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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525582/challenges-in-the-estimation-of-the-annual-risk-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-children-aged-under-5-years
#1
P Y Khan, J R Glynn, T Mzembe, D Mulawa, R Chiumya, A C Crampin, K Kranzer, K L Fielding
Accurate estimates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in young children provide a critical indicator of on-going community M.tb transmission. Cross reactions due to infection with environmental mycobacteria and/or Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination compromise the estimates derived from population-level tuberculin skin test surveys using traditional cut-off methods. Newer statistical approaches are prone to failure of model convergence, especially in settings where the prevalence of M.tb infection is low and environmental sensitisation is high...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522090/hearing-loss-mediates-executive-function-impairment-in-sleep-disordered-breathing
#2
Catherine M Hill, Romola S Bucks, Colin R Kennedy, Dawn Harrison, Annette Carroll, Nicolas Upton, Alexandra M Hogan
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is often co-morbid with conductive hearing loss in early childhood due to a shared aetiology of adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Hearing loss is independently associated with impairment of executive function and behavioural difficulties. We hypothesised that these impairments in children with SDB may be mediated through hearing loss. METHODS: Fifty-eight children including 37 snorers awaiting adenotonsillectomy and 21 healthy non-snoring controls, aged 3-5 years, were assessed with pure tone audiometry, Strengths and Difficulties (SDQ), Behaviour Rating of Executive Function (BRIEF-P), and Childhood Middle Ear Disease and Hearing questionnaires...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496248/fluoride-varnish-our-only-hope
#3
(no author information available yet)
Outcomes and costs of pre-school and school-based fluoride varnish pilots.
May 12, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493861/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-and-neuropsychological-development-in-pre-school-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Maribel Casas, Joan Forns, David Martínez, Mònica Guxens, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Jesus Ibarluzea, Nerea Lertxundi, Mario Murcia, Marisa Rebagliato, Adonina Tardon, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may impair infant neuropsychological development, but it is unclear if intrauterine or confounding factors drive this association. METHODS: We assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with neuropsychological development in 1,827 Spanish children. At 5 years, cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed using McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms using the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482682/longitudinal-development-of-cognitive-visuomotor-and-adaptive-behavior-skills-in-hiv-uninfected-children-aged-3-5-years-of-age-exposed-pre-and-perinatally-to-anti-retroviral-medications
#5
Mary Lou Smith, Klajdi Puka, Ramandeep Sehra, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Little is known about the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children older than 3 years of age born to HIV infected mother but who are HIV-uninfected (HEU), and who have been exposed in utero and early in life to HIV and to antiretroviral medications (ARVs). We conducted a longitudinal study of cognitive, visuomotor and adaptive function of HEU children, who were assessed at two ages, 3.5 and 5.5 years. Sixty-four children (33 female) were assessed. In comparison with population norms for their age, at 3.5 years of age they had scores significantly below age expectations on aspects of adaptive behavior, but at age 5...
May 8, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479497/maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-childhood-bone-fractures-in-offspring-a-birth-cohort-study-of-6718-children
#6
Roope Parviainen, Juha Auvinen, Tytti Pokka, Willy Serlo, Juha-Jaakko Sinikumpu
In children there is limited understanding about the biological and environmental risk factors of fractures. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of maternal smoking on preschool children's fractures hypothesizing that the fracture risk might be programmed during intrauterine growth in means of disturbed bone formation. A prospective birth cohort included women living in Northern Finland with an expected date of delivery between July 1st, 1985 and June 30th, 1986 (N=9362), and their offspring (N=9432). Smoking was inquired during pregnancy and when the offspring reached seven years of age...
May 4, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475770/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-indirect-protection-afforded-by-vaccinating-children-against-seasonal-influenza-implications-for-policy
#7
J Kevin Yin, Anita E Heywood, Melina Georgousakis, Catherine King, Clayton Chiu, David Isaacs, Kristine K Macartney
BACKGROUND: Universal childhood vaccination is a potential solution to reduce seasonal influenza burden. METHODS: We reviewed systematically the literature on 'herd'/indirect protection from vaccinating children aged 0·5-<18 years against influenza. RESULTS: Of 30 studies included, 14 (including one cluster-randomized-controlled trial [cRCT]) used live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine, 11 (seven cRCTs) used inactivated-influenza-vaccine, and five (one cRCT) compared both vaccine types...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474248/a-potential-role-for-staphylococcal-and-streptococcal-superantigens-in-driving-skewing-of-tcr-v%C3%AE-subsets-in-tonsillar-hyperplasia
#8
Fiona J Radcliff, Fiona Clow, Murali Mahadevan, James Johnston, Thomas Proft, Richard G Douglas, John D Fraser
The TCR Vβ repertoire from patients with recurrent tonsillitis and/or tonsillar hyperplasia was examined to determine whether the TCR Vβ composition is suggestive of local superantigen activity and if so, whether it is associated with the presence of superantigen producing bacteria. Tonsil specimens were cultured aerobically to allow identification and isolation of the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Group A Streptococcus. TCR Vβ subset analysis of tonsil leucocytes was performed by flow cytometry...
May 4, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474076/-diversified-health-education-mode-applied-in-oral-health-care-of-preschool-children
#9
Li-Min Tao, Yu-Mei Zao, Lian-Bin Gu, Juan Shen, Cheng-Jun Liu
PURPOSE: In regard to the current problems and deficiencies of preschool children's oral health, diversity of health education intervention was carried out, and the effect was evaluated. METHODS: Three kindergartens in Pudong New District were randomly selected. The children's age ranged from 4 to 5 years old. One hundred and ten children from one kindergarten were randomly selected as the intervention group, executing special health training and various related health education activities for a period of 1 year...
February 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471864/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-a-cross-sectional-population-based-comparison-of-disease-severity-in-pre-school-and-school-age-children
#10
Christopher Stephen Inchley, Are Stuwitz Berg, Afsaneh Vahdani Benam, Anne Katrine Kvissel, Truls Michael Leegaard, Britt Nakstad
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) causes epidemics of upper respiratory disease and pneumonia. It is thought that MP usually causes milder upper respiratory disease in pre-school children, with a greater chance of pneumonia in school-age children. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we present evidence that severe MP infection is more common in pre-school children than previously thought. METHODS: During an MP epidemic in our area widespread health service and public awareness lead to extensive testing for MP...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453710/prescription-of-antibiotics-to-pre-school-children-from-2005-to-2014-in-japan-a-retrospective-claims-database-study
#11
Satomi Yoshida, Masato Takeuchi, Koji Kawakami
Background: Antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed medications for children but inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is prevalent. The purpose of our study was to access the nationwide trend in antibiotic prescriptions, and to ascertain inappropriate prescribing for upper respiratory infections (URIs) in pre-school children in Japan. Methods: Data from the administrative claims database from 2005 January to 2014 September in Japan were examined. We identified outpatient antibiotic prescription claims and described prescription patterns of subjects who were followed from birth to 6 years of age...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449690/daily-home-fortification-with-iron-as-ferrous-fumarate-versus-nafeedta-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-non-inferiority-trial-in-kenyan-children
#12
Emily M Teshome, Pauline E A Andang'o, Victor Osoti, Sofie R Terwel, Walter Otieno, Ayşe Y Demir, Andrew M Prentice, Hans Verhoef
BACKGROUND: We aimed to show the non-inferiority of home fortification with a daily dose of 3 mg iron in the form of iron as ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) compared with 12.5 mg iron as encapsulated ferrous fumarate in Kenyan children aged 12-36 months. In addition, we updated a recent meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of home fortification with iron-containing powders, with a view to examining diversity in trial results. METHODS: We gave chemoprevention by dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, albendazole and praziquantel to 338 afebrile children with haemoglobin concentration ≥70 g/L...
April 28, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442229/changing-attitudes-to-childhood-immunisation-in-english-parents
#13
Helen Campbell, Angela Edwards, Louise Letley, Helen Bedford, Mary Ramsay, Joanne Yarwood
OBJECTIVES: We undertook a national survey of parental attitudes to childhood vaccinations and compared results with those in earlier comparable surveys covering a 10year period. METHODS: We randomly selected 275 nationally representative sampling locations in England. Interviewers identified eligible primary care givers (referred to as parents) of children aged from 2months to <5years and conducted home-based interviews between January and April 2015. We aimed to recruit 1000 parents of children aged 0-2years and 1000 of children aged 3-4years...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435122/global-motion-perception-is-related-to-motor-function-in-4-5-year-old-children-born-at-risk-of-abnormal-development
#14
Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola S Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Nabin Paudel, Linda L LaGasse, Barry M Lester, Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane E Harding, Trecia A Wouldes, Benjamin Thompson
Global motion perception is often used as an index of dorsal visual stream function in neurodevelopmental studies. However, the relationship between global motion perception and visuomotor control, a primary function of the dorsal stream, is unclear. We measured global motion perception (motion coherence threshold; MCT) and performance on standardized measures of motor function in 606 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Visual acuity, stereoacuity and verbal IQ were also assessed...
April 28, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433776/increasing-water-intake-in-pre-school-children-with-unhealthy-drinking-habits-a-year-long-controlled-longitudinal-field-experiment-assessing-the-impact-of-information-water-affordance-and-social-regulation
#15
Bradley Franks, Saadi Lahlou, Jeanne H Bottin, Isabelle Guelinckx, Sabine Boesen-Mariani
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of three interventions to increase the plain water consumption of children with unhealthy drinking habits, with an innovative approach combining the three layers of Installation Theory: embodied competences, affordances and social regulation. METHODS: 334 preschool children and their carers were allocated to three interventions: Control (control): no intervention, Information (info): online coaching sessions on water health benefits aiming at modifying embodied competences (knowledge), Information + Water Affordance (info + w): the same plus home delivery of small bottles of water...
April 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428597/outcomes-and-costs-of-pre-school-and-school-based-fluoride-varnish-pilots
#16
S Buckingham, J H John
Objective Fluoride varnish (FV) applications reduce the risk of dental decay in research trials. These pilots were conducted to test the feasibility and costs of providing FV applications in schools. Changes in dental decay levels were also monitored.Methods Data were collected on the proportion of children with dental decay, mean number of teeth affected and whether the child had attended for dental care. The cost of delivering the intervention was calculated.Results More children were reported to be attending for dental care by the end of the pilot than at the start...
April 21, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427379/novel-mutation-identified-in-severe-early-onset-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-periodic-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
Suhas M Radhakrishna, Amy Grimm, Lori Broderick
BACKGROUND: Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS) is the second most common heritable autoinflammatory disease, typically presenting in pre-school aged children with fever episodes lasting 1-3 weeks. Systemic symptoms can include rash, myalgia, ocular inflammation, and serositis. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report an unusual presentation of TRAPS in a 7 month old girl who presented with only persistent fever. She was initially diagnosed with incomplete Kawasaki Disease and received IVIG and infliximab; however, her fevers quickly recurred...
April 20, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416041/child-targeted-fast-food-television-advertising-exposure-is-linked-with-fast-food-intake-among-pre-school-children
#18
Madeline A Dalton, Meghan R Longacre, Keith M Drake, Lauren P Cleveland, Jennifer L Harris, Kristy Hendricks, Linda J Titus
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to child-targeted fast-food (FF) television (TV) advertising is associated with children's FF intake in a non-experimental setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted April-December 2013. Parents reported their pre-school child's TV viewing time, channels watched and past-week FF consumption. Responses were combined with a list of FF commercials (ads) aired on children's TV channels during the same period to calculate children's exposure to child-targeted TV ads for the following chain FF restaurants: McDonald's, Subway and Wendy's (MSW)...
April 18, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415004/types-of-household-humidifier-disinfectant-and-associated-risk-of-lung-injury-hdli-in-south-korea
#19
Dong-Uk Park, Seung-Hun Ryu, Heung-Kyu Lim, Sun-Kyung Kim, Ye-Yong Choi, Jong-Ju Ahn, Eun Lee, Sang-Bum Hong, Kyung-Hyun Do, Jae-Lim Cho, Mun-Joo Bae, Dong-Chun Shin, Do-Myung Paek, Soo-Jong Hong
From 2002 through 2015, hundreds of people died of fatal lung injuries associated with the use of humidifier disinfectants (HDs) in Korea. Several chemical disinfectants used for household humidifiers were later clinically confirmed to cause HD-associated lung injury (HDLI). The aim of this study is to evaluate the registered lung disease cases and to compare the distribution of HDLI patients, including deaths, by HD use characteristics including types of HD and HD brands categorized by age group. A total of 530 registered were clinically examined through two rounds of investigations conducted from July 2013 until April 2015...
April 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403704/nursing-management-of-reflex-anoxic-seizures-in-children
#20
Neal Patel, Rowan Kerr-Liddell, Louise Challis, Siba Prosad Paul
Children who present with transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC) are often first seen in emergency departments (EDs). Reflex anoxic seizure (RAS), vasovagal syncope and prolonged respiratory apnoea are benign, syncopal events that can be generally managed by explanation and reassurance. RAS is a short, paroxysmal, self-reverting episode of asystole that is triggered by pain, fear or anxiety and is caused by increased vagal response. It is an important differential diagnosis in pre-school age children who present with T-LOC, but is often underdiagnosed and can sometimes be misdiagnosed as epilepsy...
April 13, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
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