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James N Ingle, Fang Xie, Matthew J Ellis, Paul E Goss, Lois E Shepherd, Judith-Anne W Chapman, Bingshu E Chen, Michiaki Kubo, Yoichi Furukawa, Yukihide Momozawa, Vered Stearns, Kathleen I Pritchard, Poulami Barman, Erin E Carlson, Matthew P Goetz, Richard M Weinshilboum, Krishna R Kalari, Liewei Wang
Genetic risks in breast cancer remain only partly understood. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of germline DNA from 4,658 women, including 252 women experiencing a breast cancer recurrence, who were entered on the MA.27 adjuvant trial comparing the aromatase inhibitors (AI) anastrozole and exemestane. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of top significance were identified in the gene encoding MIR2052HG, a long noncoding RNA of unknown function. Heterozygous or homozygous individuals for variant alleles exhibited a ~40% or ~63% decrease, respectively, in the hazard of breast cancer recurrence relative to homozygous wild-type individuals...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Research
Zhentong Wei, Yan Liu, Yishu Wang, Yandong Zhang, Qinghua Luo, Xiaxia Man, Feng Wei, Xiaowei Yu
Ovarian cancer (OVCa) stem cells are associated with tumor growth, metastasis, and recurrence, which are driving forces behind a majority of the OVCa-related mortality. This subpopulation of cancer cells are characterized by uncontrolled proliferation, high invasiveness, and resistance against the current platinum-based therapy. Thus, targeting OVCa cancer stem cells has been focused in recent therapeutic development. Isolation and purification of cancer stem cells are, however, challenging for the lack of sensitive and specific markers...
November 2016: Medical Oncology
Caroline Stienne, Michaël F Michieletto, Mehdi Benamar, Nadège Carrié, Isabelle Bernard, Xuan-Hung Nguyen, Yannick Lippi, Fanny Duguet, Roland S Liblau, Stephen M Hedrick, Abdelhadi Saoudi, Anne S Dejean
The transcription factor Foxo3 plays a crucial role in myeloid cell function but its role in lymphoid cells remains poorly defined. Here, we have shown that Foxo3 expression was increased after T cell receptor engagement and played a specific role in the polarization of CD4(+) T cells toward pathogenic T helper 1 (Th1) cells producing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Consequently, Foxo3-deficient mice exhibited reduced susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
October 1, 2016: Immunity
Erik Tenland, Gisela Håkansson, Nader Alaridah, Nataliya Lutay, Anna Rönnholm, Oskar Hallgren, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Gabriela Godaly
Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is used as a benchmark to compare the immunogenicity of new vaccines against tuberculosis. This live vaccine is administered intradermal, but several new studies show that changing the route to mucosal immunisation represents an improved strategy. We analysed the immunomodulatory functions of BCG on human neutrophils and primary airway epithelial cells (AECs), as the early events of mucosal immune activation are unclear. Neutrophils and the primary epithelial cells were found to express the IL-17A receptor subunit IL-17RA, while the expression of IL-17RE was only observed on epithelial cells...
2016: PloS One
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Joaquim Gea, Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and atrophy are characteristic features accompanying chronic conditions. Epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function maintenance. We hypothesized that the pattern of epigenetic events (muscle-enriched microRNAs and histone acetylation) and acetylation of transcription factors known to signal muscle wasting may differ between early- and late-time points in skeletal muscles of mice exposed to hindlimb immobilization (I) and recovery following I. Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone deacetylases (HDACs), acetylation of proteins, histones, and transcription factors (TF), myogenic TF factors, and muscle phenotype were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days, I groups) of hindlimb immobilization, and in those exposed to reloading for different periods of time (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R groups) following 7-day immobilization...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yi-Zhen Xie, Fenghua Yang, Weijiang Tan, Xiangmin Li, Chunwei Jiao, Ren Huang, Burton B Yang
To examine the role of oral Ganoderma spore oil in cardiovascular disease, we used transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice to model pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy. Our preliminary results demonstrated a potential cardioprotective role for spore oil extracted from Ganoderma. We found that Ganoderma treatment normalized ejection fraction and corrected the fractional shortening generated by TAC. We also found evidence of reduced left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by left ventricular end diastolic diameter...
2016: Oncoscience
Jung Min Kim, In-Hu Hwang, Ik-Soon Jang, Min Kim, In Seok Bang, Soo Jung Park, Yun-Jo Chung, Jong-Cheon Joo, Min-Goo Lee
Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H cordata), a medicinal plant, has anticancer activity, as it inhibits cell growth and induces cell apoptosis in cancer. However, the potential anti-cancer activity and mechanism of H cordata for human liver cancer cells is not well understood. Recently, we identified hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1A, Forkhead box (FOX)O3, and MEF2A as proapoptotic factors induced by H cordata, suggesting that HIF-1A, FOXO3, and MEF2A contribute to the apoptosis of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells...
October 3, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Bradley J Willcox, Brian J Morris, Gregory J Tranah, Randi Chen, Kamal H Masaki, Qimei He, D Craig Willcox, Richard C Allsopp, Stefan Moisyadi, Mariana Gerschenson, Philip M C Davy, Leonard W Poon, Beatriz Rodriguez, Anne B Newman, Tamara B Harris, Steven R Cummings, Yongmei Liu, Neeta Parimi, Daniel S Evans, Timothy A Donlon
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that protection against coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality is the major contributor to longer life associated with FOXO3 genotype. The present study examined this relation in more detail. METHODS: We performed a 15-year observational study of 3,584 older American men of Japanese ancestry from the Kuakini Honolulu Heart Program cohort and 1,595 White and 1,067 Black elderly individuals from the Health Aging and Body Composition study...
September 30, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jie Zhuang, William M Kamp, Jie Li, Chengyu Liu, Ju-Gyeong Kang, Ping-Yuan Wang, Paul M Hwang
Although exercise is linked with improved health, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying its various benefits require further clarification. Here, we report that exercise increases the nuclear localization and activity of p53 by acutely down regulating coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain 4 (CHCHD4), a carrier protein that mediates p53 import into the mitochondria. This response to exercise is lost in transgenic mice with constitutive expression of CHCHD4. Mechanistically, exercise-induced nuclear transcription factor FOXO3 binds to the CHCHD4 promoter and represses its expression, preventing the translocation of p53 to the mitochondria and thereby increasing p53 nuclear localization...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jing Lu, Renwei Zhang, Huiqi Hong, Zuolong Yang, Duanping Sun, Shuya Sun, Xiaolei Guo, Jiantao Ye, Zhuoming Li, Peiqing Liu
The Forkhead box-containing protein, O subfamily 3 (FoxO3) transcription factor negatively regulates myocardial hypertrophy, and its transcriptional activity is finely conditioned by diverse posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, methylation and glycosylation. Here, we introduce a novel modification of the FoxO3 protein in cardiomyocytes: poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) mediated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1). This process catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent synthesis of polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) and their subsequent attachment to target proteins by PARPs...
October 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Brittany Knick Ragon, Hagop Kantarjian, Elias Jabbour, Farhad Ravandi, Jorge Cortes, Gautam Borthakur, LaKiesha DeBose, Zhihong Zeng, Heather Schneider, Naveen Pemmaraju, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Steven Kornblau, William Wierda, Jan Burger, Courtney D DiNardo, Michael Andreeff, Marina Konopleva, Naval Daver
Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling plays a crucial role in oncogene-mediated tumor growth and proliferation. Buparlisib (BKM120) is an oral pan-class I PI3K inhibitor. This phase I study was conducted to determine the dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of BKM120 in patients (pts) with relapsed/refractory acute leukemias. Fourteen pts (12 acute myeloid leukemia, 1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1 mixed phenotype leukemia) were enrolled. Twelve pts received BKM-120 80 mg/day and two 100 mg/day...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Lindsay C Davies, Nina Heldring, Nadir Kadri, Katarina Le Blanc
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exert broad immunosuppressive potential, modulating the activity of cells of innate and adaptive immune systems. As MSCs become accepted as a therapeutic option for the treatment of immunological disorders such as Graft versus Host Disease, our need to understand the intricate details by which they exert their effects is crucial. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an important regulator in T cell activation and homeostatic control. It has been reported that this pathway may be important in contact-dependent mediated immunomodulation by MSCs...
September 27, 2016: Stem Cells
Z Li, B Bridges, J Olson, S A Weinman
The multispecific transcription factor and tumor suppressor FOXO3 is an important mediator of apoptosis, but the mechanisms that control its proapoptotic function are poorly understood. There has long been evidence that acetylation promotes FOXO3-driven apoptosis and recently a specific JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)-dependent S574 phosphorylated form (p-FOXO3) has been shown to be specifically apoptotic. This study examined whether acetylation and S574 phosphorylation act independently or in concert to regulate the apoptotic function of FOXO3...
September 26, 2016: Oncogene
Aref Hosseini, Kamran Ghaedi, Somayeh Tanhaei, Mazdak Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Shohreh Teimuri, Masoud Etemadifar, Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of non-coding RNAs which play key roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Previous studies indicate that miRNAs are dysregulated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells are two subsets of CD4+T-cells which have critical functions in the onset and progression of MS. The current study seeks to distinguish fluctuations in expression of CD4+T-cell derived miR-223 during the relapsing-remitting (RR) phase of MS (RR-MS), as well as the expressions of Th17 and Treg cell markers...
2016: Cell Journal
Yanqing Wu, Zhenghong Zhang, Xinghui Liao, Lingbin Qi, Yiping Liu, Zhengchao Wang
Obesity has a negative effect on ovarian functions, which is reported to increase the risk of infertility. The mechanism underlying obesity‑induced infertility is not yet clear. The present study established a high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity mouse model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of HFD‑induced obesity on follicular development in the mouse ovary. The 4‑week‑old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control (NC) diet for 15 or 20 weeks. Body mass index was used to demonstrate that the mice were obese following HFD treatment...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zhengtang Qi, Jie Xia, Xiangli Xue, Qiang He, Liu Ji, Shuzhe Ding
Nicotinamide (NAM), or vitamin B3, is an essential coenzyme for ATP synthesis and an inhibitor of sirtuin 1. Recently, conflicting results were reported regarding the treatment of NAM in type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how long-term treatment with NAM at lower dose would affect insulin sensitivity in mice fed chow diet. We treated mice with NAM (100 mg/kg/day) and normal chow for 8 weeks. Strikingly, NAM induced glucose intolerance and skeletal muscle lipid accumulation in nonobese mice...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Xiaolong Gu, Dandan Han, Wei Chen, Limei Zhang, Qianyun Lin, Jian Gao, Séamus Fanning, Bo Han
Fluorine may result in damage to teeth, bones and other body tissues, and is a serious public health problem. SIRT1 deacetylates FOXOs, which brings about apoptosis and autophagy promotion or suppression. Fluorine may induce cell apoptosis, however, the role of autophagy in apoptosis induced by fluorine is still poorly understood, and the interaction between SIRT1 and FOXOs should be further illustrated. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanisms underlying the NaF- induced apoptosis and autophagy in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro through activating or inhibiting SIRT1...
August 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Xiao-Hui Guan, Xiao-Hong Liu, Xuan Hong, Ning Zhao, Yun-Fei Xiao, Ling-Fang Wang, Ling Tang, Kai Jiang, Yi-Song Qian, Ke-Yu Deng, Guangju Ji, Mingui Fu, Hong-Bo Xin
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induces irreversible oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle. We previously observed that CD38 deficiency remarkably protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from oxidative stress-induced injury. However, whether CD38 deficiency protects from I/R injury in the heart is not explored. Here, we showed that the hearts of CD38 deficient mice or wild type mice supplied with exogenous NAD were significantly protected from ischemia/reperfusion injury, seen as reduction of the myocardial infarct sizes when the mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
M C Gómez-Puerto, L P Verhagen, A K Braat, E W-F Lam, P J Coffer, M J Lorenowicz
Bone remodeling is a continuous physiological process that requires constant generation of new osteoblasts from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Differentiation of MSCs to osteoblast requires a metabolic switch from glycolysis to increased mitochondrial respiration to ensure the sufficient energy supply to complete this process. As a consequence of this increased mitochondrial metabolism, the levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) rise. In the current study we analyzed the role of forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) in the control of ROS levels in human MSCs (hMSCs) during osteogenic differentiation...
October 2, 2016: Autophagy
Brian T O'Neill, Kevin Y Lee, Katherine Klaus, Samir Softic, Megan T Krumpoch, Joachim Fentz, Kristin I Stanford, Matthew M Robinson, Weikang Cai, Andre Kleinridders, Renata O Pereira, Michael F Hirshman, E Dale Abel, Domenico Accili, Laurie J Goodyear, K Sreekumaran Nair, C Ronald Kahn
Diabetes strongly impacts protein metabolism, particularly in skeletal muscle. Insulin and IGF-1 enhance muscle protein synthesis through their receptors, but the relative roles of each in muscle proteostasis have not been fully elucidated. Using mice with muscle-specific deletion of the insulin receptor (M-IR-/- mice), the IGF-1 receptor (M-IGF1R-/- mice), or both (MIGIRKO mice), we assessed the relative contributions of IR and IGF1R signaling to muscle proteostasis. In differentiated muscle, IR expression predominated over IGF1R expression, and correspondingly, M-IR-/- mice displayed a moderate reduction in muscle mass whereas M-IGF1R-/- mice did not...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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