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viral hepatitis prevention, treatment

Dingchun Li, Wu Li, Yihui Chen, Lihui Liu, Dehong Ma, Hongtu Wang, Lu Zhang, Shenjun Zhao, Qin Peng
Hepatic fibrosis is resulted from sustained wound-healing responses to various harmful stimuli, including viral infection, drug toxicity, alcohol, and autoimmune hepatopathy, and it has recently attracted the attention of an increasing number of researchers and clinical workers. The aims of this study were to examine the anti-fibrotic effects of extracts of Periplaneta americana (EPA) on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, to preliminary determine the anti-fibrotic efficacy of EPA, and to identify a potential and effective therapeutic agent to attenuate hepatic fibrosis...
March 12, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Mohamed El Kassas, Tamer Elbaz, Aisha Elsharkawy, Heba Omar, Gamal Esmat
Currently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are considered the ideal choice for the treatment of chronic HCV patients due to their proven efficacy (SVR> 90%), and minimal adverse effects. Egypt launched a large treatment program aimed at providing treatment coverage for Egyptian HCV- infected patients. Areas covered: This review covers the treatment and prevention efforts made by the Egyptian National Committee for the Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) with the available model of care for HCV patients in Egypt, in addition to the barriers that prevent elimination of HCV from Egypt...
March 6, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Gábor Horváth, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Judit Gervain, Gabriella Lengyel, Mihály Makara, Alajos Pár, László Rókusz, Ferenc Szalay, István Tornai, Klára Werling, Béla Hunyady
Diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus infection mean for the patient to be able to maintain working capacity, to increase quality of life, to prevent cancer, and to prolong life expectancy, while the society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms from 22 September 2017 set by a consensus meeting of physicians involved in the treatment of these diseases...
February 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Faisal W Ismail, Shahab Abid, Minaz Mawani, Wasim Jafri, Saeed S Hamid
Purpose: Viral hepatitis B and C represent the primary health challenge confronting Asia and Pakistan. With direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C, patients will be treated by general physicians (GPs) and will need training through continuing medical education (CME). Blended learning is a combination of didactic teaching with online, self-paced learning, and it has not been evaluated as a CME tool for general physicians. We aimed to compare the change in physician's knowledge about chronic viral hepatitis following a blended learning educational program...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Ana Carolina Gomes Jardim, Jacqueline Farinha Shimizu, Paula Rahal, Mark Harris
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide public health burden and it is estimated that 185 million people are or have previously been infected worldwide. There is no effective vaccine for prevention of HCV infection; however, a number of drugs are available for the treatment of infection. The availability of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has dramatically improved therapeutic options for HCV genotype 1. However, the high costs and potential for development of resistance presented by existing treatment demonstrate the need for the development of more efficient new antivirals, or combination of therapies that target different stages of the viral lifecycle...
February 13, 2018: Virology Journal
Jiannis Vlachogiannakos, George V Papatheodoridis
As current treatment options almost never achieve eradication of hepatitis B virus (HBV), the most realistic goal for HBV treatment is persistent inhibition of viral replication and ALT normalization. Thus, the decision to start treatment should be based on careful patient selection and individualized decisions. Treatment is generally indicated in chronic hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA >2000 IU/mL, elevated ALT and/or at least moderate histological lesions, while all patients with cirrhosis and detectable HBV DNA should be treated...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Miroslava Subic, Fabien Zoulim
Despite the availability of a preventive vaccine and active antiviral treatments that stop disease progression and reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis B is still a major public health problem. Only an estimated 10% of the 257 million people living with HBV have been diagnosed and as few as 1% are being adequately treated. Barriers to diagnosis and treatment include: (i) limited awareness and lack of knowledge about HBV infection and HBV-related diseases; (ii) under-diagnosis with insufficient screening and referral to care; (iii) limited treatment due to drug availability, costs, reimbursement policies and the need for long-term or life-long therapy...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Katsunori Imai, Kosuke Mima, Shigeki Nakagawa, Daisuke Hashimoto, Akira Chikamoto, Hideo Baba
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI) is a rare adverse drug reaction that occasionally leads to acute liver failure or even death. An aging population that uses more drugs, a constant influx of newly developed drugs, and a growing risk from herbal and dietary supplements of uncertain quality can lead to an increase in iDILI. Antimicrobials, central nervous system agents, and herbal and dietary supplements are the most common causes of iDILI in developed countries. iDILI is still a diagnosis of exclusion, and thus careful history taking and thorough work-ups for competing etiologies, such as acute viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and others, are essential...
August 2017: Hepatology communications
Aimable Mbituyumuremyi, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Jeanne Umuhire, Jules Mugabo, Mutagoma Mwumvaneza, Jean Damascene Makuza, Justine Umutesi, Sabin Nsanzimana, Neil Gupta
With the introduction of direct-acting antiviral drugs, treatment of hepatitis C is both highly effective and tolerable. Access to treatment for patients, however, remains limited in low- and middle-income countries due to the lack of supportive health infrastructure and the high cost of treatment. Poorer countries are being encouraged by international bodies to organize public health responses that would facilitate the roll-out of care and treatment on a national scale. Yet few countries have documented formal plans and policies...
January 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Rilu Feng, Xiaodong Yuan, Chen Shao, Huiguo Ding, Roman Liebe, Hong-Lei Weng
This review provides a personal view on anti-fibrosis therapy in liver. The worst clinical consequence of liver fibrosis is the development of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Etiology is a decisive factor which determines patterns of fibrous septa and subsequent vascular remodeling, which is essential for the development of portal hypertension. Removing or controlling the disease-causing agent, i.e. anti-viral treatment for hepatitis, is the essential first step for treating chronic liver diseases and can reverse fibrosis in some settings...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Catherine de Martel, Silvia Franceschi, Martyn Plummer
High-quality data on liver cancers by probable cause are scarce in many regions of the world. The United Nations recently set a goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030. We aimed to estimate the number of new cases of cancers attributable to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) at a global, regional and country level, and by development status. We used data on the prevalence of HBV and HCV in hepatocellular carcinoma from a systematic review including 119 000 cases in 260 studies covering 50 countries...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Xavier Adhoute, Guillaume Penaranda, Jean Luc Raoul, Floriane Sellier, Paul Castellani, Valerie Oules, Herve Perrier, Gaëlle Lefolgoc, Bernard Pol, Manuela Campanile, Olivier Bayle, Patrick Beaurain, Olivier Monnet, Marc Bourlière
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy against hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has markedly improved the sustained viral response. However, recent studies have suggested an unsuspected high rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was carried out to investigate the impact of DAAs on tumor recurrence in patients with complete response to HCC treatment within our HCV-related cirrhosis cohort...
April 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kelly Safreed-Harmon, Kristina L Hetherington, Soo Aleman, Hannu Alho, Olav Dalgard, Tove Frisch, Magnus Gottfredsson, Nina Weis, Jeffrey V Lazarus
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden), the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat...
2018: PloS One
Jacqueline Bachofner, Piero V Valli, Irina Bergamin, Arne Kröger, Patrizia Künzler, Adriana Baserga, Dominique L Braun, Burkhardt Seifert, Anja Moncsek, Jan Fehr, David Semela, Lorenzo Magenta, Beat Müllhaupt, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Joachim Mertens, The Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study
BACKGROUND: The introduction of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) for the therapy of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has revolutionised treatment and marks a paradigm shift in the approach to this disease, rendering interferon-based therapies obsolete. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We retrospectively and prospectively evaluated treatment results after the introduction of DAA in Switzerland in a cohort of patients with CHC. METHODS: We examined 565 patients who received DAA treatment for CHC between November 2013 and June 2016 with regard to HCV genotype, fibrosis stadium, treatment and outcome...
January 29, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
Lyndsey J Bowman, Andrew J Brueckner, Christina T Doligalski
Viruses are the leading cause of infections after solid organ transplant. The antiviral properties of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORis) have been ascribed to a variety of mechanisms and historical data have supported their use over other immunosuppressants for a myriad of viruses. Herein, we summarize the most current data to highlight the role of mTORis in the management of viral infections after solid organ transplant. The mTORis play a clear role in the management of cytomegalovirus, and have data supporting their potential use for BK virus and human herpesvirus 8-related Kaposi sarcoma...
February 2018: Transplantation
Vicente Soriano, Benjamin Young, Nancy Reau
The International Conference on Viral Hepatitis 2017 brought exciting news on the treatment of viral hepatitis. The most recent estimates of the burden for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were presented. The current gaps and prospects for regional and global eradication of viral hepatitis were discussed on the light of the WHO roadmap until 2030. Debates focused on hepatitis C and expectations using the new approved HCV pan-genotypic, once daily, oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir...
January 25, 2018: AIDS Reviews
Suparna Das, Jenevieve Opoku, Michael Kharfen, Adam Allston
BACKGROUND: Concurrent with the UNAIDS 90-90-90 and NHAS plans, the District of Columbia (DC) launched its 90/90/90/50 plan (Plan) in 2015. The Plan proposes that by 2020, 90% of all DC residents will know their HIV status; 90% of residents living with HIV will be in sustained treatment; 90% of those in treatment will reach "Viral Suppression" and DC will achieve 50% reduction of new HIV cases. To achieve these goals targeted prevention strategies are imperative for areas where the relative risk (RR) of not being linked to care (NL), not retained in any care (NRC) and low viral suppression (NVSP) are highest in the District...
January 24, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Alastair Heffernan, Ella Barber, Nicola A Cook, Asmaa I Gomaa, Yolande X Harley, Christopher R Jones, Aaron G Lim, Zameer Mohamed, Shevanthi Nayagam, Gibril Ndow, Rajiv Shah, Mark W Sonderup, C Wendy Spearman, Imam Waked, Robert J Wilkinson, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
A recent international workshop, organized by the authors, analyzed the obstacles facing the ambitious goal of eliminating viral hepatitis globally. We identified several policy areas critical to reaching elimination targets. These include providing hepatitis B birth-dose vaccination to all infants within 24 hours of birth, preventing the transmission of blood-borne viruses through the expansion of national hemovigilance schemes, implementing the lessons learned from the HIV epidemic regarding safe medical practices to eliminate iatrogenic infection, adopting point-of-care testing to improve coverage of diagnosis, and providing free or affordable hepatitis C treatment to all...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Pinar Mesci, Angela Macia, Spencer M Moore, Sergey A Shiryaev, Antonella Pinto, Chun-Teng Huang, Leon Tejwani, Isabella R Fernandes, Nicole A Suarez, Matthew J Kolar, Sandro Montefusco, Scott C Rosenberg, Roberto H Herai, Fernanda R Cugola, Fabiele B Russo, Nicholas Sheets, Alan Saghatelian, Sujan Shresta, Jeremiah D Momper, Jair L Siqueira-Neto, Kevin D Corbett, Patricia C B Beltrão-Braga, Alexey V Terskikh, Alysson R Muotri
The outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with increased incidence of congenital malformations. Although recent efforts have focused on vaccine development, treatments for infected individuals are needed urgently. Sofosbuvir (SOF), an FDA-approved nucleotide analog inhibitor of the Hepatitis C (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was recently shown to be protective against ZIKV both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that SOF protected human neural progenitor cells (NPC) and 3D neurospheres from ZIKV infection-mediated cell death and importantly restored the antiviral immune response in NPCs...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peyton Wilson, Jonathan B Parr, Ravi Jhaveri, Steve R Meshnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue that has not been adequately addressed, especially in the high-prevalence region of Africa. Despite the incorporation of HBV vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), children continue to be infected with HBV through maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT). The addition of a birth dose of HBV vaccine would be a cost-effective method to reduce MTCT. Birth-dose HBV vaccine policies have been adopted in the Western Pacific region but have yet to be implemented in the African region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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