent HBV MTCT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706414/risk-of-hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals-for-hepatitis-c
#9
EDITORIAL
Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Christos Konstantakis, Spilios Manolakopoulos, Christos Triantos
The recent introduction of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) for treatment of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has greatly improved the management of HCV for infected patients. These viral protein inhibitors act rapidly, allowing HCV clearance and increasing the sustained virological response rates. However, hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been reported in HCV/HBV co-infected patients. Hepatitis B reactivation refers to an abrupt increase in the HBV and is well-documented in patients with previously undetected HBV DNA due to inactive or resolved HBV infection...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689856/restrictions-on-access-to-direct-acting-antivirals-for-people-who-inject-drugs-the-european-hep-core-study-and-the-role-of-patient-groups-in-monitoring-national-hcv-responses
#10
J V Lazarus, K Safreed-Harmon, S R Stumo, M Jauffret-Roustide, M Maticic, T Reic, E Schatz, J Tallada, M Harris
In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat and established the targets of achieving an 80% reduction in new infections and a 65% reduction in deaths from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 2030. If European countries are to come close to reaching the WHO targets, they must squarely address the HCV prevention, testing and treatment needs of people who inject drugs (PWID). This viewpoint reports on findings from the 2016 European Hep-CORE study, which was unique in its utilisation of patient groups as a source of hepatitis policy information...
July 6, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675991/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-nucleocapsid-assembly-a-new-approach-to-treat-chronic-hbv-infection
#11
Li Yang, Mengji Lu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a major health problem worldwide. The current available antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic HBV infection do not achieve satisfactory results. Thus, it is desirable to develop novel anti-HBV drugs based the recent advances of basic research on molecular biology of HBV. HBV nucleocapsid assembly is now considered as a potential target of anti-HBV therapy. Structural and functional analysis provided essential insight of molecular interaction of the components of HBV nucleocapsid...
July 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675280/-is-there-hope-for-hepatitis-delta
#12
Stefano Guglielmi, Jean-Louis Frossard, Francesco Negro
Hepatitis D or delta is a chronic liver disease globally reaching 15‑20M people. Its agent, hepatitis D virus (HDV) requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to complete its life cycle. It represents one of the most severe forms of viral hepatitis. Current therapy with pegylated interferon alpha leads to viral eradication only in 25 % of cases. New treatments targeting the virus life cycle are sought. For example Myrcludex-B, which inhibits the entry into hepatocytes, lonafarnib which prevents the assemblage of the viral particle and the molecule REP 2139 which, among other unclear mechanisms, impedes the exit of the virus...
August 31, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673855/immiscible-phase-filter-extraction-and-equivalent-amplification-of-genotypes-1-6-of-hepatitis-c-rna-the-building-blocks-for-point-of-care-diagnosis
#13
Mário F Neto, Matthew A Butzler, Jennifer L Reed, Xiang Rui, Mark J Fisher, David M Kelso, Sally M McFall
The lack of hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnostic tests designed for use in decentralized settings is a major obstacle for providing access to treatment and prevention services particularly in low and middle income countries. Here we describe the development and validation of two building blocks of the HCV Quant Assay, a test in development for point-of-care use: 1) an RT-qPCR assay with noncompetitive internal control that equivalently detects the 6 major HCV genotypes and 2) an automated sample prep method using immiscible phase filter technology...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642806/the-efficacy-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-green-tea-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-pre-clinical-studies-and-translational-perspectives-in-clinical-practice
#14
REVIEW
Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte, Maria Rosaria Muzio, Vincenzo Schiavone, Arturo Cuomo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia characterized by cognitive and memory impairment. One of the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of AD, is the oxidative stress being involved in AD's development and progression. In addition, several studies proved that chronic viral infections, mainly induced by Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2), and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could be responsible for AD's neuropathology...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641714/hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-porphyria-cutanea-tarda
#15
Ashwani K Singal, Krishna V R Venkata, Sarat Jampana, Fakhar-Ul Islam, Karl E Anderson
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common susceptibility factor for porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). Experience on HCV treatment in patients with PCT is limited. Recently, HCV treatment has improved with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). We review our experience on HCV treatment in patients with PCT with older and newer regimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted. HCV treatment was attempted 22 times in 13 patients with PCT (5 attempts in 1, 2 in 5 and 1 in the other 7 patients)...
June 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636622/inhibition-of-hepatitis-b-viral-entry-by-nucleic-acid-polymers-in-heparg-cells-and-primary-human-hepatocytes
#16
Clément Guillot, Nora Martel, Françoise Berby, Isabelle Bordes, Olivier Hantz, Matthieu Blanchet, Camille Sureau, Andrew Vaillant, Isabelle Chemin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health concern worldwide with 240 million individuals chronically infected and at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments rarely cure chronic hepatitis B infection, highlighting the need for new anti-HBV drugs. Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) are phosphorothioated oligonucleotides that have demonstrated a great potential to inhibit infection with several viruses. In chronically infected human patients, NAPs administration lead to a decline of blood HBsAg and HBV DNA and to HBsAg seroconversion, the expected signs of functional cure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598793/croi-2017-highlights-of-advances-in-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#17
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, Washington, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major focus in the context of HIV-associated liver disease. Well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have enabled effective treatment of the populations that are hardest to cure, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, and many studies examined the impact of HCV cure on hepatitis and extrahepatic outcomes. Scaling up access to DAA, and the impact that their universal availability can have on reducing prevalence were key topics...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582320/hepatitis-e-viral-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients
#18
Stanley Y Fang, Hyosun Han
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature published in the past 10 years with focus to the best literatures published since 2015 regarding chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients who received solid organ transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Diagnosis of this disease relies primarily on identification of HEV RNA in serum and more recently in stool as way of predicting relapse and guide therapy duration. Current management focuses primarily on primary prevention and supportive care, because additional research is needed to identify efficacious pharmacologic therapy, though use of ribavirin has shown promise in case series in treatment of some genotypes...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567168/nurses-knowledge-toward-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-in-guilan-iran
#19
Farahnaz Joukar, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Mohammad Reza Naghipour, Tolou Hasandokht
BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) represent high risk population for viral hepatitis infection. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the knowledge of HCWs regarding hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection. METHODS: In a multi-center cross sectional study, all HCWs from eight teaching hospitals were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1008 eligible HCWs have responded to the study...
2017: Open Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539842/a-review-of-antiviral-use-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women
#20
Ariel Jaffe, Robert S Brown
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains high even with the proper use of active-passive immunoprophylaxis in newborns. Mothers with significant viremia are at a much higher risk of MTCT; therefore, treatments aimed at lowering HBV DNA levels during pregnancy may ultimately decrease global disease burden. The exact threshold for treatment remains controversial; however, most studies have accepted levels greater than 2 × 5 log10 IU/mL as significant viremia. We reviewed the most recent literature on antiviral efficacy, maternal and fetal safety, and viral resistance patterns when used for short-duration therapy in pregnancy...
March 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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