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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414780/sensitive-quantification-of-the-hiv-1-reservoir-in-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue
#1
Sara Morón-López, Maria C Puertas, Cristina Gálvez, Jordi Navarro, Anna Carrasco, Maria Esteve, Josep Manyé, Manel Crespo, Maria Salgado, Javier Martinez-Picado
BACKGROUND: The implementation of successful strategies to achieve an HIV cure has become a priority in HIV research. However, the current location and size of HIV reservoirs is still unknown since there are limited tools to evaluate HIV latency in viral sanctuaries such as gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). As reported in the so called "Boston Patients", despite undetectable levels of proviral HIV-1 DNA in blood and GALT, viral rebound happens in just few months after ART interruption...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405607/chemoattractant-mediated-leukocyte-trafficking-enables-hiv-dissemination-from-the-genital-mucosa
#2
Maud Deruaz, Thomas T Murooka, Sophina Ji, Marc A Gavin, Vladimir D Vrbanac, Judy Lieberman, Andrew M Tager, Thorsten R Mempel, Andrew D Luster
HIV vaginal transmission accounts for the majority of newly acquired heterosexual infections. However, the mechanism by which HIV spreads from the initial site of viral entry at the mucosal surface of the female genital tract to establish a systemic infection of lymphoid and peripheral tissues is not known. Once the virus exits the mucosa it rapidly spreads to all tissues, leading to CD4(+) T cell depletion and the establishment of a viral reservoir that cannot be eliminated with current treatments. Understanding the molecular and cellular requirements for viral dissemination from the genital tract is therefore of great importance, as it could reveal new strategies to lengthen the window of opportunity to target the virus at its entry site in the mucosa where it is the most vulnerable and thus prevent systemic infection...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404136/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-patients-with-hiv
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Verna
Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people with HIV, and in this era of safer and more effective hepatitis C therapy, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) could soon emerge as the most common liver disease in this population. NAFLD is common among patients with HIV, and might be more likely to progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFLD-related fibrosis or cirrhosis in these patients than in individuals without HIV. Several mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis are postulated to explain the disease severity in patients with HIV; these mechanisms include the influence of the gut microbiome, and also metabolic, genetic, and immunological factors...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402970/the-genotyping-resistance-profile-of-the-pol-gene-detected-in-blood-of-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-men-is-durably-archived-in-the-gut-whatever-the-time-of-initiation-of-cart
#4
Anne Emmanuelle Depincé, Elodie Dussert, Delphine Vergnon-Miszczycha, Abdelaye Keita, Sylvie Pillet, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Anne Frésard, Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Frédéric R Lucht, Xavier Roblin, Bruno Pozzetto, Stéphane Paul, Thomas Bourlet
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mutational patterns on the pol gene of the main HIV-1 strain archived in cell genome of 10 chronically infected men according to their clinical and therapeutic history. The genotyping resistance profiles were compared between the first blood plasma available at the time of HIV diagnosis and rectal biopsies and PBMC sampled 1-5 years after the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: HIV-1 RNA and cell-associated HIV-1 DNA were quantified by Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 and Generic HIV® DNA cell (Biocentric) assays...
April 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398774/hiv-persistence-in-galt-pharmacological-challenges-and-opportunities
#5
Corbin Thompson, Cynthia L Gay, Angela Kashuba
An increasing amount of evidence suggests that HIV replication persists in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Residual replication in this compartment may propagate infection at other sites in the body and contribute to sustained immune dysregulation and delayed immune recovery. Therefore, it is important to focus efforts on eliminating residual replication at this site. There are several challenges to accomplishing this goal, including low antiretroviral (ARV) exposure at specific tissue locations within GALT, which might be overcome using the tools of clinical pharmacology...
February 28, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388647/impact-of-probiotic-saccharomyces-boulardii-on-the-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-treated-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Judit Villar-García, Robert Güerri-Fernández, Andrés Moya, Alicia González, Juan J Hernández, Elisabet Lerma, Ana Guelar, Luisa Sorli, Juan P Horcajada, Alejandro Artacho, Giuseppe D Auria, Hernando Knobel
Dysbalance in gut microbiota has been linked to increased microbial translocation, leading to chronic inflammation in HIV-patients, even under effective HAART. Moreover, microbial translocation is associated with insufficient reconstitution of CD4+T cells, and contributes to the pathogenesis of immunologic non-response. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recently showed that, compared to placebo, 12 weeks treatment with probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii significantly reduced plasma levels of bacterial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein or LBP) and systemic inflammation (IL-6) in 44 HIV virologically suppressed patients, half of whom (n = 22) had immunologic non-response to antiretroviral therapy (<270 CD4+Tcells/μL despite long-term suppressed viral load)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362071/differential-effects-of-antiretrovirals-on-microbial-translocation-and-gut-microbiota-composition-of-hiv-infected-patients
#7
María J Villanueva-Millán, Patricia Pérez-Matute, Emma Recio-Fernández, José M Lezana Rosales, José A Oteo
INTRODUCTION: Increased bacterial translocation and alterations to gut microbiota composition have been described in HIV infection and contribute to immune activation and inflammation. These effects persist despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, the contribution of different cART combinations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term effects of different combinations of cART on bacterial translocation and gut microbiota composition in HIV-infected patients...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362070/awareness-and-perceived-fairness-of-option-b-in-malawi-a-population-level-perspective
#8
Sara Yeatman, Jenny Trinitapoli
INTRODUCTION: Policies for rationing antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been subject to on-going ethical debates. Introduced in Malawi in 2011, Option B+ prioritized HIV-positive pregnant women for lifelong ART regardless of the underlying state of their immune system, shifting the logic of allocation away from medical eligibility. Despite the rapid expansion of this policy, we know little about how it has been understood and interpreted by the people it affects. METHODS: We assessed awareness and perceived fairness of the prioritization system for ART among a population-based sample of young women (n = 1440) and their partners (n = 574) in southern Malawi...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356058/hiv-infected-persons-with-type-2-diabetes-show-evidence-of-endothelial-dysfunction-and-increased-inflammation
#9
Malene Hove-Skovsgaard, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Lilian Kolte, Kamilla Winding, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Asbjørn Svardal, Rolf Kristian Berge, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Marius Trøseid, Susanne Dam Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may contribute to elevated risk of CVD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA <200 copies/mL (n = 25 with T2D (HIV + T2D+), n = 25 without T2D (HIV + T2D-)) and 50 uninfected persons (n = 22 with T2D (HIV-T2D+) and n = 28 without T2D (HIV-T2D-))...
March 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300642/distribution-and-phylogeny-of-brachyspira-spp-in-human-intestinal-spirochetosis-revealed-by-fish-and-16s-rrna-gene-analysis
#10
Pablo Rojas, Annett Petrich, Julia Schulze, Alexandra Wiessner, Christoph Loddenkemper, Hans-Jörg Epple, William Sterlacci, Michael Vieth, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter
During six years as German National Consultant Laboratory for Spirochetes we investigated 149 intestinal biopsies from 91 patients, which were histopathologically diagnosed with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS), using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing. Aim of this study was to complement histopathological findings with FISH and PCR for definite diagnosis and species identification of the causative pathogens. HIS is characterized by colonization of the colonic mucosa of the human distal intestinal tract by Brachyspira spp...
March 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262770/fecal-bacterial-communities-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals-on-two-antiretroviral-regimens
#11
Sandra Pinto-Cardoso, Catherine Lozupone, Olivia Briceño, Selma Alva-Hernández, Norma Téllez, Aguilar Adriana, Akio Murakami-Ogasawara, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
Intestinal microbiome changes that occur in HIV positive individuals on different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are important to understand, as they are potentially linked with chronic inflammation and microbiome-linked comorbidities that occur at increased incidence in this population. We conducted a cross-sectional study comparing the fecal microbiomes of HIV-uninfected (HIV SN) to HIV-infected individuals on long-term ART (HIV+ LTART) from Mexico using 16S ribosomal RNA (16sRNA) targeted sequencing...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262047/how-can-the-gut-microbiota-affect-immune-recovery-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#12
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Manuel Ferrer, María José Gosalbes, Santiago Moreno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241080/replication-of-cmv-in-the-gut-of-hiv-infected-individuals-and-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#13
Ekaterina Maidji, Ma Somsouk, Jose M Rivera, Peter W Hunt, Cheryl A Stoddart
Although invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is uncommon in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), asymptomatic CMV coinfection is nearly ubiquitous in HIV infected individuals. While microbial translocation and gut epithelial barrier dysfunction may promote persistent immune activation in treated HIV infection, potentially contributing to morbidity and mortality, it has been unclear whether CMV replication in individuals with no symptoms of CMV disease might play a role in this process. We hypothesized that persistent CMV replication in the intestinal epithelium of HIV/CMV-coinfected individuals impairs gut epithelial barrier function...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241075/the-transcriptome-of-hiv-1-infected-intestinal-cd4-t-cells-exposed-to-enteric-bacteria
#14
Alyson C Yoder, Kejun Guo, Stephanie M Dillon, Tzu Phang, Eric J Lee, Michael S Harper, Karen Helm, John C Kappes, Christina Ochsenbauer, Martin D McCarter, Cara C Wilson, Mario L Santiago
Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198699/longitudinal-imaging-of-hiv-1-spread-in-humanized-mice-with-parallel-3d-immunofluorescence-and-electron-tomography
#15
Collin Kieffer, Mark S Ladinsky, Allen Ninh, Rachel P Galimidi, Pamela J Bjorkman
Dissemination of HIV-1 throughout lymphoid tissues leads to systemic virus spread following infection. We combined tissue clearing, 3D-immunofluorescence, and electron tomography (ET) to longitudinally assess early HIV-1 spread in lymphoid tissues in humanized mice. Immunofluorescence revealed peak infection density in gut at 10-12 days post-infection when blood viral loads were low. Human CD4+ T-cells and HIV-1-infected cells localized predominantly to crypts and the lower third of intestinal villi. Free virions and infected cells were not readily detectable by ET at 5-days post-infection, whereas HIV-1-infected cells surrounded by pools of free virions were present in ~10% of intestinal crypts by 10-12 days...
February 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196049/hiv-infection-in-the-native-and-allograft-kidney-implications-for-management-diagnosis-and-transplantation
#16
Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Christine Rouzioux, Christophe Legendre, Guillaume Canaud
The native kidney is a reservoir for HIV-1 and a site of viral replication, similar to lymphoid tissue, gut-associated lymphoid tissue or semen. The ability of the virus to persist may result from either a true latency or sequestration in an anatomic site that is not effectively exposed to antiretroviral therapy. The presence of HIV in kidney epithelial cells will lead progressively to end-stage renal disease. For decades, HIV-infected patients were excluded from consideration for kidney transplantation. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were the only forms of treatment available to these patients...
February 11, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177967/neutralizing-and-targeting-properties-of-a-new-set-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-specific-antibodies-are-influenced-by-their-isotype
#17
Alexandre Girard, Katija Jelicic, Don Van Ryk, Nicolas Rochereau, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Blandine Noailly, Christian Genin, Bernard Verrier, Stephanie Laurant, Diane Razanajaoana-Doll, Jean-Jacques Pin, Stéphane Paul
The homing of lymphocytes to the mucosa is mainly controlled by α4β7 integrin, and it is amplified during gut chronic inflammation, as occurs with HIV and/or inflammatory bowel diseases. We designed and applied an improved immunization strategy based on an innovative selection process to isolate new α4β7 lymphocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies that are able to prevent their migration into inflamed gut tissues and/or to counteract HIV infection in vitro. First, 5 monoclonal antibodies (1 IgA, 1 IgM, and 4 IgGs) were selected based on their capacity to recognize α4 or β7 homodimers and α4β7 heterodimers in transfected human cells...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174773/dietary-fibre-based-scfa-mixtures-promote-both-protection-and-repair-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-in-a-caco-2-cell-model
#18
Tingting Chen, Choon Young Kim, Amandeep Kaur, Lisa Lamothe, Maliha Shaikh, Ali Keshavarzian, Bruce R Hamaker
Impaired gut barrier function plays an important role in the development of many diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and in HIV infection. Dietary fibres have been shown to improve intestinal barrier function through their fermentation products, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the effects of individual SCFAs have been studied. Here, different SCFA mixtures representing possible compositions from fibre fermentation products were studied for protective and reparative effects on intestinal barrier function...
February 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128885/mechanisms-of-hiv-persistence-in-hiv-reservoirs
#19
REVIEW
Mayibongwe L Mzingwane, Caroline T Tiemessen
The establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoirs that lead to persistent viremia in patients on antiretroviral drugs remains the greatest challenge of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Cellular reservoirs include resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, implicated as the major HIV reservoir, having a half-life of approximately 44 months while this is less than 6 hours for HIV in plasma. In some individuals, persistent viremia consists of invariant HIV clones not detected in circulating resting CD4+ T lymphocytes suggesting other possible sources of residual viremia...
January 27, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128004/long-acting-slow-effective-release-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Benson Edagwa, JoEllyn McMillan, Brady Sillman, Howard E Gendelman
Advances in long-acting antiretroviral therapy (ART) can revolutionize current HIV/AIDS treatments. We coined the term 'long-acting slow effective release ART' (LASER ART) to highlight the required formulation properties of slow drug dissolution, poor water-solubility, bioavailability, little-to-no off-target toxicities and improved regimen adherence. Drug carrier technologies characterized by high antiretroviral drug (ARV) payloads in a single carrier improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles...
February 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
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