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gut infectious disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522324/non-invasive-three-dimensional-imaging-of-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-using-diffuse-light-imaging-tomography-combined-with-micro-computed-tomography
#1
REVIEW
Luci A Witcomb, Julie Czupryna, Kevin P Francis, Gad Frankel, Peter W Taylor
In contrast to two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, three dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) has the potential to realise spatial variations in infection patterns when imaging experimental animals dosed with derivatives of virulent bacteria carrying bioluminescent reporter genes such as the lux operon from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The method provides an opportunity to precisely localise the bacterial infection sites within the animal and enables the generation of four-dimensional movies of the infection cycle...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496435/serum-metabolomic-profiling-of-piglets-infected-with-virulent-classical-swine-fever-virus
#2
Wenjie Gong, Junjie Jia, Bikai Zhang, Shijiang Mi, Li Zhang, Xiaoming Xie, Huancheng Guo, Jishu Shi, Changchun Tu
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine infectious disease and causes significant economic losses for the pig industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether small molecule metabolites contribute to the pathogenesis of CSF. Birefly, serum metabolomics of CSFV Shimen strain-infected piglets were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF/MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492497/regulation-of-th17-cells-and-associated-cytokines-in-wound-healing-tissue-regeneration-and-carcinogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Leonie Brockmann, Anastasios D Giannou, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
Wound healing is a crucial process which protects our body against permanent damage and invasive infectious agents. Upon tissue damage, inflammation is an early event which is orchestrated by a multitude of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets including TH17 cells. TH17 cells and TH17 cell associated cytokines can impact wound healing positively by clearing pathogens and modulating mucosal surfaces and epithelial cells. Injury of the gut mucosa can cause fast expansion of TH17 cells and their induction from naïve T cells through Interleukin (IL)-6, TGF-β, and IL-1β signaling...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491823/comparative-proteomics-reveals-differences-in-host-pathogen-interaction-between-infectious-and-commensal-relationship-with-campylobacter-jejuni
#4
Nieves Ayllón, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Héctor Argüello, Sara Zaldívar-López, Margarita Villar, Carmen Aguilar, Angela Moreno, José De La Fuente, Juan J Garrido
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading food-borne poisoning in industrialized countries. While the bacteria causes disease in humans, it merely colonizes the gut in poultry or pigs, where seems to establish a commensal relationship. Until now, few studies have been conducted to elucidate the relationship between C. jejuni and its different hosts. In this work, a comparative proteomics approach was used to identify the underlying mechanisms involved in the divergent outcome following C. jejuni infection in human and porcine host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474475/what-happened-to-koch-s-postulates-in-diarrhea
#5
Shamima Sultana, Shafiqul A Sarker, Harald Brüssow
In 1890 Robert Koch has formulated postulates describing what criteria a parasite has to fulfill to qualify as an etiological agent for an infectious disease. Since then Koch's postulates have experienced reformulations by nearly every generation of microbiologists reflecting new discoveries changing the understanding of infectious diseases pathogenesis. The latest addition to this discussion is the role of the host commensal microbiota in turning infections into disease. After an overview of the historical developments of the postulates, we analyzed data on diarrhea etiology from Bangladesh with respect to Koch's postulates...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445776/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-bacteroides-fragilis-group-in-faecal-samples-from-patients-receiving-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#6
Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen, Simon A F Schwensen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B...
April 23, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417628/role-of-gut-microbiota-and-infectious-burden-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-and-allergic-diseases
#7
Pendru Raghunath
No Abstract#.
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412525/liver-microbiome-of-peromyscus-leucopus-a-key-reservoir-host-species-for-emerging-infectious-diseases-in-north-america
#8
A André, A Mouton, V Millien, J Michaux
Microbiome studies generally focus on the gut microbiome, which is composed of a large proportion of commensal bacteria. Here we propose a first analysis of the liver microbiome using next generation sequencing as a tool to detect potentially pathogenic strains. We used Peromyscus leucopus, the main reservoir host species of Lyme disease in eastern North America, as a model and sequenced V5-V6 regions of the 16S gene from 18 populations in southern Quebec (Canada). The Lactobacillus genus was found to dominate the liver microbiome...
April 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404070/pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Gerald J Holtmann, Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley
Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome has been considered to be a disorder with no known underlying structural or biochemical explanation, but this concept is likely to be outdated. In this Review we challenge the widely accepted view that irritable bowel syndrome is an unexplained brain-gut disorder. There is epidemiological evidence that, in a major subset of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms arise first and only later do incident mood disorders occur. Additionally, possible mechanisms for gut-brain dysfunction have been identified, suggesting primary gut disturbances might be the underlying cause in a subgroup...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381569/group-a-rotaviruses-in-chinese-bats-genetic-composition-serology-and-evidence-for-bat-to-human-transmission-and-reassortment
#10
Biao He, Xiaohong Huang, Fuqiang Zhang, Weilong Tan, Jelle Matthijnssens, Shaomin Qin, Lin Xu, Zihan Zhao, Ling'en Yang, Quanxi Wang, Tingsong Hu, Xiaolei Bao, Jianmin Wu, Changchun Tu
Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses and increasing evidence supports that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVA), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains have been identified from African and Chinese bats, possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals. However, all these data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, only present during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361440/acid-suppressive-therapy-and-risk-of-infections-pros-and-cons
#11
REVIEW
Leon Fisher, Alexander Fisher
This narrative review summarises the benefits, risks and appropriate use of acid-suppressing drugs (ASDs), proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists, advocating a rationale balanced and individualised approach aimed to minimise any serious adverse consequences. It focuses on current controversies on the potential of ASDs to contribute to infections-bacterial, parasitic, fungal, protozoan and viral, particularly in the elderly, comprehensively and critically discusses the growing body of observational literature linking ASD use to a variety of enteric, respiratory, skin and systemic infectious diseases and complications (Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, pneumonia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, septicaemia and other)...
March 30, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333760/antibiotic-associated-apoptotic-enterocolitis-in-the-absence-of-a-defined-pathogen-the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-depletion
#12
Philipp Wurm, Walter Spindelboeck, Robert Krause, Johannes Plank, Gottfried Fuchs, Mina Bashir, Wolfgang Petritsch, Bettina Halwachs, Cord Langner, Christoph Högenauer, Gregor Gorkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic therapy is a major risk factor for the development of diarrhea and colitis with varying severity. Often the origin of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal deterioration remains elusive and no specific infectious agents could be discerned. PATIENTS: We represent three cases of intractable high-volume diarrhea associated with combined antibiotic and steroid therapy in critically ill patients not fitting into established disease entities. Cases presented with severe apoptotic enterocolitis resembling acute intestinal graft-versus-host-disease...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333335/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-restores-intestinal-barrier-integrity-by-regulation-of-e-cadherin-recycling
#13
Chloé Terciolo, Aurélie Dobric, Mehdi Ouaissi, Carole Siret, Gilles Breuzard, Françoise Silvy, Bastien Marchiori, Sébastien Germain, Renaté Bonier, Adel Hama, Roisin Owens, Dominique Lombardo, Véronique Rigot, Frédéric André
Background and Aims: Alteration in intestinal permeability is the main factor underlying the pathogenesis of many diseases affecting the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Characterization of molecules targeting the restoration of intestinal barrier integrity is therefore vital for the development of alternative therapies. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb), used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated infectious and functional diarrhea, may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of IBD...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316465/chicken-egg-yolk-antibodies-igy-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-rotavirus-diarrhea-in-human-and-animal-neonates-a-concise-review
#14
Hlaing Myat Thu, Theingi Win Myat, Mo Mo Win, Kyaw Zin Thant, Shofiqur Rahman, Kouji Umeda, Sa Van Nguyen, Faustino C Icatlo, Kyoko Higo-Moriguchi, Koki Taniguchi, Takao Tsuji, Keiji Oguma, Sang Jong Kim, Hyun Suk Bae, Hyuk Joon Choi
The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpose of this concise review is to evaluate evidence on the properties and performance of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in human and animal neonates...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300181/damage-induced-cell-regeneration-in-the-midgut-of-aedes-albopictus-mosquitoes
#15
Maria Janeh, Dani Osman, Zakaria Kambris
Mosquito-transmitted diseases cause over one million deaths every year. A better characterization of the vector's physiology and immunity should provide valuable knowledge for the elaboration of control strategies. Mosquitoes depend on their innate immunity to defend themselves against pathogens. These pathogens are acquired mainly through the oral route, which places the insects' gut at the front line of the battle. Indeed, the epithelium of the mosquito gut plays important roles against invading pathogens acting as a physical barrier, activating local defenses and triggering the systemic immune response...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275681/gastrointestinal-organoids-understanding-the-molecular-basis-of-the-host-microbe-interface
#16
REVIEW
David R Hill, Jason R Spence
In recent years, increasing attention has been devoted to the concept that microorganisms play an integral role in human physiology and pathophysiology. Despite this, the molecular basis of host-pathogen and host-symbiont interactions in the human intestine remains poorly understood owing to the limited availability of human tissue, and the biological complexity of host-microbe interactions. Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled long-term culture of organotypic intestinal tissue derived from human subjects and from human pluripotent stem cells, and these in vitro culture systems already have shown the potential to inform our understanding significantly of host-microbe interactions...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261016/the-specific-roles-of-vitamins-in-the-regulation-of-immunosurveillance-and-maintenance-of-immunologic-homeostasis-in-the-gut
#17
REVIEW
Koji Hosomi, Jun Kunisawa
Vitamins are micronutrients which are essential for the maintenance of biological responses including immune system. Hence, vitamin deficiency increases a risk of infectious, allergic, and inflammatory diseases. Accumulating evidence has recently revealed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of vitamin-mediated regulation in the active and quiescent immune responses. In this review, we focus on the immunologic roles of vitamins in the regulation of homeostasis and surveillance in the gut.
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257033/lactoferrin-balancing-ups-and-downs-of-inflammation-due-to-microbial-infections
#18
REVIEW
Maria Elisa Drago-Serrano, Rafael Campos-Rodríguez, Julio César Carrero, Mireya de la Garza
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein of the primary innate immune-defense system of mammals present in milk and other mucosal secretions. This protein of the transferrin family has broad antimicrobial properties by depriving pathogens from iron, or disrupting their plasma membranes through its highly cationic charge. Noteworthy, Lf also exhibits immunomodulatory activities performing up- and down-regulation of innate and adaptive immune cells, contributing to the homeostasis in mucosal surfaces exposed to myriad of microbial agents, such as the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239315/single-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-failed-to-change-intestinal-microbiota-and-had-limited-effectiveness-against-ulcerative-colitis-in-japanese-patients
#19
Shinta Mizuno, Kosaku Nanki, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Keiichiro Saigusa, Keiko Ono, Mari Arai, Shinya Sugimoto, Hiroki Kiyohara, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Makoto Naganuma, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent developments in analytical techniques including next-generation sequencing have clarified the correlation between intestinal microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is proposed as a potential approach to resolving their dysbiosis; however, its safety and efficacy have not been confirmed. This single-arm, open-label, non-randomized study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FMT for Japanese patients with UC as the first registered clinical trial in Japan...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237889/giardia-duodenalis-induces-pathogenic-dysbiosis-of-human-intestinal-microbiota-biofilms
#20
Jennifer K Beatty, Sarah V Akierman, Jean-Paul Motta, Stacy Muise, Matthew L Workentine, Joe J Harrison, Amol Bhargava, Paul L Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Gordon Webb McKnight, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies...
May 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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