keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

HIV GUT

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719012/the-impact-of-immunoglobulin-in-acute-hiv-infection-on-the-hiv-reservoir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
J Tiraboschi, S Ray, K Patel, A Teague, M Pace, P Phalora, N Robinson, E Hopkins, J Meyerowitz, Y Wang, J Cason, S Kaye, J Sanderson, P Klenerman, S Fidler, J Frater, J Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS: Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19)...
July 18, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692535/effect-of-cmv-and-ebv-replication-on-intestinal-mucosal-gene-expression-and-microbiome-composition-of-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-individuals
#2
Sara Gianella, Antoine Chaillon, Ece A Mutlu, Phillip A Engen, Robin M Voigt, Ali Keshavarzian, John Losurdo, Prachi Chakradeo, Steven M Lada, Masato Nakazawa, Alan L Landay
BACKGROUND: HIV-infection is associated with dramatic changes in the intestinal mucosa. The impact of other viral pathogens is unclear. METHODS: Eighty biopsies from left and right colon (n=63) and terminal ileum (n = 17) were collected from 19 HIV-infected and 22 HIV-uninfected subjects. Levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) DNA were measured by droplet-digital (dd)PCR. Mucosal gene expression was measured via multiplex-assay. Microbiome analysis was performed using bacterial 16S-rDNA-pyrosequencing...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690913/ghrelin-amylin-gastric-inhibitory-peptide-and-cognition-in-middle-aged-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-women-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#3
Samy I McFarlane, Michelle M Mielke, Anthony Uglialoro, Sheila M Keating, Susan Holman, Howard Minkoff, Howard A Crystal, Deborah R Gustafson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the gut-brain axis by examining gut hormone levels and cognitive test scores in women with (HIV+) and without (HIV-) HIV infection. DESIGN/METHODS: Participants included 356 women (248 HIV+, 108 at risk HIV-) in the Brooklyn Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with measured levels of ghrelin, amylin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between gut hormones and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score (WRAT), CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity...
February 2017: Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687795/the-anti-hiv-candidate-abx464-dampens-intestinal-inflammation-by-triggering-il-22-production-in-activated-macrophages
#4
Karim Chebli, Laura Papon, Conception Paul, Aude Garcel, Noëlie Campos, Didier Scherrer, Hartmut J Ehrlich, Michael Hahne, Jamal Tazi
The progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with mucosal damage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This damage enables bacterial translocation from the gut and leads to subsequent inflammation. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-exposure) is an established animal model for experimental colitis that was recently shown to recapitulate the link between GI-tract damage and pathogenic features of SIV infection. The current study tested the protective properties of ABX464, a first-in-class anti-HIV drug candidate currently in phase II clinical trials...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667761/persistent-accumulation-of-gut-macrophages-with-impaired-phagocytic-function-correlates-with-siv-disease-progression-in-macaques
#5
Zachary D Swan, Anthea L Bouwer, Elizabeth R Wonderlich, Simon M Barratt-Boyes
The contribution of macrophages in the gastrointestinal tract to disease control or progression in HIV infection remains unclear. To address this question, we analyzed CD163(+) macrophages in ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes (LN) from SIV-infected rhesus macaques with dichotomous expression of controlling MHC class I alleles predicted to be SIV controllers or progressors. Infection induced accumulation of macrophages into gut mucosa in the acute phase that persisted in progressors but was resolved in controllers...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661459/macrophages-and-phospholipases-at-the-intersection-between-inflammation-and-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Spadaro, Serena Cecchetti, Laura Fantuzzi
Persistent low grade immune activation and chronic inflammation are nowadays considered main driving forces of the progressive immunologic failure in effective antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Among the factors contributing to this phenomenon, microbial translocation has emerged as a key driver of persistent immune activation. Indeed, the rapid depletion of gastrointestinal CD4⁺ T lymphocytes occurring during the early phases of infection leads to a deterioration of the gut epithelium followed by the translocation of microbial products into the systemic circulation and the subsequent activation of innate immunity...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651341/plasma-concentrations-of-atovaquone-given-to-immunocompromised-patients-to-prevent-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#7
Christine Robin, Minh Patrick Lê, Giovanna Melica, Laurent Massias, Rabah Redjoul, Nihel Khoudour, Mathieu Leclerc, Florence Beckerich, Sébastien Maury, Anne Hulin, Catherine Cordonnier
Objectives: Atovaquone is one of the alternatives to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients. In volunteers, there was wide inter-individual variability in atovaquone bioavailability. The aim of this study was to assess the plasma concentrations of atovaquone in immunocompromised patients under PCP prophylaxis. Methods: Adult haematology or HIV-positive patients receiving atovaquone (750 mg oral suspension twice a day) for PCP prophylaxis were included...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#8
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#9
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621554/gut-microbiota-changes-and-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#10
Tomislav Preveden, Emidio Scarpellini, Natasa Milić, Francesco Luzza, Ludovico Abenavoli
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem with 150 million infected people worldwide. Liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to increased intestinal permeability with passage of microbial antigens into the liver through the portal circulation. The concept of "gut-liver" axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases. Several recent studies also revealed that an altered gut microbiota can be implicated in the pathogenesis of HCV-induced chronic liver disease (CHC)...
June 16, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605173/barriers-to-hiv-remission-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#11
REVIEW
Theresa Rossouw, Joseph D Tucker, Gert U van Zyl, Kenly Sikwesi, Catherine Godfrey
INTRODUCTION: HIV eradication and remission research has largely taken place in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), there may be factors that have a substantial impact on the size of the latent HIV reservoir and the immunological response to infection. If a curative strategy is to be available to all HIV-infected individuals, these factors must be understood. METHODS: We use a scoping review to examine the literature on biological factors that may have an impact on HIV persistence in LMIC...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590332/hiv-positive-youth-who-are-perinatally-infected-have-impaired-endothelial-function
#12
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A Mccomsey
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating cardiovascular (CVD) risk in children and youth 13-24 years old who are facing a life time exposure to both HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a research priority. This study compares endothelial function measured by Peripheral Arterial Tonometry in HIV+ youth infected perinatally and behaviorally as well as HIV- controls. METHODS: Three groups of participants aged 8-30 yo were enrolled; HIV+ perinatally-infected, HIV+ behaviorally-infected on ART with HIV-1 RNA <1,000 copies/mL, and HIV- controls...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579989/acute-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-triggers-early-and-transient-interleukin-7-production-in-the-gut-leading-to-enhanced-local-chemokine-expression-and-intestinal-immune-cell-homing
#13
Rosalie Ponte, Magali Rancez, Suzanne Figueiredo-Morgado, Jacques Dutrieux, Véronique Fabre-Mersseman, Bénédicte Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Thomas Guilbert, Jean-Pierre Routy, Rémi Cheynier, Anne Couëdel-Courteille
The intestinal barrier, one of the first targets of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is subjected to major physiological changes during acute infection. Having previously shown that pharmaceutical injection of interleukin-7 (IL-7) triggers chemokine expression in many organs leading to massive T-cell homing, in particular to the intestine, we here explored mucosal IL-7 expression as part of the cytokine storm occurring during the acute phase of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. Quantifying both mRNA and protein in tissues, we demonstrated a transient increase of IL-7 expression in the small intestine of SIV-infected rhesus macaques, starting with local detection of the virus by day 3 of infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542550/a-spatio-temporal-assessment-of-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-shiv-evolution-reveals-a-highly-dynamic-process-within-the-host
#14
Alison F Feder, Christopher Kline, Patricia Polacino, Mackenzie Cottrell, Angela D M Kashuba, Brandon F Keele, Shiu-Lok Hu, Dmitri A Petrov, Pleuni S Pennings, Zandrea Ambrose
The process by which drug-resistant HIV-1 arises and spreads spatially within an infected individual is poorly understood. Studies have found variable results relating how HIV-1 in the blood differs from virus sampled in tissues, offering conflicting findings about whether HIV-1 throughout the body is homogeneously distributed. However, most of these studies sample only two compartments and few have data from multiple time points. To directly measure how drug resistance spreads within a host and to assess how spatial structure impacts its emergence, we examined serial sequences from four macaques infected with RT-SHIVmne027, a simian immunodeficiency virus encoding HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), and treated with RT inhibitors...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#15
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. METHODS: An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
May 25, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539453/epigenetic-metabolite-acetate-inhibits-class-i-ii-histone-deacetylases-promotes-histone-acetylation-and-increases-hiv-1-integration-in-cd4-t-cells
#16
Jean-François Bolduc, Laurent Hany, Corinne Barat, Michel Ouellet, Michel J Tremblay
In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4(+) T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4(+) T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with an increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration in the genome of CD4(+) T cells...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522510/taking-hiv-to-the-gut
#17
EDITORIAL
Anand Balasubramani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513595/hiv-2-infection-is-associated-with-preserved-galt-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity-despite-ongoing-mucosal-viral-replication
#18
S M Fernandes, A R Pires, P Matoso, C Ferreira, H Nunes-Cabaço, L Correia, E Valadas, J Poças, P Pacheco, H Veiga-Fernandes, R B Foxall, A E Sousa
The mechanisms that enable preservation of gut mucosal integrity during persistent viral replication and inherent inflammation remain unclear. Here, we investigated, for the first time, gut homeostasis in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring form of attenuated HIV disease. We found viral replication in both sigmoid and ileum of asymptomatic HIV-2+ patients (range: 240-851 circulating CD4+T-cells per μl) despite their undetectable viremia, accompanied by interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cell expansion, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505204/compartment-specific-distribution-of-human-intestinal-innate-lymphoid-cells-is-altered-in-hiv-patients-under-effective-therapy
#19
Benjamin Krämer, Felix Goeser, Philipp Lutz, Andreas Glässner, Christoph Boesecke, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Dominik Kaczmarek, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Vittorio Branchi, Steffen Manekeller, Robert Hüneburg, Tobias van Bremen, Tobias Weismüller, Christian P Strassburg, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Ulrich Spengler, Jacob Nattermann
Innate lymphocyte cells (ILCs), a novel family of innate immune cells are considered to function as key orchestrators of immune defences at mucosal surfaces and to be crucial for maintaining an intact intestinal barrier. Accordingly, first data suggest depletion of ILCs to be involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated damage of the intestinal mucosa and subsequent microbial translocation. However, although ILCs are preferentially localized at mucosal surfaces, only little is known regarding distribution and function of ILCs in the human gastrointestinal tract...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503933/highly-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-seronegative-men-have-lower-mucosal-innate-immune-reactivity
#20
Jennifer A Fulcher, Laura Romas, Jennifer C Hoffman, Julie Elliott, Terry Saunders, Adam D Burgener, Peter A Anton, Otto O Yang
Risk of HIV acquisition varies, and some individuals are highly HIV-1-exposed, yet, persistently seronegative (HESN). The immunologic mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are an area of intense interest. As immune activation and inflammation facilitate disease progression in HIV-1-infected persons and gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue is a highly susceptible site for transmission, we hypothesized that reduced gut mucosal immune reactivity may contribute to reduced HIV-1 susceptibility in HESN men with a history of numerous rectal sexual exposures...
June 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
keyword
keyword
81778
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"