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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649326/viral-gut-metagenomics-of-sympatric-wild-and-domestic-canids-and-monitoring-of-viruses-insights-from-an-endangered-wolf-population
#1
Nádia Conceição-Neto, Raquel Godinho, Francisco Álvares, Claude K Yinda, Ward Deboutte, Mark Zeller, Lies Laenen, Elisabeth Heylen, Sara Roque, Francisco Petrucci-Fonseca, Nuno Santos, Marc Van Ranst, João R Mesquita, Jelle Matthijnssens
Animal host-microbe interactions are a relevant concern for wildlife conservation, particularly regarding generalist pathogens, where domestic host species can play a role in the transmission of infectious agents, such as viruses, to wild animals. Knowledge on viral circulation in wild host species is still scarce and can be improved by the recent advent of modern molecular approaches. We aimed to characterize the fecal virome and identify viruses of potential conservation relevance of diarrheic free-ranging wolves and sympatric domestic dogs from Central Portugal, where a small and threatened wolf population persists in a highly anthropogenically modified landscape...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#2
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625560/small-bowel-ultrasound-beyond-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-updated-review-of-the-recent-literature
#3
REVIEW
Federica Cavalcoli, Alessandra Zilli, Mirella Fraquelli, Dario Conte, Sara Massironi
The use of bowel ultrasonography (US) for the evaluation of gut diseases has increased in recent years and has been proven to provide a widely available, non-invasive and inexpensive method for the initial work-up and follow-up of different intestinal diseases, limited mostly by technical challenges posed by the patient's anatomy. The present review aims to provide an extensive overview of the main pathologic features at US examination of intestinal diseases other than inflammatory bowel disease, both acute (e...
June 15, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#4
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620589/transcriptomic-profiling-of-high-density-giardia-foci-encysting-in-the-murine-proximal-intestine
#5
Jonathan K Pham, Christopher Nosala, Erica Y Scott, Kristofer F Nguyen, Kari D Hagen, Hannah N Starcevich, Scott C Dawson
Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604735/fungal-dysbiosis-immunity-and-interactions-at-mucosal-barriers
#6
REVIEW
Iliyan D Iliev, Irina Leonardi
Fungi and mammals share a co-evolutionary history and are involved in a complex web of interactions. Studies focused on commensal bacteria suggest that pathological changes in the microbiota, historically known as dysbiosis, are at the root of many inflammatory diseases of non-infectious origin. However, the importance of dysbiosis in the fungal community - the mycobiota - was only recently acknowledged to have a pathological role, as novel findings have suggested that mycobiota disruption can have detrimental effects on host immunity...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585679/diagnostic-value-of-selected-biochemical-markers-in-the-detection-of-recurrence-of-medullary-thyroid-cancer-comparison-of-calcitonin-procalcitonin-chromogranin-a-and-carcinoembryonic-antigen
#7
Kosma Woliński, Jarosław Kaznowski, Aleksandra Klimowicz, Adam Maciejewski, Dagny Łapińska-Cwojdzińska, Edyta Gurgul, Adrian D Car, Marta Fichna, Paweł Gut, Maria Gryczyńska, Marek Ruchała
INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a malignancy of the thyroid gland, which derives from parafollicular C cells. Periodic measurement of biochemical markers of MTC remains a crucial part of patient follow-up and disease monitoring. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic value of four selected markers - calcitonin (Ct), procalcitonin (PCT), chromogranin A (CgA), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). METHODS: Patients with histopathologically confirmed MTC hospitalised in a single department between January 2015 and December 2015 were included in the study...
June 6, 2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556916/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-probiotic-applications-in-autoimmune-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Gislane Lelis Vilela de Oliveira, Aline Zazeri Leite, Bruna Stevanato Higuchi, Marina Ignácio Gonzaga, Vânia Sammartino Mariano
In humans, a complex interaction between the host immune system and commensal microbiota is required to maintain gut homeostasis. In this symbiotic relationship, the microbiota provides carbohydrate fermentation and digestion, vitamin synthesis, and gut-associated lymphoid tissue development, as well as prevents colonization by pathobionts, whereas the host offers a niche and nutrients for the survival of the microbiota. However, when this mutualistic relationship is compromised and an altered interaction between immune cells and microorganisms occurs, the gut microbiota may cause or contribute to the establishment of infectious diseases and trigger autoimmune diseases...
May 29, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545829/gut-microbiota-and-hepatitis-b-virus-induced-chronic-liver-disease-implications-for-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Y Kang, Y Cai
Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. It has been estimated that there are 350 million chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide. The liver is connected to the small intestine by the bile duct, which carries bile formed in the liver to the intestine. Nearly all of the blood that leaves the stomach and intestines must pass through the liver. Human intestines contain a wide diversity of microbes, collectively termed the 'gut microbiota'. Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes and host immune modulation, and influence host development and physiology (organ development)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522324/non-invasive-three-dimensional-imaging-of-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-using-diffuse-light-imaging-tomography-combined-with-micro-computed-tomography
#10
REVIEW
Luci A Witcomb, Julie Czupryna, Kevin P Francis, Gad Frankel, Peter W Taylor
In contrast to two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, three dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) has the potential to realise spatial variations in infection patterns when imaging experimental animals dosed with derivatives of virulent bacteria carrying bioluminescent reporter genes such as the lux operon from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The method provides an opportunity to precisely localise the bacterial infection sites within the animal and enables the generation of four-dimensional movies of the infection cycle...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496435/serum-metabolomic-profiling-of-piglets-infected-with-virulent-classical-swine-fever-virus
#11
Wenjie Gong, Junjie Jia, Bikai Zhang, Shijiang Mi, Li Zhang, Xiaoming Xie, Huancheng Guo, Jishu Shi, Changchun Tu
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine infectious disease and causes significant economic losses for the pig industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether small molecule metabolites contribute to the pathogenesis of CSF. Birefly, serum metabolomics of CSFV Shimen strain-infected piglets were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF/MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492497/regulation-of-th17-cells-and-associated-cytokines-in-wound-healing-tissue-regeneration-and-carcinogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Leonie Brockmann, Anastasios D Giannou, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
Wound healing is a crucial process which protects our body against permanent damage and invasive infectious agents. Upon tissue damage, inflammation is an early event which is orchestrated by a multitude of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets including TH17 cells. TH17 cells and TH17 cell associated cytokines can impact wound healing positively by clearing pathogens and modulating mucosal surfaces and epithelial cells. Injury of the gut mucosa can cause fast expansion of TH17 cells and their induction from naïve T cells through Interleukin (IL)-6, TGF-β, and IL-1β signaling...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491823/comparative-proteomics-reveals-differences-in-host-pathogen-interaction-between-infectious-and-commensal-relationship-with-campylobacter-jejuni
#13
Nieves Ayllón, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Héctor Argüello, Sara Zaldívar-López, Margarita Villar, Carmen Aguilar, Angela Moreno, José De La Fuente, Juan J Garrido
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading food-borne poisoning in industrialized countries. While the bacteria causes disease in humans, it merely colonizes the gut in poultry or pigs, where seems to establish a commensal relationship. Until now, few studies have been conducted to elucidate the relationship between C. jejuni and its different hosts. In this work, a comparative proteomics approach was used to identify the underlying mechanisms involved in the divergent outcome following C. jejuni infection in human and porcine host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474475/what-happened-to-koch-s-postulates-in-diarrhoea
#14
Shamima Sultana, Shafiqul A Sarker, Harald Brüssow
In 1890, Robert Koch has formulated postulates describing what criteria a parasite has to fulfil to qualify as an aetiological agent for an infectious disease. Since then Koch's postulates have experienced reformulations by nearly every generation of microbiologists reflecting new discoveries changing the understanding of infectious diseases pathogenesis. The latest addition to this discussion is the role of the host commensal microbiota in turning infections into disease. After an overview of the historical developments of the postulates, data on diarrhoea aetiology from Bangladesh with respect to Koch's postulates were analysed...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445776/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-bacteroides-fragilis-group-in-faecal-samples-from-patients-receiving-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#15
Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen, Simon A F Schwensen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B...
April 23, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417628/role-of-gut-microbiota-and-infectious-burden-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-and-allergic-diseases
#16
Pendru Raghunath
No Abstract#.
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412525/liver-microbiome-of-peromyscus-leucopus-a-key-reservoir-host-species-for-emerging-infectious-diseases-in-north-america
#17
A André, A Mouton, V Millien, J Michaux
Microbiome studies generally focus on the gut microbiome, which is composed of a large proportion of commensal bacteria. Here we propose a first analysis of the liver microbiome using next generation sequencing as a tool to detect potentially pathogenic strains. We used Peromyscus leucopus, the main reservoir host species of Lyme disease in eastern North America, as a model and sequenced V5-V6 regions of the 16S gene from 18 populations in southern Quebec (Canada). The Lactobacillus genus was found to dominate the liver microbiome...
April 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404070/pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Gerald J Holtmann, Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley
Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome has been considered to be a disorder with no known underlying structural or biochemical explanation, but this concept is likely to be outdated. In this Review we challenge the widely accepted view that irritable bowel syndrome is an unexplained brain-gut disorder. There is epidemiological evidence that, in a major subset of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms arise first and only later do incident mood disorders occur. Additionally, possible mechanisms for gut-brain dysfunction have been identified, suggesting primary gut disturbances might be the underlying cause in a subgroup...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381569/group-a-rotaviruses-in-chinese-bats-genetic-composition-serology-and-evidence-for-bat-to-human-transmission-and-reassortment
#19
Biao He, Xiaohong Huang, Fuqiang Zhang, Weilong Tan, Jelle Matthijnssens, Shaomin Qin, Lin Xu, Zihan Zhao, Ling'en Yang, Quanxi Wang, Tingsong Hu, Xiaolei Bao, Jianmin Wu, Changchun Tu
Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses and increasing evidence supports that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVA), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains have been identified from African and Chinese bats, possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals. However, all these data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, only present during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361440/acid-suppressive-therapy-and-risk-of-infections-pros-and-cons
#20
REVIEW
Leon Fisher, Alexander Fisher
This narrative review summarises the benefits, risks and appropriate use of acid-suppressing drugs (ASDs), proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists, advocating a rationale balanced and individualised approach aimed to minimise any serious adverse consequences. It focuses on current controversies on the potential of ASDs to contribute to infections-bacterial, parasitic, fungal, protozoan and viral, particularly in the elderly, comprehensively and critically discusses the growing body of observational literature linking ASD use to a variety of enteric, respiratory, skin and systemic infectious diseases and complications (Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, pneumonia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, septicaemia and other)...
March 30, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
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