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viral hepatitis prevention, treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333153/a-novel-inhibitor-idpp-interferes-with-entry-and-egress-of-hcv-by-targeting-glycoprotein-e1-in-a-genotype-specific-manner
#1
Myungeun Lee, Jaewon Yang, Eunji Jo, Ji-Young Lee, Hee-Young Kim, Ralf Bartenschlager, Eui-Cheol Shin, Yong-Soo Bae, Marc P Windisch
Despite recent advances in curing chronic hepatitis C (CHC), the high economic burden to therapy, viral drug resistance, difficult to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and patient groups are still of concern. To address this unmet medical needs, we devised strategies to identify novel viral interventions through target-free high-throughput screening of small molecules utilizing a phenotypic-based HCV infection assay. Thereby, a very potent (EC50 46 ± 26 pM) iminodipyridinopyrimidine (IDPP) drug candidate was selected, and confirmed in primary human hepatocytes (EC50 0...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329393/virological-outcomes-of-second-line-protease-inhibitor-based-treatment-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-in-a-high-prevalence-rural-south-african-setting-a-competing-risks-prospective-cohort-analysis
#2
Dami Collier, Collins Iwuji, Anne Derache, Tulio de Oliveira, Nonhlanhla Okesola, Alexandra Calmy, Francois Dabis, Deenan Pillay, Ravindra K Gupta
Background.: Second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) represents the only available option after first-line failure for the majority of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide. Maximizing their effectiveness is imperative. Methods.: This cohort study was nested within the French National Agency for AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Research (ANRS) 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) cluster-randomized trial in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326651/current-activities-and-future-directions-of-comprehensive-hepatitis-control-measures-in-japan-a-supportive-role-of-hepatitis-information-center-in-building-a-solid-foundation
#3
Noriko Oza, Hiroshi Isoda, Toshiki Ono, Tatsuya Kanto
In Japan, hepatitis B or C virus infection has been a major health issue. For the prevention of liver-related deaths, multifaceted strategies have been taken against hepatitis virus. In Fiscal Year (FY) 2002, nationwide screening for hepatitis was started as a part of health examinations provided by municipal governments. From FY2007, the hepatitis treatment network has been strengthened by the nationwide establishment of regional government-based hepatitis treatment systems, comprising linked regional core centers, specialized institutions for hepatitis treatment, primary care physicians and regional governments...
March 21, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322313/the-epidemic-dynamics-of-hepatitis-c-virus-subtypes-4a-and-4d-in-saudi-arabia
#4
Ahmed A Al-Qahtani, Guy Baele, Nisreen Khalaf, Marc A Suchard, Mashael R Al-Anazi, Ayman A Abdo, Faisal M Sanai, Hamad I Al-Ashgar, Mohammed Q Khan, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal, Philippe Lemey, Bram Vrancken
The relatedness between viral variants sampled at different locations through time can provide information pertinent to public health that cannot readily be obtained through standard surveillance methods. Here, we use virus genetic data to identify the transmission dynamics that drive the hepatitis C virus subtypes 4a (HCV4a) and 4d (HCV4d) epidemics in Saudi Arabia. We use a comprehensive dataset of newly generated and publicly available sequence data to infer the HCV4a and HCV4d evolutionary histories in a Bayesian statistical framework...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306597/diagnosis-of-viral-hepatitis
#5
Philippa J Easterbrook, Teri Roberts, Anita Sands, Rosanna Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing and their key recommendations) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295920/importin-%C3%AE-1-targeting-by-hepatitis-c-virus-ns3-4a-protein-restricts-irf3-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-of-ifnb1-antiviral-response
#6
Bridget Gagné, Nicolas Tremblay, Alex Y Park, Martin Baril, Daniel Lamarre
In this study, newly identified host interactors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins were assessed for a role in modulating innate immune response. The analysis revealed enrichment for components of the nuclear transport machinery and the crucial interaction with NS3/4A protein in suppression of interferon-β (IFNB1) induction. Using a comprehensive microscopy-based high-content screening approach combined to the gene silencing of nuclear transport factors, we showed that NS3/4A-interacting proteins control the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-κB p65 upon Sendai virus (SeV) infection...
March 13, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284515/hepatitis-b-and-pregnancy
#7
Eliana Castillo, Kellie Murphy, Julie van Schalkwyk
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, natural history, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy. This will aid obstetric care providers in counseling their patients regarding perinatal risks and management options available to pregnant women with hepatitis B. OUTCOMES: Outcomes evaluated include thresholds for HBV anti-viral treatment for prevention of perinatal transmission and for invasive procedures during pregnancy for women with hepatitis B infection...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273410/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-treatment-of-patients-with-absence-or-mild-fibrosis-compared-to-patients-with-advanced-fibrosis
#8
M Buti, R Domínguez-Hernández, I Oyagüez, M A Casado, R Esteban
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) in treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 (GT1) in the absence or mild fibrosis (F0-F1) versus advanced fibrosis (F2-F4), from the perspective of the Spanish Health System. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to simulate disease progression, estimating costs and outcomes [life years gained, (LYG), and quality adjusted life years, (QALY)] derived from starting with LDV/SOF in patients with F0-F1 compared with F2-F4...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264666/prevention-of-liver-tumor-formation-in-woodchucks-with-established-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-treatment-with-cationic-liposome-dna-complexes
#9
Jeffery Fairman, Katherine H Liu, Stephan Menne
BACKGROUND: Approximately 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and more than half of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases are attributed to this infection. As HCC has a high mortality rate, and current treatment options are remarkably limited, the development of new therapeutic treatment strategies is warranted. METHODS: In this study, woodchucks infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), and with pre-existing liver tumors, were used as a model to investigate if complexes of cationic liposomes and non-coding DNA (JVRS-100) were effective in treatment of HCC...
March 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253838/predictors-and-incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#10
Nicholas A Medland, Eric P F Chow, Catriona S Bradshaw, Timothy H R Read, Joseph J Sasadeusz, Christopher K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Sexual transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) and its interaction with HIV status, sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour is poorly understood. We assessed the incidence and predictors of HCV infection in HIV positive MSM. METHODS: The electronic medical record and laboratory results from HIV positive MSM in care at a large urban public specialist HIV clinic embedded in a sexual health centre in Melbourne Australia were collected...
March 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252637/hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#11
REVIEW
Michael P Manns, Maria Buti, Ed Gane, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, Homie Razavi, Norah Terrault, Zobair Younossi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic RNA virus that causes progressive liver damage, which might result in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Globally, between 64 and 103 million people are chronically infected. Major risk factors for this blood-borne virus infection are unsafe injection drug use and unsterile medical procedures (iatrogenic infections) in countries with high HCV prevalence. Diagnostic procedures include serum HCV antibody testing, HCV RNA measurement, viral genotype and subtype determination and, lately, assessment of resistance-associated substitutions...
March 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218868/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-national-consensus-guideline-in-hungary-from-15-october-2016
#12
Gábor Horváth, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Judit Gervain, Gabriella Lengyel, Mihály Makara, Alajos Pár, László Rókusz, Ferenc Szalay, István Tornai, Klára Werling, Béla Hunyady
Diagnosis and treatment of HBV/HDV infection means for the patient to be able to maintain working capacity, to increase quality of life, to prevent cancer, and to prolong life expectancy, while society benefits from eliminating the chances of further transmission of the viruses, and decreasing the overall costs of serious complications. The guideline delineates the treatment algorithms for 2017 set by a consensus meeting of physicians involved in the treatment of these diseases. The prevalence of HBV infection in the Hungarian general population is 0...
February 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208098/-don-t-think-i-m-going-to-leave-you-over-it-accounts-of-changing-hepatitis-c-status-among-couples-who-inject-drugs
#13
Jake Rance, Carla Treloar, Suzanne Fraser, Joanne Bryant, Tim Rhodes
BACKGROUND: While the health-related benefits of intimate partnership are well documented, little attention has been paid to couples exposed to high levels of social stigma and exclusion. In this project we investigated an important site of stigma for partnerships by collecting accounts of changing hepatitis C (HCV) status ("sero-change") among couples that inject drugs. We explored what these accounts reveal about the meaning of HCV for these couples, and how this understanding contributes to our collective efforts at prevention and care...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197805/economic-analysis-and-budget-impact-of-tenofovir-and-entecavir-in-the-first-line-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-italy
#14
M Ruggeri, M Basile, S Coretti, C Drago, A Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a common, progressive disease, particularly when viral replication is detected. Oral antivirals can suppress viral replication and prevent or delay the development of cirrhosis and liver-related complications. The treatments of chronic hepatitis B cannot totally cure the disease but can prevent its progression to hepatocellular carcinoma, decreasing the levels of both morbidity and mortality. To date, there are several therapies indicated by the international guidelines as first-line treatments for the management of hepatitis B; two of the most effective are those based on either tenofovir or entecavir...
February 14, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195035/pre-s2-mutant-induced-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signal-pathways-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Chiao-Fang Teng, Han-Chieh Wu, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Long-Bin Jeng, Ih-Jen Su
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pre-S2 mutant represents an HBV oncoprotein that is accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and manifests as type II ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs). Pre-S2 mutant can induce ER stress and initiate multiple ER stress-dependent or -independent cellular signal pathways, leading to growth advantage of type II GGH. Importantly, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathways are consistently activated throughout the liver tumorigenesis in pre-S2 mutant transgenic mice and in human HCC tissues, leading to hepatocyte proliferation, metabolic disorders, and HCC tumorigenesis...
February 14, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193102/identification-of-predictors-for-treatment-failure-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir
#16
Jeffrey W Jansen, Gillian M Powderly, Travis W Linneman
BACKGROUND: New hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies report cure rates of ~90% but are expensive. Identification of predictors for treatment failure could help decrease health care costs, limit unnecessary drug exposure and adverse events, and prevent drug-drug interactions. Failure to achieve rapid viral response (RVR), defined as detectable viral load at 4 weeks, has previously been identified as a predictor of treatment failure with some previous HCV therapies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate RVR, and other potential variables, as predictors of treatment failure in patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF)...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188612/hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-during-pregnancy-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
REVIEW
Ahizechukwu C Eke, George U Eleje, Uzoamaka A Eke, Yun Xia, Jiao Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis is a viral infection of the liver. It is mainly transmitted between people through contact with infected blood, frequently from mother to baby in-utero. Hepatitis B poses significant risk to the fetus and up to 85% of infants infected by their mothers at birth develop chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is a purified solution of human immunoglobulin that could be administered to the mother, newborn, or both. HBIG offers protection against HBV infection when administered to pregnant women who test positive for hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or both...
February 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182613/news-on-viral-hepatitis-in-hiv-update-from-the-2016-gehep-conference
#18
REVIEW
Eva Poveda, Massimo Puoti, Miguel García-Deltoro, Juan A Pineda, Francisco Téllez, Rafael Granados, Luis Morano, Federico García
The II Conference of the Group for the Study of Viral Hepatitis (GEHEP) (29 September-1 October, Spain) updated epidemiological, diagnostic and treatment aspects on viral hepatitis. The conference was mostly focused on the latest news related to HCV infection, including the successes achieved since the implementation of direct-acting antiviral agents for HCV therapy, but also in the new, future challenges for a real HCV eradication. The scenario for chronic HCV infection has dramatically changed in the last two years and most patients have been cured after 12 weeks of therapy with minimal side effects...
January 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170421/comprehensive-mapping-of-antigen-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-with-or-without-spontaneous-viral-clearance
#19
Chao Zhang, Rui Hua, Yuanyuan Cui, Shasha Wang, Hongqing Yan, Dongmei Li, Yonghong Zhang, Zhengkun Tu, Pei Hao, Xinyue Chen, Jin Zhong, Junqi Niu, Xia Jin
Elucidating protective immunity against HCV is important for the development of a preventative vaccine. We hypothesize that spontaneous resolution of acute HCV infection offers clue to protective immune responses, and that DAA therapy affects the quality and quantity of HCV-specific T cell responses. To test these hypotheses, we performed T cell epitope mapping in 111 HCV-infected individuals including 61 chronically HCV-1b (CHC-1b) infected, 24 chronically HCV-2a (CHC-2a) infected and 26 spontaneously recovered (SPR) patients with 376 overlapping peptides covering the entire HCV polyprotein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157685/facial-actinomycosis-mimicking-a-cutaneous-tumor
#20
Adem Özkan, Adem Topkara, Ramazan Hakan Özcan
Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection that commonly occurs in the cervicofacial region. Although Actinomcyes is an element of the normal oral flora, infections of the facial skin are very rare because of the entirely endogenous habitation of the organism. The authors report a case of facial actinomycosis, which mimicked a cutaneous tumor both clinically and surgically in a 44-year-old woman with chronic renal failure and Hepatitis C viral infection. The majority of cases can be treated with long-term antibiotics...
January 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
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