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Tao Zhang, Shengxu Li, Lydia Bazzano, Jiang He, Paul Whelton, Wei Chen
This longitudinal study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood and examine the impact of level-independent childhood BP trajectories on adult left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and remodeling patterns. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 1154 adults (787 whites and 367 blacks) who had repeated measurements of BP 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years) and assessment of echocardiographic LV dimensions in adulthood. Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP at childhood age points were calculated in 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
Anders W Bjerring, Hege Ew Landgraff, Svein Leirstein, Anette Aaeng, Hamza Z Ansari, Jørg Saberniak, Klaus Murbræch, Henrik Bruun, Thomas M Stokke, Kristina H Haugaa, Jostein Hallén, Thor Edvardsen, Sebastian I Sarvari
Background Athlete's heart is a term used to describe the morphological and functional changes in the hearts of athletes. Recent studies suggest that these changes may occur even in preadolescent athletes. This study aims to improve our understanding of the changes occurring in the preadolescent athlete's heart. Design and methods Cardiac morphology and function in 76 preadolescent cross-country skiers (aged 12.1 ± 0.2 years) were compared with 25 age-matched non-competing preadolescents. Echocardiography was performed in all subjects, including 2D speckle-tracking strain echocardiography and 3D echocardiography...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Alva Tang, Ayelet Lahat, Michael J Crowley, Jia Wu, Louis A Schmidt
Although the neural correlates of social exclusion have been well-documented, most studies have examined single age groups. No studies have directly compared specific age-related differences in social exclusion across children, adolescents, and adults using event-related oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics. The authors examined event-related theta EEG power and phase coherence in fair play and social exclusion conditions during the Cyberball task in 166 participants: 42 children (ages 10-12), 56 adolescents (ages 14-17), and 68 adults (ages 18-28)...
May 21, 2018: Emotion
Bin Lian, Jun Gao, Nan Sui, Tingyong Feng, Ming Li
Animals have the ability to process information about an object or a conspecific's physical features and location, and alter its behavior when such information is updated. In the laboratory, the object, spatial and social recognition are often studied in separate tasks, making them unsuitable to study the potential dissociations and interactions among various types of recognition memories. The present study introduced a single paradigm to detect the object and spatial recognition, and social recognition of a familiar and novel conspecific...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Masamichi Ono, Elisabeth Beran, Melchior Burri, Julie Cleuziou, Jelena Pabst von Ohain, Martina Strbad, Christoph Röhlig, Alfred Hager, Jürgen Hörer, Christian Schreiber, Rüdiger Lange
OBJECTIVES: Patients with a single ventricle infrequently undergo total cavopulmonary connection as preadolescents, adolescents, or adults. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of this cohort and to analyze the factors influencing outcomes. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2015, 50 of 460 patients underwent total cavopulmonary connection as preadolescents, adolescents, or adults (group A). The patients' characteristics and operative results were compared with those of the remaining 410 patients aged less than 9 years who underwent total cavopulmonary connection (group B)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Maymouna Mourouvaye Payet, Laure Woestelandt
Suicide attempts in children and adolescents are a major public health concern. Although the suicide of children remains, fortunately, infrequent, this phenomenon has been constantly increasing since 2009. While many studies have been conducted on adolescent suicidal behaviour, less attention has been paid to suicide attempts in children and preadolescents. Screening for children who are more likely to be suicidal must be performed as early as possible by general practitioners, paediatricians and school doctors...
May 2018: Soins. Psychiatrie
Ajmera Deepal Haresh, Singh Pradeep, Jinlin Song, Chao Wang, Yubo Fan
INTRODUCTION: The aim of commencing treatment in younger age is to rectify the developing dento-alveolar, skeletal and muscular imbalances. With growing dependence on arch development and expansion, the pendulum is oscillating more towards the non-extraction treatment lately, in resolving constriction and crowding issues. Since, a limited number of attempts have been made for mandibular expansion, this study aimes to evaluate the effect of different modes and sites of loading on the expansion of preadolescent mandible using biomechanics...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Miguel Saps, Carlos Alberto Velasco-Benitez, Amber Hamid Langshaw, Carmen Rosy Ramírez-Hernández
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children using Rome IV criteria and to compare the prevalence of FGIDs using Rome IV with Rome III criteria. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study using the same methods as our previous study on FGIDs in Colombia. The Questionnaire of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rome IV version was translated into Spanish, followed by reverse translation. Terms were adjusted to children's language by using focus groups of children...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Lauren Raine, Eric Drollette, Shih-Chun Kao, Daniel Westfall, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Arthur F Kramer, Naiman Khan, Charles Hillman
Although obesity has been related to measures of academic achievement and cognition in children, the influence of fat distribution, specifically visceral adiposity, on select aspects of achievement and cognitive function remains poorly characterized among preadolescent children. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue, on achievement and cognitive function among children. METHODS: Children with obesity (ages 7-9 years old, N= 55, 35 females) completed cognitive and academic tests...
April 27, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Talía Malagón, Cassandra Laurie, Eduardo L Franco
Vaccine herd effects are the indirect protection that vaccinated persons provide to those who remain susceptible to infection, due to the reduced transmission of infections. Herd effects have been an important part of the discourse on how to best implement human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and prevent HPV-related diseases. Areas covered: In this paper, we review the theory of HPV vaccine herd effects derived from mathematical models, give an account of observed HPV vaccine herd effects worldwide, and examine the implications of vaccine herd effects for future cervical cancer screening efforts...
May 1, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Frédérique R E Smink, Daphne van Hoeken, Jan Kornelis Dijkstra, Mathijs Deen, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Hans W Hoek
OBJECTIVE: Self-esteem is implied as a factor in the development of eating disorders. In adolescence peers have an increasing influence. Support for the role of self-esteem in eating disorders is ambiguous and little is known about the influence of social status as judged by others. The present study investigates whether self-esteem and peer status in early adolescence are associated with eating pathology in young adulthood. METHOD: This study is part of TRAILS, a longitudinal cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into adulthood...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Nevena Dimitrova, Hélène Turpin, Ayala Borghini, Mathilde Morisod Harari, Sébastien Urben, Carole Müller-Nix
BACKGROUND: Very preterm (VPT) birth refers to an early stressful event putting children at heightened risk for emotional difficulties. However, there is an important individual variability, leaving unexplained why some VPT children do not develop emotional difficulties, while others develop such difficulties in the early years or later in life. AIM: In this study, we examined whether perinatal stress is a risk factor explaining heterogeneities in emotional problems in VPT children...
April 24, 2018: Early Human Development
Adnan Khan, Youngja H Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Cushla R McCarthny, Xin Du, YeeWen Candace Wu, Rachel A Hill
Sex steroid hormones have neuroprotective properties which may be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This study sought to determine the interactive effects of preadolescent hormone manipulation and BDNF heterozygosity (+/- ) on hippocampal NMDA-R expression. Wild-type and BDNF+/- mice were gonadectomised, and females received either 17 β -estradiol or progesterone treatment, while males received either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment. Dorsal (DHP) and ventral hippocampus (VHP) were dissected, and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 was assessed by Western blot analysis...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Aneta Krakowski, Abel Ickowicz
Objective: To consider whether the concepts of tolerance and withdrawal to stimulant medications apply to a preadolescent female, affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and treated for associated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: We describe the case history and review scientific English language literature pertaining to acute withdrawal effects associated with methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives in children. Results: An 11-year-old female with ASD and ADHD referred to our clinic experienced vomiting, headaches, and light sensitivity following abrupt discontinuation of methylphenidate; she subsequently presented with migraines and marked malaise immediately after a dose reduction in lisdexamfetamine...
April 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Lorianna Colon, Natalie Odynocki, Anthony Santarelli, Andrew M Poulos
Development and sex differentiation impart an organizational influence on the neuroanatomy and behavior of mammalian species. Prior studies suggest that brain regions associated with fear motivated defensive behavior undergo a protracted and sex-dependent development. Outside of adult animals, evidence for developmental sex differences in conditioned fear is sparse. Here, we examined in male and female Long-Evans rats how developmental age and sex affect the long-term retention and generalization of Pavlovian fear responses...
May 2018: Learning & Memory
Philip J Morgan, Myles D Young, Alyce T Barnes, Narelle Eather, Emma R Pollock, David R Lubans
Background: Existing strategies to increase girls' physical activity levels have seen limited success. Fathers may influence their children's physical activity, but often spend more time with their sons and rarely participate in family-based programs. Purpose: To test a novel program designed to increase the physical activity levels of fathers and their daughters. Methods: In a two-arm RCT, 115 fathers (29-53 years) and 153 daughters (4-12 years) were randomized to (i) the "Dads And Daughters Exercising and Empowered" (DADEE) program, or (ii) a wait-list control...
April 10, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycien, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
INTRODUCTION: Studies on the anthropometric characteristics of athletes have a long history, but there are no published reviews on the somatotype of artistic gymnasts. Practitioners and professional coaches can gain guidance from improved understanding of the ideal body constitution and the impact of high-intensity training since preadolescence on body build. The present review is designed to provide this information. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, Medline, Google Scholar, and ResearchGate were searched in January 2017...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Marko Kostovski, Viktor Simeonovski, Kristina Mironska, Velibor Tasic, Zoran Gucev
BACKGROUND: In the past several decades, the increasing frequency of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the world has become a public health problem. It has contributed significantly to the already high tide of diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. AIM: To investigate the frequency of insulin resistance and to evaluate the metabolic profile of insulin resistant and non-insulin resistant obese children and adolescents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 96 (45 boys, 51 girls) obese children and adolescents aged 4-17 years old (10...
March 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Charmaine Borg, Jessica Hinzmann, Janika Heitmann, Peter J de Jong
For prepubertal youth, sexual stimuli elicit disgust and avoidance, yet in adolescence this avoidance shifts to sexual approach. One explanation could be that disgust declines in adolescence. This project examined whether disgust is indeed lower in adolescence compared to preadolescence, and whether this difference across age groups would be restricted to sex-relevant disgust elicitors. We also examined whether the strength of disgust would depend on familiarity between participant and source. To examine disgust responses in youths, two cross-sectional studies (N = 248, ages six to 17 years) were conducted using scenario-based measurements...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
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