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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143626/methodological-challenges-in-appraising-evidence-on-diagnostic-testing-for-who-guidelines-on-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#1
Roger Chou, Philippa Easterbrook, Margaret Hellard
Linking persons with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection with appropriate prevention and treatment requires that they first be diagnosed. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed its first guidelines on testing for chronic HBV and HCV infection, using a framework based on methods from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group for the formulation of recommendations, including determining the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143611/one-or-two-serological-assay-testing-strategy-for-diagnosis-of-hbv-and-hcv-infection-the-use-of-predictive-modelling
#2
John V Parry, Philippa Easterbrook, Anita R Sands
BACKGROUND: Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120012/hepatitis-c-virus-dynamics-among-intravenous-drug-users-suggest-that-an-annual-treatment-uptake-above-10-would-eliminate-the-disease-by-2030
#3
Philip Bruggmann, Sarah Blach, Pierre Deltenre, Jan Fehr, Roger Kouyos, Daniel Lavanchy, Beat Müllhaupt, Andri Rauch, Homie Razavi, Patrick Schmid, David Semela, Marcel Stoeckle, Franco Negro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Switzerland, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) has been decreasing owing to active harm reduction efforts and an aging population. Recent advances in HCV therapeutics may provide an opportunity to direct treatment to high-risk populations, with a goal of reducing HCV prevalence and preventing new infections. In order to guide these efforts, the current project was undertaken with the following aims: (1) to develop a simple model to estimate the number of new HCV infections using available data on PWID; (2) to examine the impact of intervention strategies (prevention and treatment) on new and total HCV infections among PWID...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108213/-research-advances-in-chronicity-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#4
Y J Ma, H Tang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection usually causes acute hepatitis and has a self-limiting progression. The patients often recover within 6 months with good prognosis. Recent studies have found that HEV infection may become chronic in special situations, which manifests as persistent liver function abnormalities for at least 6 months after acute HEV infection and the presence of viral nucleic acid in serum, feces, and/or liver tissue. Chronicity of HEV infection mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients, and it is rare but very dangerous in clinical practice...
October 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107151/hedgehog-signaling-in-liver-pathophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Mariana Verdelho Machado, Anna Mae Diehl
Liver disease remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite recent successes in the viral hepatitis field because increases in alcohol consumption and obesity are fueling epidemics of chronic fatty liver disease for which there are currently no effective medical therapies. About 20% of individuals with chronic liver injury ultimately develop end-stage liver disease due to cirrhosis and hence, treatments to prevent and reverse cirrhosis in individuals with ongoing liver injury are desperately needed...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105286/strategies-to-manage-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-disease-burden-volume-4
#6
D S Chen, W Hamoudi, B Mustapha, J Layden, A Nersesov, T Reic, V Garcia, C Rios, L Mateva, O Njoya, S A Al-Busafi, M K Abdelmageed, M Abdulla, D Adda, O Akin, A Al Baqali, N Al Dweik, K Al Ejji, I Al Ghazzawi, S Al Kaabi, K Al Naamani, J Al Qamish, M Al Sadadi, J Al Salman, M AlBadri, H E Al-Romaihi, W Ampofo, K Antonov, C Anyaike, F Arome, A Bane, S Blach, M M Borodo, S M Brandon, B Bright, M T Butt, I Cardenas, H L Y Chan, C J Chen, P J Chen, R N Chien, W L Chuang, D Cuellar, M Derbala, A A Elbardiny, C Estes, E Farag, J Fung, I Gamkrelidze, J Genov, Z Ghandour, M Ghuloom, B Gomez, J Gunter, J Habeeb, O Hajelssedig, S M Himatt, I Hrstic, C C Hu, C F Huang, Y T Hui, R Jahis, D Jelev, A K John, K S Kaliaskarova, Y Kamel, J H Kao, J Khamis, H Khattabi, I Khoudri, A Konysbekova, I Kotzev, M S Lai, W C Lao, M H Lee, O Lesi, M Li, A Lo, C K Loo, B Lukšić, A Maaroufi, A O Malu, R Mitova, R Mohamed, M Morović, K Murphy, H Nde, E Ngige, R Njouom, D Nonković, S Obekpa, S Oguche, E E Okolo, O Omede, C Omuemu, P Ondoa, O Opare-Sem, S Owusu-Ofori, R O Phillips, Y N Prokopenko, H Razavi, D Razavi-Shearer, K Razavi-Shearer, B Redae, T Rinke de Wit, S Robbins, L R Roberts, S J Sanad, M Sharma, M Simonova, T H Su, K Sultan, S S Tan, K Tchernev, O T Y Tsang, S Tsang, C Tzeuton, S Ugoeze, B Uzochukwu, R Vi, A Vince, H U Wani, V W S Wong, A Workneh, R Yacoub, K I Yesmembetov, M Youbi, M F Yuen, J D Schmelzer
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic was forecasted through 2030 for 17 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East, and interventions for achieving the Global Health Sector Strategy on viral hepatitis targets-"WHO Targets" (65% reduction in HCV-related deaths, 90% reduction in new infections and 90% of infections diagnosed by 2030) were considered. Scaling up treatment and diagnosis rates over time would be required to achieve these targets in all but one country, even with the introduction of high SVR therapies...
October 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080254/risk-of-diabetes-in-viral-hepatitis-b-or-c-patients-compared-to-that-in-non-infected-individuals-in-korea-2002-2013-a-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Hwa Young Choi, Yeerae Kim, Hyunsoon Cho, Bo Hyun Kim, Moran Ki
While the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and diabetes has been established, the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and diabetes remains unclear. Therefore, we compared the association between diabetes development in HBV, HCV and co-infected (HBV/HCV) patients to that in non-infected participants by using population-based cohort data. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, which consists of 514,791 randomly selected persons among those who underwent health check-ups from 2002 to 2003 aged 40-79 years...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075289/serology-of-viral-infections-and-tuberculosis-screening-in-an-ibd-population-referred-to-a-tertiary-centre-of-southern-italy
#8
Marco Ardesia, Giuseppe Costantino, Placido Mondello, Angela Alibrandi, Walter Fries
BACKGROUND: With the introduction of more potent immunosuppressive agents in inflammatory bowel disease, prevention of opportunistic infections has become necessary by introducing screening programs. Prevalence of the most important infectious agents may vary in different geographical areas. The aim of our study was to assess the immune status for hepatitis B, varicella, mononucleosis, and cytomegalovirus infection together with the determination of the hepatitis C and tuberculosis status in Southern Italy...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074219/a-novel-neutralizing-human-monoclonal-antibody-broadly-abrogates-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Isabelle Desombere, Ahmed Atef Mesalam, Richard A Urbanowicz, Freya Van Houtte, Lieven Verhoye, Zhen-Yong Keck, Ali Farhoudi, Koen Vercauteren, Karin E Weening, Thomas F Baumert, Arvind H Patel, Steven K H Foung, Jonathan Ball, Geert Leroux-Roels, Philip Meuleman
Infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) represent a worldwide health burden and a prophylactic vaccine is still not available. Liver transplantation (LT) is often the only option for patients with HCV-induced end-stage liver disease. However, immediately after transplantation, the liver graft becomes infected by circulating virus, resulting in accelerated progression of liver disease. Although the efficacy of HCV treatment using direct-acting antivirals has improved significantly, immune compromised LT-patients and patients with advanced liver disease remain difficult to treat...
October 23, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023764/liver-diseases-in-adult-life-after-childhood-cancer-in-scandinavia-aliccs-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-32-839-one-year-survivors
#10
Trine Gade Bonnesen, Jeanette F Winther, Klaus K Andersen, Peter H Asdahl, Sofie de Fine Licht, Thorgerdur Gudmundsdottir, Anna Sällfors Holmqvist, Laura-Maria Madanat-Harjuoja, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Finn Wesenberg, Carsten Heilmann, Jørgen H Olsen, Henrik Hasle
Information on late onset liver complications after childhood cancer is scarce. To ensure an appropriate follow-up of childhood cancer survivors and reducing late liver complications, the need for comprehensive and accurate information is presented. We evaluate the risk of liver diseases in a large childhood cancer survivor cohort. We included all one-year survivors of childhood cancer treated in the five Nordic countries. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hospitalisation rate (hazard) ratios (HRs) for each liver outcome according to type of cancer...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977176/-assessment-of-laboratory-diagnostic-network-in-the-implementation-of-the-program-for-viral-hepatitis-prevention-and-control-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil-1997-2012
#11
Cristiano Corrêa de Azevedo Marques, José da Rocha Carvalheiro
OBJECTIVE: to assess the performance of the diagnostic network in the implementation process of the Program for Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control in São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1997 to 2012. METHODS: evaluation study based on documentary research and structured interviews, combined with a historical series analysis of indicators developed to assess the implementation process of the program, using data from the Department of the Brazilian National Health System...
July 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951777/hepatitis-b-in-renal-transplant-patients
#12
REVIEW
Smaragdi Marinaki, Kyriaki Kolovou, Stratigoula Sakellariou, John N Boletis, Ioanna K Delladetsima
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) poses a significant challenge for both dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients despite its decreasing rates, especially in developed countries. The best preventive method is vaccination. Patients with chronic renal disease should ideally be vaccinated prior to dialysis, otherwise, reinforced vaccination practices and close antibody titer monitoring should be applied while on dialysis. HBV infected dialysis patients who are renal transplant candidates must be thoroughly examined by HBV-DNA, and liver enzyme testing and by liver biopsy...
September 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949917/a-potent-human-neutralizing-antibody-fc-dependently-reduces-established-hbv-infections
#13
Dan Li, Wenhui He, Ximing Liu, Sanduo Zheng, Yonghe Qi, Huiyu Li, Fengfeng Mao, Juan Liu, Yinyan Sun, Lijing Pan, Kaixin Du, Keqiong Ye, Wenhui Li, Jianhua Sui
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem. Currently-available therapies are ineffective in curing chronic HBV infection. HBV and its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV) infect hepatocytes via binding of the preS1 domain of its large envelope protein to sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). Here, we developed novel human monoclonal antibodies that block the engagement of preS1 with NTCP and neutralize HBV and HDV with high potency. One antibody, 2H5-A14, functions at picomolar level and exhibited neutralization-activity-mediated prophylactic effects...
September 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948755/hepatitis-c-and-liver-transplantation
#14
Silvia Martini
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease represents the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the United States and Europe and HCV recurrence is universal in recipients who are viremic at LT. Until a few years ago, pegylated-interferon in association with ribavirin was the only therapeutic strategy, usable only in compensated cirrhotic patients, in order to prevent post-LT viral recurrence. The recent advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically increased the chances of curative treatment for the transplant population and the debate about which should be the best time for treating the infection is still open: whether to pursue HCV eradication a) before LT, in order to improve liver function, delist some patients and prevent graft infection, or b) as early as possible after LT, rather than c) waiting for hepatitis C recurrence before starting treatment...
September 25, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942620/current-status-and-strategies-for-viral-hepatitis-control-in-korea
#15
REVIEW
Dong Hyun Sinn, Eun Ju Cho, Ji Hoon Kim, Do Young Kim, Yoon Jun Kim, Moon Seok Choi
Viral hepatitis is one of major global health challenges with increasing disease burden worldwide. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are major causes of chronic liver diseases. They can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death in significant portion of affected people. Transmission of hepatitis B virus can be blocked by vaccination. Progression of hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases can be prevented by long-term viral suppression with effective drugs. Although vaccine for hepatitis C virus is currently unavailable, hepatitis C virus infection can be eradicated by oral direct antiviral agents...
September 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939212/fortilin-a-potential-target-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-human-diseases
#16
Decha Pinkaew, Ken Fujise
Fortilin is a highly conserved 172-amino-acid polypeptide found in the cytosol, nucleus, mitochondria, extracellular space, and circulating blood. It is a multifunctional protein that protects cells against apoptosis, promotes cell growth and cell cycle progression, binds calcium (Ca(2+)) and has antipathogen activities. Its role in the pathogenesis of human and animal diseases is also diverse. Fortilin facilitates the development of atherosclerosis, contributes to both systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, participates in the development of cancers, and worsens diabetic nephropathy...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936409/current-scenario-of-hepatitis-b-and-its-treatment-in-india
#17
REVIEW
Gautam Ray
Hepatitis B is a significant public health problem in India, yet disease awareness is very low among the general population. The disease is mostly acquired horizontally, but the role of vertical transmission should not be underestimated. In spite of the fact that the majority of cases are e negative disease, most patients present in the advanced stage and even with hepatocellular carcinoma, the leading cause of which is hepatitis B. High-risk groups (especially tribals) also harbour significant disease burden and have a high prevalence of occult infection, supporting the potential of unknowingly spreading the disease...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935852/single-center-experience-in-pre-transplant-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-treatment-among-living-donor-liver-transplant-candidates-bridging-the-direct-acting-antivirals-daa
#18
Ashwini M Niranjan-Azadi, Gokhan Kabacam, Christine M Durand, Saad Anjum, Behnam Saberi, Nabil N Dagher, Benjamin Philosophe, Ahmet Gurakar
BACKGROUND Treatment with DAAs before deceased donor liver transplantation has been shown to be an effective strategy to prevent post-transplant HCV recurrence, with a 95% cure-rate among individuals who achieve undetectable HCV VL for ≥30 days pre- transplant. This strategy has not been evaluated in LDLT. MATERIAL AND METHODS We evaluated outcomes in LDLT recipients treated with DAAs pre-transplant and bridged with 4 weeks of post-transplant SOF. All cases of LDLT at Johns Hopkins (1/1/2014-3/1/15) were retrospectively reviewed...
September 22, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875827/multiple-myeloma-associated-intestinal-amyloidosis-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction-falsely-considered-as-an-ascites
#19
Vladimir Milivojevic, Maja Stojanovic, Ivan Rankovic, Marjan Micev, Rada Jesic Vukicevic, Tomica Milosavljevic
INTRODUCTION: Amyloidosis is a group of diseases pathohistologicaly diagnosed by characteristic extracellular deposition of an abnormal fibrillary protein (i.e. amyloid) into organs, leading to organ dysfunction secondary to destruction of normal tissue architecture. METHOD: Case-report of a 44 year-old female, presenting with massive abdominal distension clinically suspected of ascites. RESULTS: On admission, the patient was complaining of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, distension and bloating associated with weight loss and diarrhea...
August 29, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860352/factors-contributing-to-the-antiviral-effectiveness-of-tenofovir
#20
REVIEW
Rachel A Murphy, Monica A Valentovic
Over 1 million people in the United States are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which may progress to AIDS. The use of antiviral therapy has successfully controlled the rate of viral growth in patients. Antiviral agents improve the quality of life and reduce the potential for spreading HIV; HIV is currently considered a chronic disease provided patients are compliant with their antiviral medications. Tenofovir is a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor that prevents viral replication and is approved for treatment of HIV and chronic hepatitis B infection...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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