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William M Jackson, Nicholas Davis, Stephen A Sands, Robert A Whittington, Lena S Sun
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? CONTEXT: The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
George Moschonis, Ellen G H M van den Heuvel, Christina Mavrogianni, Cécile M Singh-Povel, Michalis Leotsinidis, Yannis Manios
The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B₂ and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined...
October 13, 2016: Nutrients
Alice Rodrigues Willhelm, Paula Madeira Fortes, Fernanda Rasch Czermainski, Aline Schwalm Andrade Rates, Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida
Introduction: The aim of neuropsychological assessment is to understand the multifaceted relationship between behavior, cognition and brain organization. The main objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on impulsivity and inhibitory control in healthy adolescents and preadolescents. Method: Three researchers conducted a systematic review on November 25, 2014. The first step was to conduct searches on the Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases for articles in English using the following keywords: child; adolescents; impulsivity; inhibition; inhibitory control; and neuropsychology...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Laura Senst, Dinara Baimoukhametova, Toni-Lee Sterley, Jaideep Singh Bains
Many species use social networks to buffer the effects of stress. The mere absence of a social network, however, may also be stressful. We examined neuroendocrine, PVN CRH neurons and report that social isolation alters the intrinsic properties of these cells in sexually dimorphic fashion. Specifically, isolating preadolescent female mice from littermates for <24 hr increased first spike latency (FSL) and decreased excitability of CRH neurons. These changes were not evident in age-matched males. By contrast, subjecting either males (isolated or grouped) or group housed females to acute physical stress (swim), increased FSL...
October 11, 2016: ELife
Shih-Chun Kao, Eric S Drollette, Mark R Scudder, Lauren B Raine, Daniel R Westfall, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
The authors used a conditional accuracy function (CAF) method to compute the mean accuracy of multiple reaction time ranges, to investigate the association between aerobic fitness and the utilization of cognitive control strategy during preadolescence. Thirty-eight higher- and lower-fit children were grouped according to their cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2max) and completed a modified flanker task. Seventeen young adults were recruited as a reference group of maturation. The results showed that higher-fit children exhibited an adult-like performance pattern, and demonstrated increased overall response accuracy compared to lower-fit children, with a disproportionally larger increase in individual responses when the time allowed for discriminative processing was constrained...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
I Fernández-Prieto, C Caprile, D Tinoco-González, B Ristol-Orriols, A López-Sala, P Póo-Argüelles, F Pons, J Navarra
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness...
October 3, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Ashley Acheson, Sarah L Lake, Bethany C Bray, Yuanyuan Liang, Charles W Mathias, Stacy R Ryan, Nora E Charles, Donald M Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Problem substance use often begins in adolescence. This vulnerability likely stems, at least partially, from relatively rapid increases in sensation seeking occurring in early to mid-adolescence and more gradual improvements in impulse control occurring through later adolescence. Better understanding how these processes develop in high-risk youth may lead to enhanced substance use disorder treatment and prevention strategies. METHODS: We characterized trajectories of self-reported impulsivity and sensation seeking in 305 FH+ youths who at minimum had a father with a history of alcohol or other drug use disorders and 81 youths with no family histories of substance use disorders (FH-)...
October 5, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Caterina Borgna-Pignatti, Sara Zanella
Pica is the compulsive eating of non-nutritive substances. It is often associated with iron deficiency but its pathophysiology is unknown. Areas covered: We searched the literature using the keywords listed below. Our aim was to describe the phenomenon in its various aspects, to touch briefly on the historical and cultural background, and to examine in more detail the studies that tried to analyze the relative roles of iron deficiency and pica. Expert commentary: Pica is an intriguing symptom known for centuries...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Eric R Murphy, Megan Norr, John F Strang, Lauren Kenworthy, William D Gaillard, Chandan J Vaidya
We examined spontaneous attention orienting to visual salience in stimuli without social significance using a modified Dot-Probe task during functional magnetic resonance imaging in high-functioning preadolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and age- and IQ-matched control children. While the magnitude of attentional bias (faster response to probes in the location of solid color patch) to visually salient stimuli was similar in the groups, activation differences in frontal and temporoparietal regions suggested hyper-sensitivity to visual salience or to sameness in ASD children...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Joanna Helena Sliwowska, Wendy L Comeau, Tamara S Bodnar, Linda Ellis, Joanne Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Reproductive maturation is initiated with the onset of puberty, which activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and coincidences with increased expression of the hormone kisspeptin within the hypothalamus. Maturational events are sensitive to environmental factors, including alcohol, which is known to delay reproductive development. We hypothesized that, similar to alcohol's adverse effects during reproductive maturation, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) would alter pubertal markers, sex hormone profiles, and kisspeptin expression in the hypothalamus...
September 30, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
BreAnne A Danzi, Annette M La Greca
BACKGROUND: Different criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been recommended by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the proposed 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Although children are vulnerable to PTSD following disasters, little is known about whether these revised criteria are appropriate for preadolescents, as diagnostic revisions have been based primarily on adult research...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Grazyna Kochanska, Rebecca L Brock, Lea J Boldt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Amélie Bremare, Nicolas Girardon, Mélanie Margot
Within the framework of cooperation between the physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) department and psychiatry department in our establishment with care and education, we have created in 2006 a unit with both somatic and psychic care, allowing management of preadolescents and adolescents suffering from complex somatoform disorder with pain in full-time hospitalization. They have chronic pain associated with motor exclusion of a limb, which have for consequence a participation restriction on scholar and extra-scholar activities with a larger impact than it should be...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Wanda Urbanova, Irena Klimova, Andrzej Brudnicki, Petra Polackova, Daniela Kroupova, Ivana Dubovska, Martin Rachwalski, Piotr Stanislaw Fudalej
Results of a comparison of the outcomes of treatment of cleft lip and palate can be affected by growth characteristics of populations from which subjects with the clefts are derived. Moreover, conventional cephalometric techniques used in cleft studies for analysis of facial morphology provide only a partial description of shape and are confounded by biases regarding the reference structures. In this retrospective comparison, craniofacial morphology of preadolescent patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate treated in Warsaw (n = 35, age = 10...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Takako Shirasawa, Hirotaka Ochiai, Hinako Nanri, Rimei Nishimura, Keiichiro Ikeda, Hiromi Hoshino, Akatsuki Kokaze
BACKGROUND: Distorted body image may be important risk factors for being underweight and overweight. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between having a distorted body image and being overweight or underweight among normal weight preadolescents in a population-based cohort study in Japan for each sex. METHODS: The study participants were 1431 normal weight fourth-grade students (age range: 9-10 years) in Ina town, Japan from 2002 to 2007...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Stephanie Feldstein, Maryam Afshar, Andrew C Krakowski, Lawrence F Eichenfield
PURPOSE: Studies have documented practice gaps in acne management between pediatricians and dermatologists. Evidence-based recommendations for acne management were published by the American Acne and Rosacea Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2013. We assess the impact of a case-based learning intervention on pediatrician knowledge and treatment of acne in accordance with published recommendations. METHODS: Participants were recruited at four conferences for pediatric providers...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Phetsavanh Chanthavilay, Daniel Reinharz, Mayfong Mayxay, Keokedthong Phongsavan, Donald E Marsden, Lynne Moore, Lisa J White
BACKGROUND: Several approaches to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancers exist. The approach adopted should take into account contextual factors that influence the cost-effectiveness of the available options. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies combined with a vaccination program for 10-year old girls for cervical cancer prevention in Vientiane, Lao PDR. METHODS: A population-based dynamic compartment model was constructed...
2016: PloS One
Sara Agnafors, Carl Göran Svedin, Lars Oreland, Marie Bladh, Erika Comasco, Gunilla Sydsjö
An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on preadolescence behavior. Data from 889 children and mothers from a birth cohort were used. An adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children's experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament, social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence...
September 15, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Keita Kamijo, Hiroaki Masaki
A growing number of studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated that greater aerobic fitness is associated with superior cognitive control in preadolescent children. Several studies have suggested that the relationship between fitness and cognitive control may be attributed to differential reliance on proactive vs. reactive cognitive control modes. However, this contention has remained speculative, and further studies are needed to better elucidate this relationship. We designed the present study to test the hypothesis that use of cognitive control modes would differ as a function of childhood fitness...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Amy V Lukowski, Susan E Young, Chad D Morris, David Tinkelman
BACKGROUND: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest smoking prevalence (29.2%) of any other racial/ethnic group in the United States and lower quit rates. Comprehensive health care services, including commercial tobacco cessation treatments, are difficult to access for many AI/AN individuals due to poverty, the rural distribution of tribal territories, cultural barriers and the lack of funding for these programs. Due, in part, to these health care gaps, AI/AN communities are disproportionally affected by nicotine dependence and associated chronic medical and psychiatric conditions...
June 17, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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