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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049037/fractures-and-the-gut-microbiome
#1
Tara McGinty, Paddy W G Mallon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory, non-AIDS comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and liver disease has become a focus of recent research. Low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture incidence in people living with HIV (PLWH) is also widely reported, however, the relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and bone disease in PLWH has not been previously reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Murine models that manipulate the gut microbiome, either through breeding of 'germ-free' mice or antibiotic-depleted gut microbiome, show differences in bone mineral density and bone mass in those with altered gut microbiome...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045906/ctla-4-pd-1-memory-cd4-t-cells-critically-contribute-to-viral-persistence-in-antiretroviral-therapy-suppressed-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#2
Colleen S McGary, Claire Deleage, Justin Harper, Luca Micci, Susan P Ribeiro, Sara Paganini, Leticia Kuri-Cervantes, Clarisse Benne, Emily S Ryan, Robert Balderas, Sherrie Jean, Kirk Easley, Vincent Marconi, Guido Silvestri, Jacob D Estes, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Mirko Paiardini
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication in HIV-infected individuals but does not eliminate the reservoir of latently infected cells. Recent work identified PD-1(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells as an important cellular compartment for viral persistence. Here, using ART-treated, SIV-infected rhesus macaques, we show that CTLA-4(+)PD-1(-) memory CD4(+) T cells, which share phenotypic markers with regulatory T cells, were enriched in SIV DNA in blood, lymph nodes (LN), spleen, and gut, and contained replication-competent and infectious virus...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045253/gut-microbial-diversity-in-hiv-infection-post-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-key-target-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#3
Mohamed El-Far, Cécile L Tremblay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity. RECENT FINDING: Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045252/altered-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-infection-causes-effects-and-potential-intervention
#4
Alessandra Bandera, Ilaria De Benedetto, Giorgio Bozzi, Andrea Gori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this review is to summarize the alterations occurring in gut microbiome composition after HIV infection, and to underline how intestinal dysbiosis can affect immune homeostasis, immune recovery, and persisting immune activation under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many interventions have been suggested, mostly with inconclusive results. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence showed that gut microbiota from HIV-infected patients harbor reproducible differences compared to uninfected individuals...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035948/hiv-and-aging-role-of-the-microbiome
#5
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034105/changes-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-host-homeostasis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-focus-on-the-bacterial-gut-microbiome
#6
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz Dein Terra Mota Ribeiro, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections cause severe CD4+ T cell depletion leading to chronic inflammation and immune activation, impaired barrier function, and microbial translocation. Even under effective antiretroviral therapy, these processes persist, leading to gut microbiome dysbiosis and disturbance of microbiome-host homeostasis. This systematic review aims at analyzing how gut microbiome and host immune system influence each other during HIV pathogenesis. An online search applying the PubMed database was conducted...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028667/impact-of-antiretroviral-drugs-on-the-microbiome-unknown-answers-to-important-questions
#7
Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Nichole R Klatt, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known on how different antiretroviral (ARV) drugs affect the gut microbiome in HIV infection; and conflicting data exists on the effect of ARV drugs on residual inflammation/immune activation and microbial translocation. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut microbiome involvement in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV infection is increasingly being recognized. Various studies have shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to restore gut health despite effective suppression of plasma HIV viremia...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020215/long-term-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-associated-with-increased-microbial-product-translocation-innate-immune-activation-and-reduced-immunologic-recovery-in-patients-with-chronic-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#8
J A Serpa, A M Rueda, A Somasunderam, N S Utay, D Lewis, J P Couturier, K G Breaux, M Rodriguez-Barradas
Background: Translocation of microbial products from the damaged gut causes increased immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) predispose to bacterial overgrowth in the gut. We hypothesized that long-term use of PPIs is associated with greater microbial translocation and immune activation in HIV. Methods: HIV-infected persons on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), including those receiving long-term PPIs (PPI+ group) or not (PPI- group), were enrolled...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990060/microrna-expression-profiling-of-intestinal-mucosa-tissue-predicts-multiple-crucial-regulatory-molecules-and-signaling-pathways-for-gut-barrier-dysfunction-of-aids-patients
#9
Yu Xu, Hua-Wei Wang, Hua-You Luo, Ruo Shu, Jia Liu, Liang Sun, Xue-Fei Han, Na Lin, Ting-Hua Wang, Yu-Jian Zeng, Kun-Hua Wang
Human immunodeficiency virus‑1 (HIV‑1) infection severely damages the gut‑associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the immune system and the gut barrier, which leads to accelerating the disease progression for patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this process. However, few studies have investigated the importance of miRNAs in AIDS pathogenesis and progression. The whole miRNA profile of patients with HIV infection from southwest P.R...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951425/differential-t-cell-homing-to-colon-vs-small-intestine-is-imprinted-by-local-cd11c-apcs-that-determine-homing-receptors
#10
Amiran Dzutsev, Alison Hogg, Yongjun Sui, Shahram Solaymani-Mohammadi, Huifeng Yu, Blake Frey, Yichuan Wang, Jay A Berzofsky
Mechanisms that imprint T cell homing to the small intestine have been well studied; however, those for homing to the colon are poorly understood. Recently, we found that these are distinct subcompartments of the gut mucosal immune system, which implies differential homing. Here, we show that colonic CD11c(+) APCs imprint CD8(+) T cell preferential homing to the colon, in contrast to those from the small intestine that imprint CD8(+) T cell homing to the small intestine, and that the differences are related to the variable ability of APCs to induce α4β7-integrin and CCR9 expression on T cells...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936485/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-lisinopril-to-decrease-lymphoid-fibrosis-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#11
Leslie R Cockerham, Steven A Yukl, Kara Harvill, Ma Somsouk, Sunil K Joshi, Elizabeth Sinclair, Teri Liegler, Rebecca Hoh, Sophie Lyons, Peter W Hunt, Adam Rupert, Irini Sereti, David R Morcock, Ajantha Rhodes, Claire Emson, Marc K Hellerstein, Jacob D Estes, Sharon Lewin, Steven G Deeks, Hiroyu Hatano
BACKGROUND: In HIV infection, lymphoid tissue is disrupted by fibrosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have anti-fibrotic properties. We completed a pilot study to assess whether the addition of lisinopril to antiretroviral therapy (ART) reverses fibrosis of gut tissue, and whether this leads to reduction of HIV RNA and DNA levels. METHODS: Thirty HIV-infected individuals on ART were randomized to lisinopril at 20mg daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934209/microbial-translocation-is-correlated-with-hiv-evolution-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients
#12
Jean-Jacques Tudesq, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Christophe Combescure, Régine Doncesco, Didier Laureillard, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Albert Sotto
Microbial translocation (MT) is characterized by bacterial products passing into the blood through the gut barrier and is a key phenomenon in the pathophysiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. MT is also associated with liver damage in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) patients. The aim of the study was to assess MT in plasma of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. 16S rDNA (16 S Ribosomal DNA subunit) marker and other markers of MT such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#13
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931679/pathogenic-correlates-of-the-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-associated-b-cell-dysfunction
#14
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, David Kuhrt, Basile Siewe, Cuiling Xu, George S Haret-Richter, Jodi Craigo, Celia Labranche, David C Montefiori, Alan Landay, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea
We compared and contrasted pathogenic (pigtailed macaques-PTMs) and nonpathogenic (African green monkeys-AGMs) SIVsab infections to assess the significance of the B-cell dysfunction observed in SIV/HIV infection. We report that the loss of B cells is specifically associated with the pathogenic SIV infection, while in the nonpathogenic natural hosts B cells rapidly increase in both LNs and intestine. SIV-associated B-cell dysfunction associated to the pathogenic SIV infection is characterized by loss of naïve B cells; loss of resting memory B cells due to their redistribution to the gut; increases of the activated B cells and circulating tissue-like memory B cells and expansion of the B regulatory cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918646/depletion-of-gut-resident-ccr5-cells-for-hiv-cure-strategies
#15
David Patrick Merriam, Connie Chen, Gema Mendez-Lagares, Kenneth Rogers, Anthony Michaels, Jiangli Yan, Paul Casaz, Keith Reimann, Francois Villenger, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
The HIV reservoir forming at the earliest stages of infection is likely composed of CCR5+ cells, because these cells are the targets of transmissible virus. Restriction of the CCR5+ reservoir, particularly in gut, may be needed for subsequent cure attempts. Strategies for killing or depleting CCR5+ cells have been described, but none have been tested in vivo in non-human primates and the extent of achievable depletion from tissues is not known. Here we investigate the efficacy of two novel cytotoxic treatments for targeting and eliminating CCR5+ cells in young rhesus macaques...
September 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906277/effect-of-cytomegalovirus-and-epstein-barr-virus-replication-on-intestinal-mucosal-gene-expression-and-microbiome-composition-of-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-individuals
#16
Sara Gianella, Antoine Chaillon, Ece A Mutlu, Phillip A Engen, Robin M Voigt, Ali Keshavarzian, John Losurdo, Prachi Chakradeo, Steven M Lada, Masato Nakazawa, Alan L Landay
BACKGROUND: HIV-infection is associated with dramatic changes in the intestinal mucosa. The impact of other viral pathogens is unclear. METHODS: One hundred and eight (108) biopsies from left and right colon (n = 79) and terminal ileum (n = 29) were collected from 19 HIV-infected and 22 HIV-uninfected participants. Levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA were measured by droplet digital PCR. Mucosal gene expression was measured via multiplex-assay...
September 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894259/cd161-identifies-polyfunctional-th1-th17-cells-in-the-genital-mucosa-that-are-depleted-in-hiv-infected-female-sex-workers-from-nairobi-kenya
#17
Geneviève Boily-Larouche, Kenneth Omollo, Julianna Cheruiyot, Jane Njoki, Makobu Kimani, Joshua Kimani, Julius Oyugi, Julie Lajoie, Keith R Fowke
CD161 identifies a subset of circulating Th17 cells that are depleted in the blood and gut of HIV-infected individuals. In the female reproductive tract (FRT), the pattern of CD161 expression on CD4(+) cells remains unknown. Here, we characterized CD161 expression in the FRT of Kenyan female sex workers (FSW). Compared to the blood, CD161(+)CD4(+) T cells were enriched in the FRT of uninfected FSWs. These cells were depleted in FRT of HIV-infected FSWs. Cervical CD161(+) cells harboured an activated phenotype (CD69, CD95, HLA-DR) with elevated expression of tissue-homing markers (CCR6, β7 integrin) and HIV co-receptor (CCR5)...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882067/differentiating-immune-cell-targets-in-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-for-hiv-cure
#19
Shahzada Khan, Sushama Telwatte, Martin Trapecar, Steven Yukl, Shomyseh Sanjabi
The single greatest challenge to an HIV cure is the persistence of latently-infected cells containing inducible, replication-competent proviral genomes that constitute only a small fraction of total or infected cells in the body. Although resting CD4+ T cells in the blood are a well-known source of viral rebound, more than 90% of the body's lymphocytes reside elsewhere. Many are in gut tissue, where HIV DNA levels per million CD4+ T cells are considerably higher than in the blood. Despite the significant contribution of gut tissue to viral replication and persistence, little is known about the cell types that support persistence of HIV in the gut; importantly, T cells in the gut have phenotypic, functional, and survival properties that are distinct from T cells in other tissues...
September 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882052/an-optimized-and-validated-method-for-isolation-and-characterization-of-lymphocytes-from-hiv-human-gut-biopsies
#20
Martin Trapecar, Shahzada Khan, Nadia Roan, Tsui-Hua Chen, Sushama Telwatte, Monika Deswal, Montha Pao, Ma Somsouk, Steven G Deeks, Peter W Hunt, Steven Yukl, Shomyseh Sanjabi
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors most of the body's immune cells and is also a major HIV reservoir in ART-treated patients. To achieve a cure, most HIV-infected cells must be identified and eliminated. While obtaining gut biopsies is a relatively non-invasive method of sampling relevant tissue for monitoring HIV activity, immune cell isolation from these limited tissue samples has proven to be challenging. Enzymatic tissue digestion is required for maximal immune cell isolation from gut biopsies. However, these enzymatic digestions can also be detrimental for preservation of cellular surface markers that are required for accurate identification of various subsets of leukocytes...
September 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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