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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201151/complete-genome-sequences-of-clostridium-perfringens-del1-strain-isolated-from-chickens-affected-by-necrotic-enteritis
#1
Charles Li, Xianghe Yan, Hyun S Lillehoj
Background: Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198619/new-mosaic-tiles-in-childhood-hereditary-autoinflammatory-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Donato Rigante
The protean clinical phenotypes of hereditary autoinflammatory disorders (HAID) are caused by abnormal activation of innate immunity and consist of seemingly unprovoked inflammatory flares localized to multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, serosal membranes, gut, and central nervous system. Different mutations in genes implied in activation of the interleukin-1 (IL-1)-structured inflammasome, cytoskeletal signaling and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of different HAID, which mostly start in childhood with self-limited flares unrelated to infectious agents, autoantibody production or autoreactive cells...
December 1, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197124/breast-milk-cells-trafficking-induces-microchimerism-mediated-immune-system-maturation-in-the-infant
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Molès, Edouard Tuaillon, Chipepo Kankasa, Anne-Sophie Bedin, Nicolas Nagot, Arnaud Marchant, Joann M McDermid, Philippe Van de Perre
Initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life confers an important benefit in terms of child mortality and severe morbidity. Intestinal permeability to ingested macromolecules and immunoglobulins is limited to the first days of human life. These exchanges cease in the very early post-partum period but may increase beyond the neonatal period in response to local inflammation or introduction of a weaning food. From animal- and limited human-based observations, compelling evidence points out to breast milk cells also trafficking from mother to infant mucosal tissues and participating to the maternal microchimerism...
December 2, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155830/molecular-characterization-of-tsetse-s-proboscis-and-its-response-to-trypanosoma-congolense-infection
#4
Erick O Awuoche, Brian L Weiss, Aurélien Vigneron, Paul O Mireji, Emre Aksoy, Benson Nyambega, Geoffrey M Attardo, Yineng Wu, Michelle O'Neill, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) transmit parasitic African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma spp.), including Trypanosoma congolense, which causes animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT). AAT detrimentally affects agricultural activities in sub-Saharan Africa and has negative impacts on the livelihood and nutrient availability for the affected communities. After tsetse ingests an infectious blood meal, T. congolense sequentially colonizes the fly's gut and proboscis (PB) organs before being transmitted to new mammalian hosts during subsequent feedings...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151351/immucillins-in-infectious-diseases
#5
Gary B Evans, Peter C Tyler, Vern L Schramm
Transition state theory proposes that stable chemical mimics of enzymatic transition states will be powerful inhibitors of their cognate enzymes. The Immucillins are chemically stable analogues that mimic the ribocation and leaving-group features of N-ribosyltransferase transition states. Infectious disease agents often rely on ribosyltransferase chemistry in pathways involving precursor synthesis for nucleic acids, salvage of nucleic acid precursors from the host or synthetic pathways with nucleoside intermediates...
November 19, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141704/human-competence-to-transmit-leishmania-infantum-to-lutzomyia-longipalpis-and-the-influence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#6
Gabriel Reis Ferreira, José Carlos Castelo Branco Ribeiro, Antônio Meneses Filho, Teresinha de Jesus Cardoso Farias Pereira, Daniela Moura Parente, Humberto Feitosa Pereira, Jailthon Carlos da Silva, Danielle Alves Zacarias, Letiano Vieira da Silva, Symonara Karina Medeiros Faustino, Walfrido Salmito Almeida Neto, Dorcas Lamounier Costa, Ivete Lopes de Mendonça, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a lethal disease transmitted by sand flies. Although, considered a zoonosis with dogs held as the main reservoirs, humans are also sources of infection. Therefore, control policies currently focused on dog culling may need to consider that VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/VL patients may also be infectious, contributing to transmission. Reservoir competence of patients with VL without and with HIV infection and of persons asymptomatically infected with Leishmania was assessed by xenodiagnosis with the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141637/molecules-produced-by-probiotics-prevent-enteric-colibacillosis-in-pigs
#7
Ricardo Nordeste, Akalate Tessema, Sapana Sharma, Zlatko Kovač, Chuan Wang, Rocio Morales, Mansel William Griffiths
BACKGROUND: With the advent of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens, novel methods to combat infectious diseases are being sought. Among these, probiotics have been proposed as a means of promoting animal health but problems with their use has been reported. Research has demonstrated that bioactive molecules produced during the growth of certain probiotics interfere with bacterial cell-to-cell communication, which consequently results in an attenuation of virulence in a number of pathogens, including E...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138961/blastocystis-subtypes-isolated-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-and-co-infection-with-helicobacter-pylori
#8
Ayman A El-Badry, Wegdan M Abd El Wahab, Doaa A Hamdy, Alaa Aboud
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disease presenting clinically by abdominal pain with alteration of bowel habits. Although IBS has uncertain etiology, chronic gut inflammation due to persistent exposure to an infectious agent including Blastocystis sp. was proposed. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype (ST) isolated from stool of IBS patients and to assess Blastocystis sp. and H. pylori co-infection in IBS patients from Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt...
November 14, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#9
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101656/impact-of-enteric-health-and-mucosal-permeability-on-skeletal-health-and-lameness-in-poultry
#10
L R Bielke, B M Hargis, J D Latorre
Intestinal barrier leakage and/or altered gut microbial composition has been shown to markedly impact both osteoblast and osteoclast activities, systemically through circulation of gut immune cells and cytokines and locally by causing inflammation of extraintestinal organs such as the liver and bone marrow. Mild cases of heightened intestinal inflammation can cause bone loss in male mice in the absence of any overt nutritional deficiencies or weight loss, which has also been shown in chickens that have been infected with Salmonella...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095820/-omic-investigations-of-protozoa-and-worms-for-a-deeper-understanding-of-the-human-gut-parasitome
#11
REVIEW
Valeria Marzano, Livia Mancinelli, Giorgia Bracaglia, Federica Del Chierico, Pamela Vernocchi, Francesco Di Girolamo, Stefano Garrone, Hyppolite Tchidjou Kuekou, Patrizia D'Argenio, Bruno Dallapiccola, Andrea Urbani, Lorenza Putignani
The human gut has been continuously exposed to a broad spectrum of intestinal organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites (protozoa and worms), over millions of years of coevolution, and plays a central role in human health. The modern lifestyles of Western countries, such as the adoption of highly hygienic habits, the extensive use of antimicrobial drugs, and increasing globalisation, have dramatically altered the composition of the gut milieu, especially in terms of its eukaryotic "citizens...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077905/influence-of-different-yeast-cell-wall-preparations-and-their-components-on-performance-and-immune-and-metabolic-pathways-in-clostridium-perfringens-challenged-broiler-chicks
#12
Mohammed M Hashim, Ryan J Arsenault, James A Byrd, Michael H Kogut, Morouj Al-Ajeeli, Christopher A Bailey
A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of the purification of yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations on broiler performance and immunogenic and metabolic pathways under microbial challenge. A total of 240 (day old) chicks were distributed among two battery brooder units (48 pens; 5 birds/pen; 8 replicates/treatment). A basal starter diet was divided into 5 batches to create 6 dietary treatments; non-challenge (NCh-C) and challenge (Ch-C) controls, semi-purified YCW containing cytosol contents (SPYCW; 250 mg/kg), purified YCW (PYCW; 250 mg/kg), 50% purified beta-glucan (BG; 130 mg/kg), and 99...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076685/causes-of-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding-on-colonoscopy
#13
Attique-Ur-Rehman Jehangiri, Rahid Gul, Rania Hadayat, Adil Naseer Khan, Zabiullah, Liaqat Khursheed
BACKGROUND: Bleeding from anus is usually referred as rectal bleeding but actually rectal bleeding is defined as bleeding from lower colon or rectum, which means bleeding from a place distal to ligament of Treitz. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of different causes of rectal bleeding in patients at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-five patients with evidence of rectal bleed, without gender discrimination were selected by non-probability convenient sampling from the out-patient department and general medical wards...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073348/gut-microbiota-perturbations-in-reactive-arthritis-and-post-infectious-spondyloarthritis
#14
Julia Manasson, Nan Shen, Helga R Garcia Ferrer, Carles Ubeda, Isa Iraheta, Adriana Heguy, Joan M Von Feldt, Luis R Espinoza, Abraham Garcia Kutzbach, Leopoldo N Segal, Alexis Ogdie, Jose C Clemente, Jose U Scher
OBJECTIVE: Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an inflammatory disorder occurring several weeks after gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. HLA-B27 positivity is considered a risk factor, though not necessarily predictive of disease incidence. Among non-genetic factors, the intestinal microbiome may play a role in disease susceptibility. The objective of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota and host gene interactions in ReA and post-infectious spondyloarthritis. METHODS: Adult peripheral spondyloarthritis and control subjects with preceding infections that did not develop arthritis were prospectively recruited from a highly prevalent geographic region...
October 26, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068495/infections-in-ms-an-innate-immunity-perspective
#15
REVIEW
A Hänninen
Multiple sclerosis is a multifaceted inflammatory-autoimmune disease, which shows remarkable heterogeneity in its clinical presentation, disease progression and in tissue lesions in the CNS. Focal lesions in white matter consist of immune effector cells, antibodies, and complement deposits in varying combinations, suggesting that immune mechanisms related to CNS pathology are multiple. Although adaptive immunity to myelin antigens is essential in MS pathogenesis, innate immune mechanisms are likely involved in its initiation and perpetuation...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067020/inheritance-and-establishment-of-gut-microbiota-in-chickens
#16
Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Lingyu Yang, Chuan He, Ke Xu, Shuyun Liu, Wenjing Zhao, Lu Xiao, Lingxiao Luo, Yan Zhang, He Meng
In mammals, the microbiota can be transmitted from the placenta, uterus, and vagina of the mother to the infant. Unlike mammals, development of the avian embryo is a process isolated from the mother and thus in the avian embryo the gut microbial developmental process remains elusive. To explore the establishment and inheritance of the gut microbiome in the avian embryo, we used the chicken as the model organism to investigate the gut microbial composition in embryos, chicks, and maternal hens. We observed: (1) 28 phyla and 162 genera of microbes in embryos where the dominated genus was Halomonas (79%)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052511/q-a-what-are-pathogens-and-what-have-they-done-to-and-for-us
#17
Francois Balloux, Lucy van Dorp
Microbes are found on us, within us and around us. They inhabit virtually every environment on the planet and the bacteria carried by an average human, mostly in their gut, outnumber human cells. The vast majority of microbes are harmless to us, and many play essential roles in plant, animal and human health. Others, however, are either obligate or facultative pathogens exerting a spectrum of deleterious effects on their hosts. Infectious diseases have historically represented the most common cause of death in humans until recently, exceeding by far the toll taken by wars or famines...
October 19, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043015/-show-me-which-parasites-you-carry-and-i-will-tell-you-what-you-eat-or-how-to-infer-the-trophic-behavior-of-hematophagous-arthropods-feeding-on-wildlife
#18
Boris Makanga, Carlo Costantini, Nil Rahola, Patrick Yangari, Virginie Rougeron, Diego Ayala, Franck Prugnolle, Christophe Paupy
Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses originating from wildlife among which vector-borne diseases constitute a major risk for global human health. Understanding the transmission routes of mosquito-borne pathogens in wildlife crucially depends on recording mosquito blood-feeding patterns. During an extensive longitudinal survey to study sylvatic anophelines in two wildlife reserves in Gabon, we collected 2,415 mosquitoes of which only 0.3% were blood-fed. The molecular analysis of the blood meals contained in guts indicated that all the engorged mosquitoes fed on wild ungulates...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034905/the-hygiene-hypothesis-in-autoimmunity-the-role-of-pathogens-and-commensals
#19
REVIEW
Jean-François Bach
The incidence of autoimmune diseases has been steadily rising. Concomitantly, the incidence of most infectious diseases has declined. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, which postulates that a reduction in the frequency of infections contributes directly to the increase in the frequency of autoimmune and allergic diseases. This hypothesis is supported by robust epidemiological data, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Pathogens are known to be important, as autoimmune disease is prevented in various experimental models by infection with different bacteria, viruses and parasites...
October 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023853/antibiotics-gut-microbiome-and-obesity
#20
Karen S W Leong, José G B Derraik, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
Antibiotics have been hailed by many as 'miracle drugs' that have been effectively treating infectious diseases for over a century, leading to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, with the increasing use of antibiotics, we are now faced not only with the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, but also with a rising concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on human health, including the development of obesity. The obesity pandemic continues to increase, a problem that affects both adults and children alike...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
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