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gut infectious disease

Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Marcus J Zervos, Erica S Herc
The role of enterococci in infectious diseases has evolved from a gut and urinary commensal to a major pathogen of concern. Few options exist for resistant enterococci, and appropriate use of the available agents is crucial. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss antibiotics with clinically useful activity against Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. The article specifically discusses: antibiotics active against enterococci and their mechanism of resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, in vitro combinations, and clinical studies which focus on urinary tract, intra-abdominal, central nervous system, and bloodstream infections due to enterococci...
June 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Silje Thorsvik, Ingunn Bakke, Atle van Beelen Granlund, Elin Synnøve Røyset, Jan Kristian Damås, Ann Elisabet Østvik, Arne Kristian Sandvik
The antimicrobial glycoprotein neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is strongly expressed in several infectious, inflammatory and malignant disorders, among these inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal and serum NGAL is elevated during active IBD and we have recently shown that fecal NGAL is a novel biomarker for IBD with a test performance comparable to the established fecal biomarker calprotectin. This study examines expression of NGAL in the healthy gut and in Crohn's disease (CD), with emphasis on the previously unexplored small intestine...
June 5, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Zhen Zhang, Ronglian Xing, Zhimeng Lv, Yina Shao, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Chenghua Li
Accumulative evidence has supported the pivotal roles of gut microbiota in shaping host health in a wide range of animals. However, the relationship between gut microbiota and sea cucumber disease is poorly understood. Using the Illumina sequencing of bacterial 16 S rRNA gene, we investigated the divergence of gut bacterial communities between healthy and skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) diseased Apostichopus japonicus. The results showed that bacterial phylotypes in both groups were closely related at phylum level with predominant component of Proteobacteria (>90%)...
June 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Daniel N Villageliú, Sharon Rasmussen, Mark Lyte
Microbial endocrinology represents the union of microbiology and neurobiology and is concerned with the ability of neurochemicals to serve as an evolutionary-based language between host and microbiota in health and disease. The recognition that microorganisms produce, modify and respond to the same neurochemicals utilized in the various signaling pathways of their mammalian hosts is increasingly being recognized as a mechanism by which the host and microbiota may interact to influence the progression of infectious disease as well as influence behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Rocío I López Roa, Saray Quintero-Fabián, Marina A Sánchez-Sánchez, Barbara Vizmanos, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
Gut microbiota (GM) plays several crucial roles in host physiology and influences several relevant functions. In more than one respect, it can be said that you "feed your microbiota and are fed by it." GM diversity is affected by diet and influences metabolic and immune functions of the host's physiology. Consequently, an imbalance of GM, or dysbiosis, may be the cause or at least may lead to the progression of various pathologies such as infectious diseases, gastrointestinal cancers, inflammatory bowel disease, and even obesity and diabetes...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Jihad Bishara
This review summarizes the latest advances in treating and preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common infectious disease cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults in developed countries. As customary antibiotic therapies against C. difficile, metronidazole and vancomycin, are broad spectrum, they affect greatly the gut microbiota, which result in very high recurrence rates. Therefore, new strategies are researched intensively. New therapies focus on limiting further destruction of the gut microbiota or restoring the microbiota to its pre-destructed state...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Guido van Marle, Deirdre L Church, Frank van der Meer, M John Gill
Impressive advances have been made in the treatment and management of HIV-1 infected individuals. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has turned HIV-1 infection from an almost invariable deadly infectious disease, to a lifelong manageable infectious disease. However, a cure or vaccine has not been forthcoming. A major problem in HIV-1 infection is the persistent and latently infected cellular and tissue reservoirs. One of these reservoirs is the Gut Associated Lymphoid tissue (GALT), which has been the research focus of our group...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Ramon M Eichenberger, Stephanie Ryan, Linda Jones, Geraldine Buitrago, Ramona Polster, Marcela Montes de Oca, Jennifer Zuvelek, Paul R Giacomin, Lindsay A Dent, Christian R Engwerda, Matthew A Field, Javier Sotillo, Alex Loukas
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts, allowing them to establish chronic infections. This is mediated by creating an immunoregulatory environment. Indeed, hookworms are such potent suppressors of inflammation that they have been used in clinical trials to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease. Since the recent description of helminths (worms) secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosome-like EVs from different helminths have been characterized and their salient roles in parasite-host interactions have been highlighted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Emily G Severance, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Typical and atypical antipsychotics are the first-line treatments for schizophrenia, but these classes of drugs are not universally effective, and they can have serious side effects that impact compliance. Antipsychotic drugs generally target the dopamine pathways with some variation. As research of schizophrenia pathophysiology has shifted away from a strictly dopamine-centric focus, the development of new pharmacotherapies has waned. A field of inquiry with centuries-old roots is gaining traction in psychiatric research circles and may represent a new frontier for drug discovery in schizophrenia...
May 6, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Huan Li, Tongtong Li, Jiapeng Qu
Vector-borne microbes influence pathogen transmission and blood microbiomes, thereby affecting the emergence of infectious diseases. Thus, understanding the relationship between host and vector microbiomes is of importance. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community composition, diversity and assembly of the flea (Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina), torsalo (Hypoderma curzonial), and the blood and gut of their shared pika host, Ochotona curzoniae. Bartonella, Sphingomonas and Bradyrhizobium were enriched in blood, while Wolbachia and Fusobacterium were more abundant in fleas and torsaloes...
May 2, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Cindy C Y Law, Alisha Narula, Amy L Lightner, Nicholas P McKenna, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Neeraj Narula
Background and Aims: The impact of vedolizumab, a gut-selective monoclonal antibody, on postoperative outcomes is unclear. This study aimed to assess the impact of preoperative vedolizumab treatment on the rate of postoperative complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods: A systematic search of multiple electronic databases from inception until May 2017 identified studies reporting rates of postoperative complications in vedolizumab-treated IBD patients compared to no biologic exposure or anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treated IBD patients...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Silvia I Cazorla, Carolina Maldonado-Galdeano, Ricardo Weill, Juan De Paula, Gabriela D V Perdigón
The huge amount of intestinal bacteria represents a continuing threat to the intestinal barrier. To meet this challenge, gut epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides (AMP) that act at the forefront of innate immunity. We explore whether this antimicrobial activity and Paneth cells, the main intestinal cell responsible of AMP production, are influenced by probiotics administration, to avoid the imbalance of intestinal microbiota and preserve intestinal barrier. Administration of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (Lc 431) and L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yupei Zhang, Kairui Tang, Yuanjun Deng, Runsen Chen, Shu Liang, Huijun Xie, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Qinhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease closely associated with obesity, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Shenling Baizhu powder (SLBZP), a formulation of a variety of natural medicinal plants, has hepatoprotective properties and clinical efficacy in treating non-infectious intestinal disease. SLBZP has improved NAFLD symptoms; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. METHODS: We established an NAFLD model in rats given a high-fat diet (HFD), administered different interventions and measured serum biochemical indices and inflammatory factors...
June 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Federica Del Chierico, Sabrina Cardile, Andrea Pietrobattista, Daniela Liccardo, Alessandra Russo, Manila Candusso, Maria Sole Basso, Chiara Grimaldi, Laura Pansani, Paola Bernaschi, Giuliano Torre, Lorenza Putignani
The increase of microorganisms multi-drug resistant (MDR) to antibiotics (ATBs) is becoming a global emergency, especially in frail subjects. In chronic liver disease (LD) with indications for liver transplantation (LT), MDR colonization can significantly affect the LT outcome. However, no clear guidelines for microbial management are available. A novel approach toward MDR-colonized patients undergoing LT was developed at our Center refraining from ATBs use during the transplant waiting list, and use of an intensive perioperative prophylaxis cycle...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mayuka Fujimoto, Ryosuke Goto, Takeshi Haneda, Nobuhiko Okada, Tsuyoshi Miki
Salmonella enterica , a common cause of diarrhea, has to colonize the gut lumen to elicit the disease. In the gut, the pathogen encounters a vast array of environmental stresses that cause perturbations in the bacterial envelope. The CpxRA two-component system monitors envelope perturbations and responds by altering the bacteria gene expression profile. This allows Salmonella to survive under such harmful conditions. Therefore, CpxRA activation is likely to contribute to Salmonella gut infection. However, the role of CpxRA-mediated envelope stress response in Salmonella -induced diarrhea is unclear...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Claude Kwe Yinda, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Nádia Conceição-Neto, Leen Beller, Ward Deboutte, Emiel Vanhulle, Piet Maes, Marc Van Ranst, Jelle Matthijnssens
Most human emerging infectious diseases originate from wildlife and bats are a major reservoir of viruses, a few of which have been highly pathogenic to humans. In some regions of Cameroon, bats are hunted and eaten as a delicacy. This close proximity between human and bats provides ample opportunity for zoonotic events. To elucidate the viral diversity of Cameroonian fruit bats, we collected and metagenomically screened eighty-seven fecal samples of Eidolon helvum and Epomophorus gambianus fruit bats. The results showed a plethora of known and novel viruses...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
Rika Nakahashi-Ouchida, Yoshikazu Yuki, Hiroshi Kiyono
The mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are continuously exposed to countless beneficial and pathologic antigens. These mucosal surfaces are thus equipped with an immune system that is unique from those elsewhere in the body; this unique system provides the first line of immune surveillance and defense against pathogen invasion. The sophisticated immune induction machinery in the aero-digestive tract involves mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, including nasopharyngeal- and gut-associated lymphoid tissues, for the generation of antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses...
April 6, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Hana Kiňová Sepová, Boris Dudík, Andrea Bilková
Coexistence of humans with microorganisms is well known for a long time. Besides the association with infectious diseases, personal microbiota is important for human health, possibly for some non-infectious diseases. Colonization of the human body with appropriate microorganisms after delivery is essential for physiological immune system maturation and also has an influence on central nervous system development. The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by the mode of delivery, early life nutrition and last but not least by lifestyle and drug, especially antibiotics intake...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
Hongyu Wen, Xin Yin, Zhenya Yuan, Xiuying Wang, Siting Su
Diarrhea is a global disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate in children. In this study, 25 fecal samples were collected from children under 5 years old. Seven samples had been taken from healthy children without diarrhea and marked as the healthy control group; eight samples had been sampled from children with diarrhea caused by dyspepsia and defined as the non-infectious group; and ten samples had been taken from children with diarrhea induced by intestinal infections and identified as the infectious group...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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