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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034905/the-hygiene-hypothesis-in-autoimmunity-the-role-of-pathogens-and-commensals
#1
REVIEW
Jean-François Bach
The incidence of autoimmune diseases has been steadily rising. Concomitantly, the incidence of most infectious diseases has declined. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, which postulates that a reduction in the frequency of infections contributes directly to the increase in the frequency of autoimmune and allergic diseases. This hypothesis is supported by robust epidemiological data, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Pathogens are known to be important, as autoimmune disease is prevented in various experimental models by infection with different bacteria, viruses and parasites...
October 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023853/antibiotics-gut-microbiome-and-obesity
#2
Karen S W Leong, José G B Derraik, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
Antibiotics have been hailed by many as 'miracle drugs' that have been effectively treating infectious diseases for over a century, leading to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, with the increasing use of antibiotics, we are now faced not only with the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, but also with a rising concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on human health, including the development of obesity. The obesity pandemic continues to increase, a problem that affects both adults and children alike...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982166/emergence-of-rifampin-resistant-staphylococci-after-rifaximin-administration-in-cirrhotic-patients
#3
Ji Young Chang, Seong-Eun Kim, Tae Hun Kim, So-Youn Woo, Min Sun Ryu, Yang-Hee Joo, Ko Eun Lee, Jihyun Lee, Kang Hoon Lee, Chang Mo Moon, Hye-Kyung Jung, Ki-Nam Shim, Sung-Ae Jung
OBJECTIVES: Rifaximin, a poorly absorbed antibiotics, has gut-specific therapeutic effects. Although frequently prescribed to manipulate intestinal luminal bacterial population in various diseases, the possible induction of antibacterial cross-resistance to a target pathogen is a major concern in long-term rifaximin administration. We aimed to evaluate whether rifampin-resistant staphylococci could evolve after rifaximin treatment in cirrhotic patients. METHOD: A total of 25 cirrhotic patients who were administered rifaximin for the prevention of hepatic encephalopathy were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932814/the-gut-commensal-microbiome-of-drosophila-melanogaster-is-modified-by-the-endosymbiont-wolbachia
#4
Rama K Simhadri, Eva M Fast, Rong Guo, Michaela J Schultz, Natalie Vaisman, Luis Ortiz, Joanna Bybee, Barton E Slatko, Horacio M Frydman
Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria and the gut microbiome have independently been shown to affect several aspects of insect biology, including reproduction, development, life span, stem cell activity, and resistance to human pathogens, in insect vectors. This work shows that Wolbachia bacteria, which reside mainly in the fly germline, affect the microbial species present in the fly gut in a lab-reared strain. Drosophila melanogaster hosts two main genera of commensal bacteria-Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. Wolbachia-infected flies have significantly reduced titers of Acetobacter...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927906/il-17a-contributes-to-reducing-ifn-%C3%AE-il-4-ratio-and-persistence-of-entamoeba-histolytica-during-intestinal-amebiasis
#5
Sharmina Deloer, Risa Nakamura, Mihoko Kikuchi, Taeko Moriyasu, Yombo Dan Justin Kalenda, Eman Sayed Mohammed, Masachika Senba, Yoichiro Iwakura, Hiroki Yoshida, Shinjiro Hamano
Amebiasis is an infectious disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, an anaerobic protozoan parasite, and is a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in areas with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Th1 responses, represented by interferon gamma (IFN-γ), play a protective role by clearing the amebae from the gut, whereas Th2 responses are responsible for chronic infection. Th17 responses preconditioned by vaccination or by modulating the intestinal microbiome protect mice from the settlement of E...
December 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927397/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-clinical-specimens-using-conventional-microbial-culture-and-16s-metagenomics-a-comparative-study
#6
Lalanika M Abayasekara, Jennifer Perera, Vishvanath Chandrasekharan, Vaz S Gnanam, Nisala A Udunuwara, Dileepa S Liyanage, Nuwani E Bulathsinhala, Subhashanie Adikary, Janith V S Aluthmuhandiram, Chrishanthi S Thanaseelan, D Portia Tharmakulasingam, Tharaga Karunakaran, Janahan Ilango
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and diagnosis of polymicrobial and fungal infections is increasingly challenging in the clinical setting. Conventionally, molecular detection is still the best method of species identification in clinical samples. However, the limitations of Sanger sequencing make diagnosis of polymicrobial infections one of the biggest hurdles in treatment. The development of massively parallel sequencing or next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of metagenomics, with wide application of the technology in identification of microbial communities in environmental sources, human gut and others...
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919884/secretome-of-intestinal-bacilli-a-natural-guard-against-pathologies
#7
REVIEW
Olga N Ilinskaya, Vera V Ulyanova, Dina R Yarullina, Ilgiz G Gataullin
Current studies of human gut microbiome usually do not consider the special functional role of transient microbiota, although some of its members remain in the host for a long time and produce broad spectrum of biologically active substances. Getting into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with food, water and probiotic preparations, two representatives of Bacilli class, genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus, colonize epithelium blurring the boundaries between resident and transient microbiota. Despite their minor proportion in the microbiome composition, these bacteria can significantly affect both the intestinal microbiota and the entire body thanks to a wide range of secreted compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912916/acute-liver-failure-in-a-patient-travelling-from-asia-the-other-face-of-the-coin-of-infectious-disease
#8
Balen Abdulrahman, Mohamed H Ahmed, John Ramage
We present a case of a 63-year-old male who had travelled from South India to United Kingdom (UK) visiting relatives. He had developed episodes of diarrhea, vomiting and fevers while travelling and on assessment in hospital, mild abdominal distension was noted with rapid deterioration to hypovolemic shock. Initial blood test showed a low platelet count with deranged liver function tests (LFTs). It was noted that during admission to intensive care unit (ICU), blood continued to ooze from a previous surgical laparoscopy wound, central and arterial line access sites...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881574/prevention-of-colitis-associated-cancer-by-selective-targeting-of-immunoproteasome-subunit-lmp7
#9
Niyati Vachharajani, Thorsten Joeris, Maik Luu, Sabrina Hartmann, Sabine Pautz, Elena Jenike, Georgios Pantazis, Immo Prinz, Markus J Hofer, Ulrich Steinhoff, Alexander Visekruna
Chronic inflammation is a well-known risk factor in development of intestinal tumorigenesis, although the exact mechanisms underlying development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) still remain obscure. The activity and function of immunoproteasome has been extensively analyzed in the context of inflammation and infectious diseases. Here, we show that the proteasomal immunosubunit LMP7 plays an essential role in development of CAC. Mice devoid of LMP7 were resistant to chronic inflammation and formation of neoplasia, and developed virtually no tumors after AOM/DSS treatment...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870713/dietary-pomegranate-extract-and-inulin-affect-gut-microbiome-differentially-in-mice-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#10
Song Zhang, Jieping Yang, Susanne M Henning, Rupo Lee, Mark Hsu, Emma Grojean, Rita Pisegna, Austin Ly, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0...
September 13, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870405/gut-microbiota-dependent-trimethylamine-n-oxide-is-associated-with-long-term-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-exacerbated-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
Manuel Ottiger, Manuela Nickler, Christian Steuer, Luca Bernasconi, Andreas Huber, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Robert Thomann, Werner Zimmerli, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVES: The gut, microflora-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has emerged as a dietary-associated risk factor for incident cardiovascular events. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent disease worldwide with a high associated risk for cardiovascular disease and death due to an infectious cause. AIMS: To study whether TMAO is predictive for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with exacerbated COPD. METHODS: A total of 189 patients with COPD exacerbation were prospectively followed for a median of 6...
July 6, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864446/the-potential-of-the-microbiota-to-influence-vaccine-responses
#12
REVIEW
David J Lynn, Bali Pulendran
After clean water, vaccines are the primary public health intervention providing protection against serious infectious diseases. Antigen-specific antibody-mediated responses play a critical role in the protection conferred by vaccination; however these responses are highly variable among individuals. In addition, vaccine immunogenicity is frequently impaired in developing world populations, for reasons that are poorly understood. Although the factors that are associated with interindividual variation in vaccine responses are likely manifold, emerging evidence from mouse models and studies in human populations now suggests that the gut microbiome plays a key role in shaping systemic immune responses to both orally and parenterally administered vaccines...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830068/cytokine-production-in-vitro-and-in-rat-model-of-colitis-in-response-to-lactobacillus-plantarum-ls-07
#13
Jana Štofilová, Tomaž Langerholc, Cristian Botta, Primož Treven, Lidija Gradišnik, Rastislav Salaj, Alena Šoltésová, Izabela Bertková, Zdenka Hertelyová, Alojz Bomba
Over the past decade, it has become clear that specific probiotic lactobacilli are valuable in the prevention and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases of gastrointestinal tract but their successful application would benefit greatly from a better understanding of the mechanisms of individual strains. Hence, each probiotic strain should be characterized for their immune activity before being proposed for clinical applications. The aim of the study was to characterize the immunomodulatory activity of the strain Lactobacillus (L...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818050/administration-of-two-probiotic-strains-during-early-childhood-does-not-affect-the-endogenous-gut-microbiota-composition-despite-probiotic-proliferation
#14
Martin Frederik Laursen, Rikke Pilmann Laursen, Anni Larnkjær, Kim F Michaelsen, Martin Iain Bahl, Tine Rask Licht
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808688/adaptive-mistranslation-accelerates-the-evolution-of-fluconazole-resistance-and-induces-major-genomic-and-gene-expression-alterations-in-candida-albicans
#15
Tobias Weil, Rodrigo Santamaría, Wanseon Lee, Johan Rung, Noemi Tocci, Darren Abbey, Ana R Bezerra, Laura Carreto, Gabriela R Moura, Mónica Bayés, Ivo G Gut, Attila Csikasz-Nagy, Duccio Cavalieri, Judith Berman, Manuel A S Santos
Regulated erroneous protein translation (adaptive mistranslation) increases proteome diversity and produces advantageous phenotypic variability in the human pathogen Candida albicans. It also increases fitness in the presence of fluconazole, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. To address this question, we evolved hypermistranslating and wild-type strains in the absence and presence of fluconazole and compared their fluconazole tolerance and resistance trajectories during evolution. The data show that mistranslation increases tolerance and accelerates the acquisition of resistance to fluconazole...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802306/ilsi-southeast-asia-region-conference-proceedings-the-gut-its-microbes-and-health-relevance-for-asia
#16
Yuan Kun Lee, Patricia Conway, Sven Pettersson, G Balakrish Nair, Ingrid Surono, Yusra Egayanti, Maria Sofia Amarra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human being is a complex entity, involving interaction between microbes and the human host. Evidence shows that the nutritional value of food is influenced in part by the structure and operations of an individual's gut microbial community, and food in turn shapes the individual's microbiome. A conference was held to promote understanding of the intestinal microbiome and its implications for health and disease, particularly among Asian populations. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Papers describing 1) the intestinal ecosystem in Asian populations, 2) changes in intestinal microbiota through life and its effects, 3) the Asian gut microbiota in disease conditions, 4) indigenous probiotics to maintain a healthy gut microbiota, 5) probiotic regulation in an Asian country, and 6) the results of a panel discussion are included in this report...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800135/network-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-literature-an-overview-of-the-research-landscape-in-non-human-animal-studies
#17
Emily L Pascoe, Heidi C Hauffe, Julian R Marchesi, Sarah E Perkins
A wealth of human studies have demonstrated the importance of gut microbiota to health. Research on non-human animal gut microbiota is now increasing, but what insight does it provide? We reviewed 650 publications from this burgeoning field (2009-2016) and determined that animals driving this research were predominantly 'domestic' (48.2%), followed by 'model' (37.5%), with least studies on 'wild' (14.3%) animals. Domestic studies largely experimentally perturbed microbiota (81.8%) and studied mammals (47.9%), often to improve animal productivity...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792004/adjuvant-selection-regulates-gut-migration-and-phenotypic-diversity-of-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cells-following-parenteral-immunization
#18
D R Frederick, J A Goggins, L M Sabbagh, L C Freytag, J D Clements, J B McLachlan
Infectious diarrheal diseases are the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years, making vaccines against these diseases a high priority. It is known that certain vaccine adjuvants, chiefly bacterial ADP-ribosylating enterotoxins, can induce mucosal antibodies when delivered parenterally. Based on this, we reasoned vaccine-specific mucosal cellular immunity could be induced via parenteral immunization with these adjuvants. Here, we show that, in contrast to the Toll-like receptor-9 agonist CpG, intradermal immunization with non-toxic double-mutant heat-labile toxin (dmLT) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli drove endogenous, antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells to expand and upregulate the gut-homing integrin α4β7...
August 9, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767339/assessing-gut-microbiota-perturbations-during-the-early-phase-of-infectious-diarrhea-in-vietnamese-children
#19
Hao Chung The, Paola Florez de Sessions, Song Jie, Duy Pham Thanh, Corinne N Thompson, Chau Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Collins Wenhan Chu, Tuan-Anh Tran, Nicholas R Thomson, Guy E Thwaites, Maia A Rabaa, Martin Hibberd, Stephen Baker
Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children...
August 2, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762696/probiotics-for-gastrointestinal-conditions-a-summary-of-the-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Thad Wilkins, Jacqueline Sequoia
Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. However, a lack of clear guidelines on when to use probiotics and the most effective probiotic for different gastrointestinal conditions may be confusing for family physicians and their patients. Probiotics have an important role in the maintenance of immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through the direct interaction with immune cells...
August 1, 2017: American Family Physician
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