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STD prevention, treatment

M Ibars, A Ardid-Ruiz, M Suárez, B Muguerza, C Bladé, G Aragonès
OBJECTIVE: Dietary obesity is usually linked with hypothalamic leptin resistance, in which the primary impact is an interference in the homeostatic control of body weight and appetite. Notably, proanthocyanidins (PACs), which are the most abundant phenolic compounds present in human diet, modulate adiposity and food intake. The aim of this study was to assess whether PACs could re-establish appropriate leptin signalling in both the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. DESIGN: Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow diet (STD group, n=7) or a cafeteria diet (CD) for 13 weeks...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Angel A Noda, Orestes Blanco, Consuelo Correa, Lissette Pérez, Vivian Kourí, Islay Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and in particular genital ulcer disease (GUD) have a major impact on morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in resource-constrained countries. Surveillance of autochthonous etiologies provides epidemiological information contributing to the prevention and treatment of STIs. We investigated the etiology and factors associated with GUD among male patients attending a STD clinic in Havana, Cuba...
August 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Robert D Kirkcaldy, Alesia Harvey, John R Papp, Carlos Del Rio, Olusegun O Soge, King K Holmes, Edward W Hook, Grace Kubin, Stefan Riedel, Jonathan Zenilman, Kevin Pettus, Tremeka Sanders, Samera Sharpe, Elizabeth Torrone
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States; 350,062 gonorrhea cases were reported in 2014. Sexually transmitted infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are a cause of pelvic inflammatory disease in women, which can lead to serious reproductive complications including tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Prevention of sequelae and of transmission to sexual partners relies largely on prompt detection and effective antimicrobial treatment...
2016: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Creta Elisa Seibt, Maria Cristina Munerato
Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilis has three clinical stages and may present various oral manifestations, mainly at the secondary stage. The disease mimics other more common oral mucosa lesions, going undiagnosed and with no proper treatment. Despite the advancements in medicine toward prevention, diagnosis, and treatment syphilis remains a public health problem worldwide. In this sense, dental surgeons should be able to identify the most common manifestations of the disease in the oral cavity, pointing to the role of this professional in prevention and diagnosis...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sherrill J Slichter, Kraig Abrams, Irena Gettinger, Todd Christoffel, Lakshmi Gaur, Yvette Latchman, Karen Nelson, Esther Pellham, S Lawrence Bailey, Doug Bolgiano
BACKGROUND: Alloimmune platelet (PLT) refractoriness remains a significant problem for chronically transfused patients with thrombocytopenia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In a dog PLT transfusion model, we evaluated ultraviolet B irradiation (UV-B) of donor PLTs-either alone or in combination with centrifuge leukoreduction (C-LR) or filtration leukoreduction (F-LR)-to prevent refractoriness to donor PLTs and to induce tolerance to standard (STD) PLTs from the same donor or to tertiary donors...
May 17, 2016: Transfusion
A J Boyajian, M Murray, M Tucker, N Neu
OBJECTIVE: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is identified as a national challenge due to emerging antimicrobial resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sexually transmitted diseases (STD) Treatment guidelines are updated to address emerging concerns. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the proportion of cases that were adherent to two aspects of the treatment guidelines: antimicrobial treatment and follow-up recommendations and 2) to evaluate differences in adherence based on clinical location...
July 2016: Public Health
Mulamba Diese, Lexman Shrestha, Birendra Pradhan, Dipendra Singh, Hendrikus Raaijmakers, Annefrida Kisesa, Dick Chamla, Mukengeshayi Abel Ntambue
BACKGROUND: In children, integration of HIV in MNCH services has been shown to incr. ease uptake of early infant diagnosis. This article examines bottlenecks and opportunities for scaling up integrated pediatric HIV services in Nepal. METHODS: This is a descriptive study using both mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, conducted in January 2015 in 19 facilities in five regions of Nepal most affected by HIV epidemic. The qualitative methods comprised in-depth structured interviews with key informants (leadership of The National Center for AIDS and STD Control and National Public Health Laboratory, district management teams, medical officers in charge of health facilities and HIV clinics, frontline staff at antenatal care and HIV clinics and laboratory)...
March 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Chin-Chang Chen, Tzung-Yan Lee, Ching-Fai Kwok, Yung-Pei Hsu, Kuang-Chung Shih, Yan-Jie Lin, Low-Tone Ho
Hepatic glucose production is promoted by forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) under conditions of insulin resistance. The overactivity of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) partly causes increased liver fat deposits and metabolic dysfunction in obese rodents by decreasing mitochondrial function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FoxO1 in CB1R-mediated insulin resistance through the dysregulation of mitochondrial function in the livers of mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. For this purpose, male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to groups and either fed a standard diet (STD), a HFD, or a HFD with 1-week treatment of the CB1R inverse agonist, AM251, at 1 or 5 mg/kg...
March 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Wei Zhang, Ling Zhai, Yimin Wang, Rebecca J Boohaker, Wenyan Lu, Vandana V Gupta, Indira Padmalayam, Robert J Bostwick, E Lucile White, Larry J Ross, Joseph Maddry, Subramaniam Ananthan, Corinne E Augelli-Szafran, Mark J Suto, Bo Xu, Rongbao Li, Yonghe Li
Historically, drugs used in the treatment of cancers also tend to cause damage to healthy cells while affecting cancer cells. Therefore, the identification of novel agents that act specifically against cancer cells remains a high priority in the search for new therapies. In contrast with normal cells, most cancer cells contain multiple centrosomes which are associated with genome instability and tumorigenesis. Cancer cells can avoid multipolar mitosis, which can cause cell death, by clustering the extra centrosomes into two spindle poles, thereby enabling bipolar division...
April 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Allison L Friedman, Rachel E Kachur, Seth M Noar, Mary McFarlane
BACKGROUND: Despite the ubiquity of sex in the media, a culture of silence surrounds sexual health in the United States, serving as a barrier to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, testing, and treatment. Campaigns can increase STD-related knowledge, communication, and protective behaviors. This review assesses the effectiveness of STD prevention and testing campaigns in the United States to inform the field on their use as a strategy for affecting behavior change. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original research articles, published between 2000 and 2014, which report on US media campaigns promoting community- or population-level STD testing or prevention behaviors and are evaluated for impact on one or more behavioral outcomes...
February 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Virginia B Bowen, Elizabeth A Torrone, Thomas A Peterman
BACKGROUND: Verifying correct treatment of reported cases of gonorrhea may slow antibiotic resistance, but verification remains challenging for many sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs due to increased laboratory case reporting and decreased provider reporting. The objectives of this study were to document current reported levels of correct treatment of gonorrhea and to identify approaches and barriers to verifying treatment. METHODS: We reviewed funding opportunity reports for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's directly funded STD programs and conducted key-informant interviews to elicit further treatment verification details...
February 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Mihai Dorin Vartolomei, Ovidiu Simion Cotoi, Mihail Alexandru Badea, Calin Bogdan Chibelean, Titiana Cotoi, Violeta Morariu, Cosmin Albu, Silviu Horia Morariu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Sunil Sethi, Abhishek Mewara, Vinaykumar Hallur, Amber Prasad, Kusum Sharma, Atul Raj
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Syphilis is a classical sexually transmitted disease (STD), caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. In this retrospective study, we analyzed trends of syphilis prevalence in patient groups attending our tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data was obtained by reviewing laboratory records of the STD laboratory from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2011. Cases positive by both Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) tests were analyzed for seroprevalence of syphilis in different groups, and to analyze the rising or falling trends, if any...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Jader Dornelas Neto, Amanda Sayuri Nakamura, Lucia Elaine Ranieri Cortez, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi
The prolongation of an active sexual life in addition to unsafe practices are reflected in the possibility of the occurrence of STDs among the elderly. The scope of this study is to analyze the evolving trend of STDs among the elderly in Brazil and in the world and also to identify the main issues addressed in the literature, providing data that can support public policies that address the health of the elderly. A systematic search was performed in the Lilacs, IBECS, Cochrane Library, Medline, SciELO and PubMed databases...
December 2015: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
S J Dotson, M D Howard, M Aung, J A Keenan, P E Jolly
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the epidemiology of prostate cancer (PCa) in western Jamaica and describe the health-seeking behaviour of at-risk men. METHODS: This study contained both quantitative and qualitative components. The quantitative portion consisted of a retrospective, matched case-control study of two hundred and four men attending outpatient clinics who completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The qualitative component consisted of two focus group discussions designed to further investigate health-seeking behaviour and preferred educational channels regarding PCa...
May 8, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Jane R Schwebke, Jeannette Y Lee, Shelly Lensing, Susan S Philip, Harold C Wiesenfeld, Arlene C Seña, Nikole Trainor, Nincoshka Acevado, Lisa Saylor, Ann M Rompalo, Robert L Cook
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies have consistently found a significant association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. However, there are limited prospective data to confirm these findings. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label trial of home screening and treatment of young women with asymptomatic BV who were also at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases. These women were screened every 2 months for 12 months and randomized to treatment with oral metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 7 days or observation alone...
March 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
E Lanjouw, S Ouburg, H J de Vries, A Stary, K Radcliffe, M Unemo
SummaryChlamydia trachomatis infections are major public health concerns globally. Of particular grave concern is that the majority of persons with anogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic and accordingly not aware of their infection, and this silent infection can subsequently result in severe reproductive tract complications and sequelae. The current review paper provides all background, evidence base and discussions for the 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (Lanjouw E, et al...
November 24, 2015: International Journal of STD & AIDS
E Lanjouw, S Ouburg, H J de Vries, A Stary, K Radcliffe, M Unemo
Chlamydia trachomatis infections, which most frequently are asymptomatic, are major public health concerns globally. The 2015 European C. trachomatis guideline provides: up-to-date guidance regarding broader indications for testing and treatment of C. trachomatis infections; a clearer recommendation of using exclusively-validated nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis; advice on (repeated) C. trachomatis testing; the recommendation of increased testing to reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease and prevent exposure to infection; and recommendations to identify, verify and report C...
April 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Kenneth H Mayer, Raman Gangakhedkar, Murugesan Sivasubramanian, Katie B Biello, Nadia Abuelezam, Sandeep Mane, Arun Risbud, Vivek Anand, Steven Safren, Matthew J Mimiaga
BACKGROUND: Although HIV incidence has declined in India, men and transgender women who have sex with men (MSM) continue to have high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD). Indian MSM face substantial pressures to marry and have families, but the HIV/STD burden among married Indian MSM is not well characterized. METHODS: A diverse sample of Indian MSM were recruited through respondent-driven sampling. Independent variables that produced a P value of 0...
November 2015: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Zhonghua Wang, Akash Bhattacharya, Dmitri N Ivanov
The human antigen R (HuR) stabilizes many mRNAs of proto-oncogene, transcription factors, cytokines and growth factors by recognizing AU-rich elements (AREs) presented in their 3' or 5' untranslated region (UTR). Multiple lines of experimental evidence suggest that this process plays a key role in cancer development. Thus, destabilizing HuR/RNA interaction by small molecules presents an opportunity for cancer treatment/prevention. Here we present an integrated approach to identify inhibitors of HuR/RNA interaction using a combination of fluorescence-based and NMR-based high throughput screening (HTS)...
2015: PloS One
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