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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917639/lack-of-effect-of-maraviroc-intensification-on-blood-and-gut-reservoir
#1
Juan Tiraboschi, Shuvra Ray, Kamal Patel, Matthew Pace, Prabhjeet Phalora, Nicola Robinson, Emily Hopkins, Jodi Meyerowitz, Yanzhong Wang, Olubanke Davies, Christine Mant, John Cason, Steve Kaye, Jeremy Sanderson, Sara Fidler, Paul Klenerman, John Frater, Julie Fox
We show that intensification of treatment with maraviroc in patients chronically infected with HIV-1 receiving successful long-term ART was not associated with improvements in HIV related morbidity, HIV reservoir, microbial translocation, immune activation or immune exhaustion in either gut or peripheral blood. The measurement of reservoir in both gut and blood longitudinally contributes to a paucity of data in the area.
December 4, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906073/gut-barrier-structure-mucosal-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#2
REVIEW
Camilla Tincati, Daniel C Douek, Giulia Marchetti
Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies...
April 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898686/gut-homing-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-frequencies-in-hiv-infected-individuals-on-antiretroviral-treatment
#3
Olivia Briceño, Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Nataly Rodríguez-Bernabe, Akio Murakami-Ogasawara, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
The depletion of mucosal CD4+ T-cells occurs early in HIV infection and despite years on antiretroviral treatment (ART), this population never reconstitutes to pre-HIV infection levels. In an effort to understand the effect of ART initiation and different ART regimens on the reconstitution of mucosal T cells within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we quantified the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing the gut homing receptors CCR9 and β7 in peripheral blood (PB) of HIV infected individuals naive to ART and treated individuals on both short-term (less than a year) and long-term ART (more than 2 years)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895171/impairment-of-ccr6-and-cxcr3-th-cell-migration-in-hiv-1-infection-is-rescued-by-modulating-actin-polymerization
#4
Valentina Cecchinato, Enos Bernasconi, Roberto F Speck, Michele Proietti, Ulrike Sauermann, Gianluca D'Agostino, Gabriela Danelon, Tanja Rezzonico Jost, Fabio Grassi, Lorenzo Raeli, Franziska Schöni-Affolter, Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Mariagrazia Uguccioni
CD4(+) T cell repopulation of the gut is rarely achieved in HIV-1-infected individuals who are receiving clinically effective antiretroviral therapy. Alterations in the integrity of the mucosal barrier have been indicated as a cause for chronic immune activation and disease progression. In this study, we present evidence that persistent immune activation causes impairment of lymphocytes to respond to chemotactic stimuli, thus preventing their trafficking from the blood stream to peripheral organs. CCR6(+) and CXCR3(+) Th cells accumulate in the blood of aviremic HIV-1-infected patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy, and their frequency in the circulation positively correlates to levels of soluble CD14 in plasma, a marker of chronic immune activation...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860212/alcohol-and-dietary-factors-associate-with-gut-integrity-and-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-adults
#5
A R Webel, A Sattar, N T Funderburg, B Kinley, C T Longenecker, D Labbato, Sm Khurshid Alam, G A McComsey
OBJECTIVES: HIV-infected adults have heightened monocyte activation and inflammation, at least partially as a consequence of altered gut integrity. The role of dietary factors in microbial translocation and inflammation and their downstream effect on markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been explored. Our purpose was to describe the longitudinal dietary patterns of HIV-infected adults, and to examine the relationship between dietary intake, gut integrity, inflammation and subclinical markers of CVD in HIV-infected adults...
November 9, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853256/mucosal-vaccination-with-a-live-recombinant-rhinovirus-followed-by-intradermal-dna-administration-elicits-potent-and-protective-hiv-specific-immune-responses
#6
Khamis Tomusange, Danushka Wijesundara, Jason Gummow, Steve Wesselingh, Andreas Suhrbier, Eric J Gowans, Branka Grubor-Bauk
Mucosal immunity is deemed crucial to control sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Herein we report the efficacy of a mucosal HIV vaccine strategy comprising intranasal (IN) vaccination with a cocktail of live recombinant human rhinoviruses (HRVs) encoding overlapping fragments of HIV Gag and full length Tat (rHRV-Gag/Tat) followed by intradermal (ID) vaccination with DNA vaccines encoding HIV Gag and Tat (pVAX-Gag-Tat). This heterologous prime-boost strategy will be referred to hereafter as rHRV-DNA...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827375/predominance-of-weakly-cytotoxic-t-bet-low-eomes-neg-cd8-t-cells-in-human-gastrointestinal-mucosa-implications-for-hiv-infection
#7
B E Kiniry, A Ganesh, J W Critchfield, P W Hunt, F M Hecht, M Somsouk, S G Deeks, B L Shacklett
The gastrointestinal mucosa is an important site of HIV acquisition, viral replication, and pathogenesis. Immune cells in mucosal tissues frequently differ in phenotype and function from their non-mucosal counterparts. Although perforin-mediated cytotoxicity as measured in blood is a recognized correlate of HIV immune control, its role in gastrointestinal tissues is unknown. We sought to elucidate the cytotoxic features of rectal mucosal CD8(+) T-cells in HIV infected and uninfected subjects. Perforin expression and lytic capacity were significantly reduced in rectal CD8(+) T-cells compared with their blood counterparts, regardless of HIV clinical status; granzyme B (GrzB) was reduced to a lesser extent...
November 9, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822211/cd4-t-follicular-helper-and-iga-b-cell-numbers-in-gut-biopsies-from-hiv-infected-subjects-on-antiretroviral-therapy-are-similar-to-hiv-uninfected-individuals
#8
John Zaunders, Mark Danta, Michelle Bailey, Gerald Mak, Katherine Marks, Nabila Seddiki, Yin Xu, David J Templeton, David A Cooper, Mark A Boyd, Anthony D Kelleher, Kersten K Koelsch
BACKGROUND: Disruption of gastrointestinal tract epithelial and immune barriers contribute to microbial translocation, systemic inflammation, and progression of HIV-1 infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to reconstitution of CD4(+) T cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), but its impact on humoral immunity within GALT is unclear. Therefore, we studied CD4(+) subsets, including T follicular helper cells (Tfh), as well as resident B cells that have switched to IgA production, in gut biopsies, from HIV(+) subjects on suppressive ART compared to HIV-negative controls (HNC)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789726/monocyte-activation-is-associated-with-worse-cognitive-performance-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-women
#9
Brandon M Imp, Leah H Rubin, Phyllis C Tien, Michael W Plankey, Elizabeth T Golub, Audrey L French, Victor G Valcour
BACKGROUND:  Cognitive impairment persists despite suppression of plasma HIV RNA. Monocyte-related immune activation is a likely mechanism. We examined immune activation and cognition in a cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS:  Blood levels of activation markers, soluble CD163 (sCD163), soluble CD14 (sCD14), CRP, IL-6, and a gut microbial translocation marker (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP)) were measured in 253 women (73% HIV-infected)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755101/hiv-altered-gut-microbiome-may-be-driving-disease-progression
#10
Kristin Nicole Harper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755100/the-gut-microbiome-and-hiv-1-pathogenesis-a-two-way-street
#11
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
November 28, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752257/-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-a-biomarker-for-microbial-translocation-in-individuals-with-acute-or-early-hiv-infection
#12
Martin Hoenigl, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Masato Nakazawa, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm A Finkelman, Scott Letendre, Davey Smith, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The extent of gut microbial translocation, which plays roles in HIV disease progression and non-AIDS comorbidities, appears to vary with the composition of the gut microbiome, particularly the presence of Lactobacillales, which reduce mucosal injury. While low proportions of Lactobacillales in the distal gut microbiome are a very promising indicator of microbial translocation, measurement is expensive and complicated and not feasible for clinical routine. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan (BDG) is a component of most fungal cell walls and might be a surrogate marker for Lactobacillales proportion in the gut and a useful indicator of HIV-associated gut injury...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737952/initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-early-hiv-infection-reduces-but-does-not-abrogate-chronic-residual-inflammation
#13
Irini Sereti, Shelly J Krebs, Nittaya Phanuphak, James L Fletcher, Bonnie Slike, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Robert J O'Connell, Adam Rupert, Nicolas Chomont, Victor Valcour, Jerome H Kim, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Daniel C Douek, Jintanat Ananworanich, Netanya S Utay
BACKGROUND:  Serious non-AIDS events cause substantial morbidity and mortality despite HIV suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation cascade activation, and fibrosis predict these end-organ events. We aimed to determine whether ART initiation during acute HIV infection would attenuate changes in these biomarker levels. METHODS:  Plasma samples were obtained from participants starting ART during acute HIV infection, chronic HIV infection, and HIV-uninfected participants, from Bangkok, Thailand...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689995/probiotics-differently-affect-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-indolamine-2-3-dioxygenase-mrna-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-neopterin-levels-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients-a-pilot-study
#14
Carolina Scagnolari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Carla Selvaggi, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Andrea Mastrangelo, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Claudia Pinacchio, Paolo Pavone, Gianfranco Fanello, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
Recently the tryptophan pathway has been considered an important determinant of HIV-1 infected patients' quality of life, due to the toxic effects of its metabolites on the central nervous system (CNS). Since the dysbiosis described in HIV-1 patients might be responsible for the microbial translocation, the chronic immune activation, and the altered utilization of tryptophan observed in these individuals, we speculated a correlation between high levels of immune activation markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-1 infected patients and the over-expression of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) at the gut mucosal surface...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637172/initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-before-detection-of-colonic-infiltration-by-hiv-reduces-viral-reservoirs-inflammation-and-immune-activation
#15
Trevor A Crowell, James Lk Fletcher, Irini Sereti, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Robin Dewar, Shelly J Krebs, Nitiya Chomchey, Rungsun Rerknimitr, Alexandra Schuetz, Nelson L Michael, Nittaya Phanuphak, Nicolas Chomont, Jintanat Ananworanich
INTRODUCTION: Colonic infiltration by HIV occurs soon after infection, establishing a persistent viral reservoir and a barrier to cure. We investigated virologic and immunologic correlates of detectable colonic HIV RNA during acute HIV infection (AHI) and their response to antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: From 49,458 samples screened for HIV, 74 participants were enrolled during AHI and 41 consented to optional sigmoidoscopy, HIV RNA was categorized as detectable (≥50 copies/mg) or undetectable in homogenized colon biopsy specimens...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625432/gut-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-microbial-dysbiosis-and-their-role-in-hiv-1-disease-progression
#16
Joseph C Mudd, Jason M Brenchley
Distinct pathological events occur within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Asian macaques with progressive simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and humans with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection that are critical in shaping disease course. These events include depletion and functional alteration of GI-resident CD4(+) T cells, loss of antigen-presenting cells, loss of innate lymphocytes, and possible alterations to the composition of the gut microbiota. These contribute to structural damage to the GI tract and systemic translocation of GI tract microbial products...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617163/macrophage-inflammatory-protein-3-alpha-mip-3%C3%AE-ccl20-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#17
Najib Aziz, Roger Detels, L Cindy Chang, Anthony W Butch
OBJECTIVE: Uncontrolled HIV infection progresses to the depletion of systemic and mucosal CD4 and AIDS. Early HIV infection may be associated with increases in the concentration of MIP-3α in the blood and gut fluids. MIP-3α/CCL20 is the only chemokine known to interact with CCR6 receptors which are expressed on immature dendritic cells and both effector and memory CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The role and prognostic value of blood levels of MIP-3α in HIV-infected individuals has yet to be described...
July 2016: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553844/new-insights-into-the-heterogeneity-of-th17-subsets-contributing-to-hiv-1-persistence-during-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Jean-Philippe Goulet, Annie Gosselin, Patricia Monteiro, Hugo Soudeyns, Rémi Fromentin, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Shant Vartanian, Steven G Deeks, Nicolas Chomont, Jean-Pierre Routy, Petronela Ancuta
BACKGROUND: Th17 cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection and their depletion from the gut of infected individuals leads to microbial translocation, a major cause for non-AIDS co-morbidities. Most recent evidence supports the contribution of long-lived Th17 cells to HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the identity of long-lived Th17 cells remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, we performed an in-depth transcriptional and functional characterization of four distinct Th17 subsets and investigated their contribution to HIV reservoir persistence during ART...
2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547442/gut-microbiota-associated-with-hiv-infection-is-significantly-enriched-in-bacteria-tolerant-to-oxygen
#19
Grégory Dubourg, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Sophie Hüe, Mathieu Surenaud, Dipankar Bachar, Catherine Robert, Caroline Michelle, Isabelle Ravaux, Saadia Mokhtari, Matthieu Million, Andreas Stein, Philippe Brouqui, Yves Levy, Didier Raoult
OBJECTIVES: Gut microbiota modifications occurring during HIV infection have recently been associated with inflammation and microbial translocation. However, discrepancies between studies justified a comprehensive analysis performed on a large sample size. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a case-control study, next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was applied to the faecal microbiota of 31 HIV-infected patients, of whom 18 were treated with antiretroviral treatment (ART), compared with 27 healthy controls...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534537/role-of-microbial-translocation-in-soluble-cd14-up-regulation-in-hiv-but-not-in-hcv-infected-chimpanzees
#20
Babs E Verstrepen, Ivonne G Nieuwenhuis, Petra Mooij, Ernst J Verschoor, Zahra C Fagrouch, Ivanela Kondova, André Boonstra, Gerrit Koopman
During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, soluble CD14 (sCD14) is up-regulated as a consequence of pathological disruption of the gut epithelial barrier, and subsequent increased microbial translocation. Also in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with advanced liver fibrosis, increased levels of sCD14 have been reported. Since the liver plays an important role in clearance of translocated bacterial products, hepatic fibrosis may negatively affect clearance and thus contribute to higher sCD14 levels...
October 2016: Journal of General Virology
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