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Christine Delisle Nyström, Pontus Henriksson, Anna Ek, Hanna Henriksson, Francisco B Ortega, Jonatan R Ruiz, Marie Löf
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Due to the increase in childhood obesity, identifying children with excess body fat as early as possible is essential. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a marker of body fat in children, adolescents, and adults, yet whether BMI is a valid marker of body fat in pre-school aged children remains to be confirmed. Therefore, we analyzed the associations of BMI with fat and fat-free mass in healthy 4-year-old Swedish children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study comprised of 303 children (135 girls) participating in the MINISTOP obesity prevention trial...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Pauline M Christmas, Catherine Sackley, Max G Feltham, Carole Cummins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and short-term efficacy of caregiver-directed constraint-induced movement therapy to improve upper limb function in young children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with masked assessment. SETTING: Community paediatric therapy services. SUBJECTS: Pre-school children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. INTERVENTIONS: Caregiver-directed constraint-induced movement therapy administered using either 24-hour short-arm restraint device (prolonged) or intermittent holding restraint during therapy (manual)...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Juliet Imeson, Robyn Lowe, Mark Onslow, Natalie Munro, Rob Heard, Sue O'Brian, Simone Arnott
This study was driven by the need to understand the mechanisms underlying Lidcombe Program treatment efficacy. The aim of the present study was to extend existing data exploring whether stuttering reductions observed when children successfully treated with the Lidcombe Program are associated with restricted language development. Audio recordings of 10-min parent-child conversations at home were transcribed verbatim for 11 pre-school-age children with various stuttering severities. Language samples from three assessments-pre-treatment, 9 and 18 months after beginning treatment-were analysed using SALT software for lexical diversity, utterance length and sentence complexity...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
F L M Chew, L K Thavaratnam, I N C Shukor, S Ramasamy, J Rahmat, D D Reidpath, P Allotey, J Alagaratnam
INTRODUCTION: Little is known regarding the extent of visual impairment amongst pre-school children in Malaysia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian preschool children. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on children aged four to six years from 51 participating kindergartens in the district of Segamat, Johor, Malaysia from 20 March 2016 to 6 April 2016. All subjects had initial eye screening consisting of LogMar visual acuity, orthoptics examination and Spot vision screener assessment...
February 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Dan Norbäck, Chan Lu, Juan Wang, Yinping Zhang, Baizhan Li, Zhuohui Zhao, Chen Huang, Xin Zhang, Hua Qian, Yuexia Sun, Jan Sundell, Qihong Deng
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on asthma and rhinitis across China in relation to indoor and outdoor air pollution, climate and socioeconomic factors. The main aim was to study associations between asthma, rhinitis and current respiratory symptoms among pre-school children across China and selected indoor and outdoor exposure and indicators of socio-economic status (SES) in mutually adjusted models. METHODS: Chinese children (3-6 yr.) (n = 39,782) were recruited from randomly selected day care centres in seven cities in China...
March 9, 2018: Environment International
Katherine L Brown, Deborah A Ridout, Christina Pagel, Monica Lakhanpaul, Suzan Kakat, Victoria Banks, Rodney Franklin, Thomas Witter, Rhian Lakhani, Shane Tibby, David Anderson, Victor Tsang, Aparna U Hoskote, Jo Wray
Introduction The objective of this study was to prospectively validate the "Brief Developmental Assessment", which is a new early recognition tool for neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children with heart disease that was developed for use by cardiac teams. METHODS: This was a prospective validation study among a representative sample of 960 pre-school children with heart disease from three United Kingdom tertiary cardiac centres who were analysed grouped into five separate age bands...
April 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Theresa Pitt-Byrne
OBJECTIVE: To analyse referral cohorts from School Entry Screening, Hearing (SHS) and Vision Screening (SVS) before and after documented changes. To compare referrals to pre-school specialists with subsequent group SHS outcomes. DESIGN: Randomized cohort, audit analysis of Community Nursing Developmental and SES records (CHRs), plus Audiology file review for SHS referrals. STUDY SAMPLE: Six hundred and sixty-eight mainstream pupils' CHRs were analysed in four birth cohorts, post-SES, using coded anonymized records...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
Chang Xu, Minghui Quan, Hanbin Zhang, Chenglin Zhou, PeiJie Chen
Purpose: This study examined the associations of physical activity levels between parents and their pre-school children based on gender and weekday/weekend. Method: A total of 247 parent-preschool child triads from Shanghai, China were analyzed. The children had a mean age of 57.5 ± 5.2 months. Both sedentary behavior and physical activity were measured in all participants using an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer over seven consecutive days from Monday through the following Sunday...
2018: PeerJ
Sébastien Wartelle, François Simon, Bruno Louis, Vincent Couloigner, Françoise Denoyelle, Noël Garabedian, Nicolas Leboulanger
The acoustic reflection method (ARM) is a non-invasive technique which uses the reflection of acoustic waves to measure the cross sectional area of nasal cavities in adults and patency of endotracheal tubes. Characteristics and volume of normal nasal cavities in pre-school children has so far not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal ARM recording and the minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) and volume (NV) values in healthy children. DESIGN: Prospective monocentric study using the ARM in pre-school children (<6 years of age)...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Gulseren Citak Tunc, Gulay Gorak, Nurcan Ozyazicioglu, Bedriye Ak, Ozlem Isil, Pinar Vural
Measurement instruments are needed to assess the child's sexual abuse prevention program. The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability and validity of the WIST (What If Situations Test) for Turkish culture. Participants were children of the 3-6 age group attending pre-school education institutions and the sample size was identified by means of a power analysis. Seventy children were identified as the sample with 0.85 power and 0.05 type I error according to the power analysis. Language validity, content validity, internal validity coefficient (Cronbach alpha coefficient), and test-retest analyses were conducted in terms of validity and reliability in the scope of efforts for adaptation to Turkish culture...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Maryam Elyasi, Lucas Guimarães Abreu, Cheyanne Olsen, Sarah R Baker, Hollis Lai, Paul W Major, Maryam Amin
PURPOSE: Parental capacity to face day-to-day stressors has a relevant role in recognizing and mobilizing resources to control children's oral health behaviors. This capacity has been explored by means of the sense of coherence. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between mothers' sense of coherence (SOC) and their preschool children's oral health-related behaviors. METHODS: Mothers and their pre-school children were recruited during immunization programs at community health centers in Edmonton, Canada...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Dentistry
Yusheng Zhou, Thomas von Lengerke, Ulla Walter, Maren Dreier
Overweight and obesity constitute a global epidemic with rates that are increasing rapidly in children. The aim of the present study was to examine ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight in pre-school children in a multicultural context. Data were collected from a compulsory school entry examination in the Hannover Region, Germany (n = 50,716) from 2010 to 2014. The prevalence of overweight (including pre-obesity and obesity status) and obesity was estimated using a German national reference...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Sejal Saglani, Carlos E Rodriguez-Martinez, Maria A Oyarzun, Louis Fleming, Andrew Bush
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to perform a systematic review of all studies with direct measurements of both airway inflammation and remodeling in the subgroup of children with repeated wheezing and/or persistent asthma severe enough to warrant bronchoscopy, to address whether airway inflammation precedes remodeling or is a parallel process, and also to assess the impact of remodeling on lung function. METHODS: Four databases were searched up to June 2017. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
John Hoddinott, Akhter Ahmed, Shalini Roy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a nutrition-sensitive social protection intervention on mothers' knowledge of Fe deficiency, awareness of multiple-micronutrient powders (MMP) and the consumption of MMP and other Fe supplements by their children aged 6-59 months. DESIGN: Two randomized controlled trials with treatment arms including cash transfers, food transfers, cash and food transfers, cash and nutrition behaviour change communication (BCC), and food and nutrition BCC were implemented over two years...
February 22, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Suvi Määttä, Carola Ray, Henna Vepsäläinen, Elviira Lehto, Riikka Kaukonen, Anna Ylönen, Eva Roos
Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA) may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children's sedentary time (ST). Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864, mean age 4.8, 52% boys) with their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS (Increased Health and Wellbeing in Pre-schools) study between years 2015 and 2016. Children (N = 821) wore an accelerometer for one week...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Akira Akasawa, Hiroko Watanabe, Mayumi Furukawa, Mari Sasaki, Koichi Yoshida, Hiroshi Odajima, Motohiro Ebisawa, Takao Fujisawa
BACKGROUND: The use of asthma control guidelines and anti-inflammatory drugs have significantly decreased the number of severe asthma cases including death from asthma. However, there are few prospective cohort studies among pediatric asthma patients in Japan describing the course of asthma symptoms with the treatment taken into consideration. METHOD: We recruited a total of 851 children diagnosed with asthma through 90 hospitals and clinics in 2004 to 2006. Questionnaires were posted annually to collect data on their asthma symptoms, treatment and environmental exposures...
2018: Arerugī, [Allergy]
S Pigat, A Connolly, M Cushen, M Cullen, C O'Mahony
This project quantified the impact that voluntary reformulation efforts of the food industry had on the Irish population's nutrient intake. Nutrient composition data on reformulated products were collected from 14 major food companies for two years, 2005 and 2012. Probabilistic intake assessments were performed using the Irish national food consumption surveys as dietary intake data. The nutrient data were weighted by market shares replacing existing food composition data for these products. The reformulation efforts assessed, significantly reduced mean energy intakes by up to 12 kcal/d (adults), 15 kcal/d (teens), 19 kcal/d (children) and 9 kcal/d (pre-schoolers)...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Aysu Erdemir, Tedra A Walden, Caswell M Jefferson, Dahye Choi, Robin M Jones
PURPOSE: This study investigated the possible association of emotional processes and articulation rate in pre-school age children who stutter and persist (persisting), children who stutter and recover (recovered) and children who do not stutter (nonstuttering). METHODS: The participants were ten persisting, ten recovered, and ten nonstuttering children between the ages of 3-5 years; who were classified as persisting, recovered, or nonstuttering approximately 2-2...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Chiara De Waure, Leuconoe Grazia Sisti, Andrea Poscia, Walter Ricciardi
Italy is witnessing relevant challenges in the field of prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. The worrying and growing phenomenon of "vaccine-hesitancy" has contributed to the reduction of vaccination coverage, undermining goals reached thanks to vaccines introduction. The new Italian National Immunization Plan (NIP) 2017-2019 and the update of the list of Essential Care Levels (LEA), approved in the current year, extend the vaccination offer based on the latest scientific evidence with the introduction of new vaccines and the enlargement of target population...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Z Bahrololoomi, M H Bemanian, R Ghaffourifard, B Ahmadi
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of airways with a high prevalence among children in pre-school ages. Considering controversial results in different studies about the effect of this disease on the indices of dental caries, the aim of this study was to compare dmft (decay, missing, filling teeth) situation in asthmatic and non-asthmatic 6-12-year-old children. METHODS: This was a case-control study on 46 asthmatic and 47 non-asthmatic children aged 6-12 years...
February 2, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
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