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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672590/hiv-replication-is-associated-to-inflammasomes-activation-il-1%C3%AE-il-18-and-caspase-1-expression-in-galt-and-peripheral-blood
#1
Manuel Gerónimo Feria, Natalia Andrea Taborda, Juan C Hernandez, Maria Teresa Rugeles
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promotes an inflammatory process, leading to the progressive loss of the functional capacity of the immune system. The HIV infection induces alterations in several tissues, but mainly in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). However, the degree of GALT deterioration varies among infected individuals. In fact, it has been shown that HIV-controllers, who spontaneously control viral replication, exhibit a lower inflammatory response, and a relative normal frequency and function of most of the immune cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659737/feeding-related-gut-microbial-composition-associates-with-peripheral-t-cell-activation-and-mucosal-gene-expression-in-african-infants
#2
Lianna F Wood, Bryan P Brown, Katie Lennard, Ulas Karaoz, Enock Havyarimana, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Anneke C Hesseling, Paul T Edlefsen, Louise Kuhn, Nicola Mulder, Eoin L Brodie, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the rate of postnatal HIV transmission compared to non-exclusive breastfeeding, however the mechanisms of this protection are unknown. Our study was designed to interrogate the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods: A prospective, longitudinal study of infants from a high HIV prevalence, low-income setting in South Africa. We evaluated the role of any non-breastmilk feeds excluding prescribed medicines...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643246/the-dynamics-of-siv-2-ltr-circles-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-cd8-cells
#3
Benjamin B Policicchio, Erwing Fabian Cardozo, Paola Sette, Cuiling Xu, George Haret-Richter, Tammy Dunsmore, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea, Ruy M Ribeiro
CD8+ cells play a key role in HIV/SIV infection, but their specific mechanism(s) of action in controlling the virus are unclear. 2-LTR circles are extrachromosomal products generated upon failed integration of HIV/SIV. To understand the specific effects of CD8+ cells on infected cells, we analyzed the dynamics of 2-LTR circles in SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques (RM) treated with an integrase inhibitor (INT). Twenty RMs underwent CD8+ cell depletion, received RAL monotherapy or a combination of both. Blood, lymph nodes (LNs) and gut biopsies were routinely sampled...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620717/the-microbial-metabolite-tmao-in-association-with-inflammation-and-microbial-dysregulation-in-three-hiv-cohorts-at-various-disease-stages
#4
Catharina Missailidis, Ujjwal Neogi, Peter Stenvinkel, Marius Trøseid, Piotr Nowak, Peter Bergman
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1-infection infers an increased cardiovascular risk where gut dysbiosis and microbial translocation may contribute. We assessed TMAO, a microbial metabolite with atherosclerotic properties, in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals at different clinical stages in relation to inflammatory markers, cardiovascular events and gut microbiota. METHODS: Primary HIV-1-infected (n = 17) and chronic HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 22) were sampled before and after ART-initiation...
April 3, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604979/hiv-and-spinal-cord-disease
#5
Seth N Levin, Jennifer L Lyons
The epidemiology of spinal cord disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown due to a paucity of data since combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV mediates spinal cord injury indirectly, by immune modulation, degeneration, or associated infections and neoplasms. The pathologies vary and range from cytotoxic necrosis to demyelination and vasculitis. Control of HIV determines the differential for all neurologic presentations in infected individuals. Primary HIV-associated acute transverse myelitis, an acute inflammatory condition with pathologic similarities to HIV encephalitis, arises in early infection and at seroconversion...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590318/intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-and-microbial-translocation-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-is-associated-with-preterm-birth
#6
Rupak Shivakoti, Nikhil Gupte, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vandana Kulkarni, Usha Balasubramanian, Ramesh Bhosale, Pradeep Sambrey, Aarti Kinikar, Renu Bharadwaj, Sandesh Patil, Sadaf Inamdar, Nishi Suryavanshi, Subash Babu, Robert C Bollinger, Amita Gupta
Background: Preterm birth (PTB) rates are high in HIV-infected populations, even when on treatment. Still, only a subset of all births in HIV-infected pregnant women result in PTB, suggesting risk factors other than HIV infection itself are also important. Inflammation is a known risk factor in uninfected populations but their role in HIV-infected population have not been studied; in addition, the immune pathways involved are not clear and non-invasive immune markers with predictive value are lacking...
March 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572681/hiv-and-the-macrophage-from-cell-reservoirs-to-drug-delivery-to-viral-eradication
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan Herskovitz, Howard E Gendelman
Macrophages serve as host cells, inflammatory disease drivers and drug runners for human immunodeficiency virus infection and treatments. Low-level viral persistence continues in these cells in the absence of macrophage death. However, the cellular microenvironment changes as a consequence of viral infection with aberrant production of pro-inflammatory factors and promotion of oxidative stress. These herald viral spread from macrophages to neighboring CD4+ T cells and end organ damage. Virus replicates in tissue reservoir sites that include the nervous, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gut, and renal organs...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553486/the-anti-caspase-inhibitor-q-vd-oph-prevents-aids-disease-progression-in-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#8
Mireille Laforge, Ricardo Silvestre, Vasco Rodrigues, Julie Garibal, Laure Campillo-Gimenez, Shahul Mouhamad, Valérie Monceaux, Marie-Christine Cumont, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Alain Pruvost, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Bruno Hurtrel, Guido Silvestri, Anna Senik, Jérôme Estaquier
Apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism responsible for CD4+ T cell depletion and immune dysfunction during HIV infection. We demonstrated that Q-VD-OPH, a caspase inhibitor, inhibits spontaneous and activation-induced death of T cells from SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). When administered during the acute phase of infection, Q-VD-OPH was associated with (a) reduced levels of T cell death, (b) preservation of CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in lymphoid organs and in the gut, (c) maintenance of memory CD4+ T cells, and (d) increased specific CD4+ T cell response associated with the expression of cytotoxic molecules...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540734/a-lachnospiraceae-dominated-bacterial-signature-in-the-fecal-microbiota-of-hiv-infected-individuals-from-colombia-south-america
#9
Homero San-Juan-Vergara, Eduardo Zurek, Nadim J Ajami, Christian Mogollon, Mario Peña, Ivan Portnoy, Jorge I Vélez, Christian Cadena-Cruz, Yirys Diaz-Olmos, Leidy Hurtado-Gómez, Silvana Sanchez-Sit, Danitza Hernández, Irina Urruchurtu, Pierina Di-Ruggiero, Ella Guardo-García, Nury Torres, Oscar Vidal-Orjuela, Diego Viasus, Joseph F Petrosino, Guillermo Cervantes-Acosta
HIV infection has a tremendous impact on the immune system's proper functioning. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is significantly disarrayed during HIV infection. Compositional changes in the gut microbiota might contribute to the mucosal barrier disruption, and consequently to microbial translocation. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating changes in the fecal microbiota of HIV-infected individuals from Colombia. We analyzed the fecal microbiota of 37 individuals via 16S rRNA gene sequencing; 25 HIV-infected patients and 12 control (non-infected) individuals, which were similar in body mass index, age, gender balance and socioeconomic status...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478152/the-role-of-integrin-%C3%AE-4-%C3%AE-7-in-hiv-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
James Arthos, Claudia Cicala, Fatima Nawaz, Siddappa N Byrareddy, Francois Villinger, Philip J Santangelo, Aftab A Ansari, Anthony S Fauci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute HIV infection is characterized by high-level viral replication throughout the body's lymphoid system, particularly in gut-associated lymphoid tissues resulting in damage to structural components of gut tissue. This damage is irreversible and believed to contribute to the development of immune deficiencies. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not restore gut structure and function. Studies in macaques point to an alternative treatment strategy that may ameliorate gut damage...
February 24, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470552/increased-hiv-1-transcriptional-activity-and-infectious-burden-in-peripheral-blood-and-gut-associated-cd4-t-cells-expressing-cd30
#11
Louise E Hogan, Joshua Vasquez, Kristen S Hobbs, Emily Hanhauser, Brandon Aguilar-Rodriguez, Rajaa Hussien, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A Gibson, Alexander B Carvidi, Louis C B Smith, Shahzada Khan, Martin Trapecar, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Ma Somsouk, Cheryl A Stoddart, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Steven G Deeks, Timothy J Henrich
HIV-1-infected cells persist indefinitely despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and novel therapeutic strategies to target and purge residual infected cells in individuals on ART are urgently needed. Here, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cell-associated HIV-1 RNA is often highly enriched in cells expressing CD30, and that cells expressing this marker considerably contribute to the total pool of transcriptionally active CD4+ lymphocytes in individuals on suppressive ART. Using in situ RNA hybridization studies, we show co-localization of CD30 with HIV-1 transcriptional activity in gut-associated lymphoid tissues...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422894/the-b-cell-follicle-in-hiv-infection-barrier-to-a-cure
#12
REVIEW
Matthew P Bronnimann, Pamela J Skinner, Elizabeth Connick
The majority of HIV replication occurs in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Within SLOs, HIV RNA+ cells are concentrated in the B-cell follicle during chronic untreated infection, and emerging data suggest that they are a major source of replication in treated disease as well. The concentration of HIV RNA+ cells in the B-cell follicle is mediated by several factors. Follicular CD4+ T-cell subsets including T-follicular helper cells and T-follicular regulatory cells are significantly more permissive to HIV than extrafollicular subsets...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411528/alterations-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-patients-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome
#13
Youlian Zhou, Zhitao Ou, Xiaoping Tang, Yongjian Zhou, Haoming Xu, Xianfei Wang, Kang Li, Jie He, Yanlei Du, Hong Wang, Ye Chen, Yuqiang Nie
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation and changes in the gut microbiota. Here, we aim to investigate the gut microbiota patterns of HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected individuals in populations from South China. We enrolled 33 patients with HIV (14 participants treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] for more than 3 months; the remaining 19 individuals had not received treatment) and 35 healthy controls (HC) for a cross-sectional comparison of gut microbiota using stool samples...
April 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402305/assessment-of-the-gorilla-gut-virome-in-association-with-natural-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#14
Mirela D'arc, Carolina Furtado, Juliana D Siqueira, Héctor N Seuánez, Ahidjo Ayouba, Martine Peeters, Marcelo A Soares
BACKGROUND: Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) of chimpanzees and gorillas from Central Africa crossed the species barrier at least four times giving rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) groups M, N, O and P. The paradigm of non-pathogenic lentiviral infections has been challenged by observations of naturally infected chimpanzees with SIVcpz associated with a negative impact on their life span and reproduction, CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss and lymphoid tissue destruction...
February 5, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386290/%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-cd4-effector-effector-memory-t-cells-differentiate-into-productively-and-latently-infected-central-memory-t-cells-by-tgf%C3%AE-1-during-hiv-1-infection
#15
Ka-Wai Cheung, Tongjin Wu, Sai Fan Ho, Yik Chun Wong, Li Liu, Hui Wang, Zhiwei Chen
HIV-1 transmission occurs mainly through mucosal tissues. During mucosal transmission, HIV-1 preferentially infects α4β7+ gut homing CCR7-CD4+ effector/effector memory T cells (TEM) and results in massive depletion of these cells and other subsets of TEM in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. However, besides being eliminated by HIV-1, the role of TEM during early stage of infection remains inconclusive. Here, using in vitro induced α4β7+ gut-homing TEM (α4β7+ TEM), we found that α4β7+ TEM differentiated into CCR7+CD4+ central memory T cells (TCM)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385188/metabarcoding-analysis-of-eukaryotic-microbiota-in-the-gut-of-hiv-infected-patients
#16
Ibrahim Hamad, Rita Abou Abdallah, Isabelle Ravaux, Saadia Mokhtari, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Caroline Michelle, Andreas Stein, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult, Fadi Bittar
Research on the relationship between changes in the gut microbiota and human disease, including AIDS, is a growing field. However, studies on the eukaryotic component of the intestinal microbiota have just begun and have not yet been conducted in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, eukaryotic community profiling is influenced by the use of different methodologies at each step of culture-independent techniques. Herein, initially, four DNA extraction protocols were compared to test the efficiency of each method in recovering eukaryotic DNA from fecal samples...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367348/integrin-%C3%AE-4-%C3%AE-7-expression-on-peripheral-blood-cd4-t-cells-predicts-hiv-acquisition-and-disease-progression-outcomes
#17
Aida Sivro, Alexandra Schuetz, Daniel Sheward, Vineet Joag, Sergey Yegorov, Lenine J Liebenberg, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Andrew Stalker, Ruth S Mwatelah, Philippe Selhorst, Nigel Garrett, Natasha Samsunder, Anisha Balgobin, Fatima Nawaz, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Anthony S Fauci, Aggrey Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, Bernard S Bagaya, Noah Kiwanuka, Carolyn Williamson, Rupert Kaul, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Aftab Ansari, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Lyle R McKinnon
The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is central to HIV pathogenesis, and the integrin α4β7promotes the homing of immune cells to this site, including those that serve as viral targets. Data from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) animal models suggest that α4β7blockade provides prophylactic and therapeutic benefits. We show that pre-HIV infection frequencies of α4β7+peripheral blood CD4+T cells, independent of other T cell phenotypes and genital inflammation, were associated with increased rates of HIV acquisition in South African women...
January 24, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346349/early-treatment-of-siv-macaques-with-an-%C3%AE-4-%C3%AE-7-mab-alters-virus-distribution-and-preserves-cd4-t-cells-in-later-stages-of-infection
#18
P J Santangelo, C Cicala, S N Byrareddy, K T Ortiz, D Little, K E Lindsay, S Gumber, J J Hong, K Jelicic, K A Rogers, C Zurla, F Villinger, A A Ansari, A S Fauci, J Arthos
Integrin α4 β7 mediates the trafficking of leukocytes, including CD4+ T cells, to lymphoid tissues in the gut. Virus mediated damage to the gut is implicated in HIV and SIV mediated chronic immune activation and leads to irreversible damage to the immune system. We employed an immuno-PET/CT imaging technique to evaluate the impact of an anti-integrin α4 β7 mAb alone or in combination with ART, on the distribution of both SIV infected cells and CD4+ cells in rhesus macaques infected with SIV. We determined that α4 β7 mAb reduced viral antigen in an array of tissues of the lung, spleen, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315893/mechanisms-regulating-expansion-of-cd8-t-cells-during-hiv-1-infection
#19
REVIEW
A Nasi, F Chiodi
Abnormal immune activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells, especially of memory and effector phenotypes, take place during HIV-1 infection, and these abnormal features persist during administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to infected patients. The molecular mechanisms for CD8+ T-cell expansion remain poorly characterized. In this article, we review the literature addressing features of CD8+ T-cell immune pathology and present an integrated view on the mechanisms leading to abnormal CD8+ T-cell expansion during HIV-1 infection...
March 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304776/is-weak-cd4-gain-in-the-course-of-suppressive-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-infection-a-current-clinical-challenge-a-case-report-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#20
Camilla Tincati, Esther Merlini, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti
BACKGROUND: Individuals lacking immune recovery during suppressive cART will still represent a clinical issue in the years to come, given the high proportion of HIV-infected subjects introducing therapy late in the course of disease. Understanding the mechanisms underlying poor CD4+ T-cell gain is crucial for the correct clinical management of individuals in this context. CASE PRESENTATION: An HIV-infected subject with poor CD4+ T-cell gain in the course of suppressive antiretroviral therapy was extensively investigated to identify the mechanisms behind inadequate CD4+ reconstitution...
January 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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