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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818050/administration-of-two-probiotic-strains-during-early-childhood-does-not-affect-the-endogenous-gut-microbiota-composition-despite-probiotic-proliferation
#1
Martin Frederik Laursen, Rikke Pilmann Laursen, Anni Larnkjær, Kim F Michaelsen, Martin Iain Bahl, Tine Rask Licht
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808688/adaptive-mistranslation-accelerates-the-evolution-of-fluconazole-resistance-and-induces-major-genomic-and-gene-expression-alterations-in-candida-albicans
#2
Tobias Weil, Rodrigo Santamaría, Wanseon Lee, Johan Rung, Noemi Tocci, Darren Abbey, Ana R Bezerra, Laura Carreto, Gabriela R Moura, Mónica Bayés, Ivo G Gut, Attila Csikasz-Nagy, Duccio Cavalieri, Judith Berman, Manuel A S Santos
Regulated erroneous protein translation (adaptive mistranslation) increases proteome diversity and produces advantageous phenotypic variability in the human pathogen Candida albicans. It also increases fitness in the presence of fluconazole, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. To address this question, we evolved hypermistranslating and wild-type strains in the absence and presence of fluconazole and compared their fluconazole tolerance and resistance trajectories during evolution. The data show that mistranslation increases tolerance and accelerates the acquisition of resistance to fluconazole...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802306/ilsi-southeast-asia-region-conference-proceedings-the-gut-its-microbes-and-health-relevance-for-asia
#3
Yuan Kun Lee, Patricia Conway, Sven Pettersson, G Balakrish Nair, Ingrid Surono, Yusra Egayanti, Maria Sofia Amarra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The human being is a complex entity, involving interaction between microbes and the human host. Evidence shows that the nutritional value of food is influenced in part by the structure and operations of an individual's gut microbial community, and food in turn shapes the individual's microbiome. A conference was held to promote understanding of the intestinal microbiome and its implications for health and disease, particularly among Asian populations. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Papers describing 1) the intestinal ecosystem in Asian populations, 2) changes in intestinal microbiota through life and its effects, 3) the Asian gut microbiota in disease conditions, 4) indigenous probiotics to maintain a healthy gut microbiota, 5) probiotic regulation in an Asian country, and 6) the results of a panel discussion are included in this report...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800135/network-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-literature-an-overview-of-the-research-landscape-in-non-human-animal-studies
#4
Emily L Pascoe, Heidi C Hauffe, Julian R Marchesi, Sarah E Perkins
A wealth of human studies have demonstrated the importance of gut microbiota to health. Research on non-human animal gut microbiota is now increasing, but what insight does it provide? We reviewed 650 publications from this burgeoning field (2009-2016) and determined that animals driving this research were predominantly 'domestic' (48.2%), followed by 'model' (37.5%), with least studies on 'wild' (14.3%) animals. Domestic studies largely experimentally perturbed microbiota (81.8%) and studied mammals (47.9%), often to improve animal productivity...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792004/adjuvant-selection-regulates-gut-migration-and-phenotypic-diversity-of-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cells-following-parenteral-immunization
#5
D R Frederick, J A Goggins, L M Sabbagh, L C Freytag, J D Clements, J B McLachlan
Infectious diarrheal diseases are the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years, making vaccines against these diseases a high priority. It is known that certain vaccine adjuvants, chiefly bacterial ADP-ribosylating enterotoxins, can induce mucosal antibodies when delivered parenterally. Based on this, we reasoned vaccine-specific mucosal cellular immunity could be induced via parenteral immunization with these adjuvants. Here, we show that, in contrast to the Toll-like receptor-9 agonist CpG, intradermal immunization with non-toxic double-mutant heat-labile toxin (dmLT) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli drove endogenous, antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells to expand and upregulate the gut-homing integrin α4β7...
August 9, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767339/assessing-gut-microbiota-perturbations-during-the-early-phase-of-infectious-diarrhea-in-vietnamese-children
#6
Hao Chung The, Paola Florez de Sessions, Song Jie, Duy Pham Thanh, Corinne N Thompson, Chau Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Collins Wenhan Chu, Tuan-Anh Tran, Nicholas R Thomson, Guy E Thwaites, Maia A Rabaa, Martin Hibberd, Stephen Baker
Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children...
August 2, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762696/probiotics-for-gastrointestinal-conditions-a-summary-of-the-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Thad Wilkins, Jacqueline Sequoia
Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. However, a lack of clear guidelines on when to use probiotics and the most effective probiotic for different gastrointestinal conditions may be confusing for family physicians and their patients. Probiotics have an important role in the maintenance of immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through the direct interaction with immune cells...
August 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757585/should-research-on-the-nutritional-potential-and-health-benefits-of-fermented-cereals-focus-more-on-the-general-health-status-of-populations-in-developing-countries
#8
Caroline Laurent-Babot, Jean-Pierre Guyot
Cereal foods fermented by lactic acid bacteria are staples in many countries around the world particularly in developing countries, but some aspects of the nutritional and health benefits of traditional fermented foods in developing countries have not been sufficiently investigated compared to fermented foods in high-income countries. Today, malnutrition worldwide is characterized by a double burden, excess leading to non-communicable diseases like obesity or diabetes alongside micronutrient deficiencies. In addition, populations in developing countries suffer from infectious and parasitic diseases that can jeopardize the health benefits provided by their traditional fermented foods...
July 25, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729558/early-life-disruption-of-amphibian-microbiota-decreases-later-life-resistance-to-parasites
#9
Sarah A Knutie, Christina L Wilkinson, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
Changes in the early-life microbiota of hosts might affect infectious disease risk throughout life, if such disruptions during formative times alter immune system development. Here, we test whether an early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota affects later-life resistance to infections by manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles and challenging them with parasitic gut worms as adults. We find that tadpole bacterial diversity is negatively correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs: adult frogs that had reduced bacterial diversity as tadpoles have three times more worms than adults without their microbiota manipulated as tadpoles...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725219/gut-microbiota-co-microevolution-with-selection-for-host-humoral-immunity
#10
Lingyu Yang, Shuyun Liu, Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Chuan He, Ke Xu, Christa F Honaker, Yan Zhang, Paul Siegel, He Meng
To explore coevolution between the gut microbiota and the humoral immune system of the host, we used chickens as the model organism. The host populations were two lines (HAS and LAS) developed from a common founder that had undergone 40 generations of divergent selection for antibody titers to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and two relaxed sublines (HAR and LAR). Analysis revealed that microevolution of host humoral immunity contributed to the composition of gut microbiota at the taxa level. Relaxing selection enriched some microorganisms whose functions were opposite to host immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719264/the-human-microbiome-in-the-fight-against-tuberculosis
#11
Madeleine R Wood, Elaine A Yu, Saurabh Mehta
AbstractThe human microbiome is an intriguing potentially modifiable risk factor in our arsenal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the leading infectious disease killer globally. Previous studies have shown associations between the human microbiome and pulmonary disease states; however, etiological links between the microbiome and tuberculosis (TB) infection or disease remain unclear. Immunomodulatory roles of the microbiome may prove to be a critical asset in the host response against TB, including in preventing TB infection, reducing progression from latency, mitigating disease severity, and lowering the incidence of drug resistance and coinfections...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689782/the-microbiota-and-autoimmunity-their-role-in-thyroid-autoimmune-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Hedda L Köhling, Sue F Plummer, Julian R Marchesi, Kelly S Davidge, Marian Ludgate
Since the 1970s, the role of infectious diseases in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease (GD) has been an object of intensive research. The last decade has witnessed many studies on Yersinia enterocolitica, Helicobacter pylori and other bacterial organisms and their potential impact on GD. Retrospective, prospective and molecular binding studies have been performed with contrary outcomes. Until now it is not clear whether bacterial infections can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease. Common risk factors for GD (gender, smoking, stress, and pregnancy) reveal profound changes in the bacterial communities of the gut compared to that of healthy controls but a pathogenetic link between GD and dysbiosis has not yet been fully elucidated...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685630/the-potential-role-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Maitham Abbas Khajah
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of an unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis involves an interplay of infectious, genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. The current therapeutic options have various limitations in terms of cost, side effect profile, and the development of drug resistance and dependence. Therefore, there is a need to develop future therapeutic options which are safe and effective to control the inflammatory process. This review focuses in a method for the administration of fecal matters (which contains a mixture of various commensals) from a healthy donor to the inflamed colon called fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) aiming to correct the underlying dysbiosis in the gut as one of the major driving force for the inflammatory process...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673590/parkinson-s-disease-the-hibernating-spore-hypothesis
#14
Ketil Berstad, Johanna E R Berstad
The authors support the hypothesis that a causative agent in Parkinson's disease (PD) might be either fungus or bacteria with fungus-like properties - Actinobacteria, and that their spores may serve as 'infectious agents'. Updated research and the epidemiology of PD suggest that the disease might be induced by environmental factor(s), possibly with genetic susceptibility, and that α-synuclein probably should be regarded as part of the body's own defense mechanism. To explain the dual-hit theory with stage 1 involvement of the olfactory structures and the 'gut-brain'-axis, the environmental factor is probably airborne and quite 'robust' entering the body via the nose/mouth, then to be swallowed reaching the enteric nervous system with retained pathogenicity...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673019/gastrointestinal-tract-involvement-in-melioidosis
#15
Prapit Teparrukkul, Worrarat Kongkasame, Songla Chitsaeng, Gumphol Wongsuwan, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Sharon J Peacock, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Background: Little is known about the involvement of the human gut in carriage and disease associated with Burkholderia pseudomallei, the cause of melioidosis. Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted in Northeast Thailand to culture stools or rectal swabs from patients with melioidosis, stools from controls with non-infectious diseases, and gastric biopsies from patients undergoing routine endoscopic investigation. Results and Conclusion: B...
April 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657829/cd55-deficiency-early-onset-protein-losing-enteropathy-and-thrombosis
#16
Ahmet Ozen, William A Comrie, Rico C Ardy, Cecilia Domínguez Conde, Buket Dalgic, Ömer F Beser, Aaron R Morawski, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Engin Tutar, Safa Baris, Figen Ozcay, Nina K Serwas, Yu Zhang, Helen F Matthews, Stefania Pittaluga, Les R Folio, Aysel Unlusoy Aksu, Joshua J McElwee, Ana Krolo, Ayca Kiykim, Zeren Baris, Meltem Gulsan, Ismail Ogulur, Scott B Snapper, Roderick H J Houwen, Helen L Leavis, Deniz Ertem, Renate Kain, Sinan Sari, Tülay Erkan, Helen C Su, Kaan Boztug, Michael J Lenardo
BACKGROUND: Studies of monogenic gastrointestinal diseases have revealed molecular pathways critical to gut homeostasis and enabled the development of targeted therapies. METHODS: We studied 11 patients with abdominal pain and diarrhea caused by early-onset protein-losing enteropathy with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, edema due to hypoproteinemia, malabsorption, and less frequently, bowel inflammation, recurrent infections, and angiopathic thromboembolic disease; the disorder followed an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance...
July 6, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656177/giardia-colonizes-and-encysts-in-high-density-foci-in-the-murine-small-intestine
#17
N R Barash, C Nosala, J K Pham, S G McInally, S Gourguechon, B McCarthy-Sinclair, S C Dawson
Giardia lamblia is a highly prevalent yet understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Hosts ingest Giardia cysts from contaminated sources. In the gastrointestinal tract, cysts excyst to become motile trophozoites, colonizing and attaching to the gut epithelium. Trophozoites later differentiate into infectious cysts that are excreted and contaminate the environment. Due to the limited accessibility of the gut, the temporospatial dynamics of giardiasis in the host are largely inferred from laboratory culture and thus may not mirror Giardia physiology in the host...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649326/viral-gut-metagenomics-of-sympatric-wild-and-domestic-canids-and-monitoring-of-viruses-insights-from-an-endangered-wolf-population
#18
Nádia Conceição-Neto, Raquel Godinho, Francisco Álvares, Claude K Yinda, Ward Deboutte, Mark Zeller, Lies Laenen, Elisabeth Heylen, Sara Roque, Francisco Petrucci-Fonseca, Nuno Santos, Marc Van Ranst, João R Mesquita, Jelle Matthijnssens
Animal host-microbe interactions are a relevant concern for wildlife conservation, particularly regarding generalist pathogens, where domestic host species can play a role in the transmission of infectious agents, such as viruses, to wild animals. Knowledge on viral circulation in wild host species is still scarce and can be improved by the recent advent of modern molecular approaches. We aimed to characterize the fecal virome and identify viruses of potential conservation relevance of diarrheic free-ranging wolves and sympatric domestic dogs from Central Portugal, where a small and threatened wolf population persists in a highly anthropogenically modified landscape...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#19
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625560/small-bowel-ultrasound-beyond-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-updated-review-of-the-recent-literature
#20
REVIEW
Federica Cavalcoli, Alessandra Zilli, Mirella Fraquelli, Dario Conte, Sara Massironi
The use of bowel ultrasonography (US) for the evaluation of gut diseases has increased in recent years and has been proven to provide a widely available, non-invasive and inexpensive method for the initial work-up and follow-up of different intestinal diseases, limited mostly by technical challenges posed by the patient's anatomy. The present review aims to provide an extensive overview of the main pathologic features at US examination of intestinal diseases other than inflammatory bowel disease, both acute (e...
June 15, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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