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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640714/an-unexplored-brain-gut-microbiota-axis-in-stroke
#1
Shu Wen Wen, Connie H Y Wong
Microbiota research, in particular that of the gut, has recently gained much attention in medical research owing to technological advances in metagenomics and metabolomics. Despite this, much of the research direction has focused on long-term or chronic effects of microbiota manipulation on health and disease. In this addendum, we reflect on our recent publication that reported findings addressing a rather unconventional hypothesis. Bacterial pneumonia is highly prevalent and is one of the leading contributors to stroke morbidity and mortality worldwide...
June 22, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636450/impact-of-mycotoxins-on-the-intestine-are-mucus-and-microbiota-new-targets
#2
Hervé Robert, Delphine Payros, Philippe Pinton, Vassilia Théodorou, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Isabelle P Oswald
There is an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects attributed to mycotoxins during their fate within the gut, particularly for deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and patulin (PAT). Evidence indicates that disruption of the epithelial barrier is well established. However, intestinal barrier function on its luminal side involves two other partners, mucus and microbiota, which have rarely been considered in the context of mycotoxin exposure...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633471/development-of-a-chicken-ileal-explant-culture-model-for-measurement-of-gut-inflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#3
Qian Zhang, Susan D Eicher, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Todd J Applegate
Gut mucosa holds a single layer of epithelial cells and the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body. Although the epithelial cell culture model is widely used to assess intestinal barrier function, it has limitations for studying cellular interactions, in particular those of the immune system. In this study, a chicken ileal explant culture model was developed for investigating short-term gut inflammatory and secretory responses in an ex vivo environment. Initially, ileal explants from broilers at 21 d of age were cultured ex vivo up to 6 h...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632769/combining-omics-and-microscopy-to-visualize-interactions-between-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-vector-and-the-huanglongbing-pathogen-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-in-the-insect-gut
#4
Angela Kruse, Somayeh Fattah-Hosseini, Surya Saha, Richard Johnson, EricaRose Warwick, Kasie Sturgeon, Lukas Mueller, Michael J MacCoss, Robert G Shatters, Michelle Cilia Heck
Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is an economically devastating bacterial disease of citrus. It is associated with infection by the gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). CLas is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). For insect transmission to occur, CLas must be ingested during feeding on infected phloem sap and cross the gut barrier to gain entry into the insect vector. To investigate the effects of CLas exposure at the gut-pathogen interface, we performed RNAseq and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze the transcriptome and proteome, respectively, of ACP gut tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630461/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-obesity-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#5
C-J Chang, C-C Lu, C-S Lin, J Martel, Y-F Ko, D M Ojcius, T-R Wu, Y-H Tsai, T-S Yeh, J-J Lu, H-C Lai, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, disrupted intestinal barrier and chronic inflammation. Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, anti-obesity treatments that are safe, effective and widely available would be beneficial. We examined whether the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea may reduce obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for eight weeks to induce obesity and chronic inflammation...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627341/-protective-effects-of-valproic-acid-on-gut-barrier-function-after-major-burn-injury-and-its-mechanism
#6
Hongmin Luo, Sen Hu, Huining Bian, Shaoyi Zheng, Bing Xiong, Zhifeng Huang, Zuan Liu, Chuanwei Sun, Lianghua Ma, Hanhua Li, Wen Yu, Minghua Du, Huade Chen, Wen Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential protective effects of valproic acid (VPA) on gut barrier function after major burn injury in rats and its mechanism. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into sham + normal saline (NS), sham + VPA, scald + NS, and scald + VPA groups, with 10 rats in each group. Rat with 55% total body surface area (TBSA) third-degree severe-burns model was reproduced by immersing into 80 °C water, and the rats in sham groups were given sham-burns by immersing into 37 °C water...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626097/-visceral-sensitivity-gut-barrier-function-and-autonomic-nerve-function-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#7
Xiaojuan Xu, Liang Liu, Shukun Yao, Yanli Zhang
To evaluate visceral sensitivity, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore their roles in IBS-D pathophysiology.
 Methods: A total of 46 IBS-D patients (IBS-D group) were selected from the Department of Gastroenterology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from October 2015 to March 2016, and 20 healthy volunteer were served as a control group (HC group). Clinical and psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaire, and visceral sensitivity to rectal balloon distention, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) were examined...
May 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625152/lipid-oxidation-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammation-related-gut-diseases
#8
Barbara Sottero, Daniela Rossin, Giuseppe Poli, Fiorella Biasi
A defective mucosal barrier function is the principal cause of the uncontrolled onset and progression of a number of human inflammatory gut diseases, most of which are characterized by chronic intermittent immune and inflammatory responses leading to structural intestinal damage, which can represent a potential risk for colorectal cancer development. During the active disease phase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the induction of oxidative reactions by activated leukocytes and epithelial cells represent the main event in intestinal inflammation...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624056/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-different-types-of-stem-cells-in-preserving-gut-barrier-function-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#9
Christopher J McCulloh, Jacob K Olson, Yijie Wang, Jennifer Vu, Sarah Gartner, Gail E Besner
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Increased intestinal permeability is central to NEC development. We have shown that stem cells (SCs) can reduce the incidence and severity of NEC. Our current goal was to investigate the efficacy of four different types of SC in preservation of gut barrier function during NEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared (1) amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal SC, (2) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal SC, (3) amniotic fluid-derived neural SC, and (4) enteric neural SC...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622357/protective-effect-of-aplysin-on-liver-tissue-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-alcohol-fed-rats
#10
Meilan Xue, Ying Liu, Rui Lyu, Na Ge, Man Liu, Yan Ma, Hui Liang
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the protective effect of aplysin on the liver and its influence on inflammation and the gut microbiota in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an alcohol-containing liquid diet, control liquid diet or treatment with aplysin for 8 weeks. Hepatic and intestinal histopathological analysis was performed, and cytokine levels and the intestinal mucosal barrier were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#11
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618973/from-clinical-uncertainties-to-precision-medicine-the-emerging-role-of-the-gut-barrier-and-microbiome-in-small-bowel-functional-diseases
#12
Wojciech Marlicz, Diana Yung, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Igor Loniewski, Saskia van Hemert, Beata Loniewska, Anastasios Koulaouzidis
Over the last decade, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of disease pathophysiology. Many new theories expound on the importance of emerging factors such as microbiome influences, genomics/omics, stem cells, innate intestinal immunity or mucosal barrier complexities. This has introduced a further dimension of uncertainty into clinical decision-making, but equally, may shed some light on less well-understood and difficult to manage conditions. Areas covered: Comprehensive review of the literature on gut barrier and microbiome relevant to small bowel pathology...
June 16, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615528/genistein-improves-inflammatory-response-and-colonic-function-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-in-dss-induced-colonic-injury
#13
Rui Zhang, Jian Xu, Jian Zhao, Yuzhe Chen
This study aimed to investigate the protective potential of genistein in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic injury in vitro and in vivo models. The results showed that DSS exposure caused growth suppression, colonic injury, inflammation, and barrier dysfunction in mice. Dietary genistein alleviated DSS-caused colonic injury via reducing colonic weight, rectal bleeding, and diarrhea ratio. Meanwhile, genistein reduced colonic inflammatory response via downregulating cytokines expression and improved colonic permeability and barrier in DSS-challenged mice...
May 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613252/are-the-gut-bacteria-telling-us-to-eat-or-not-to-eat-reviewing-the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-etiology-disease-progression-and-treatment-of-eating-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Yan Y Lam, Sarah Maguire, Talia Palacios, Ian D Caterson
Traditionally recognized as mental illnesses, eating disorders are increasingly appreciated to be biologically-driven. There is a growing body of literature that implicates a role of the gut microbiota in the etiology and progression of these conditions. Gut bacteria may act on the gut-brain axis to alter appetite control and brain function as part of the genesis of eating disorders. As the illnesses progress, extreme feeding patterns and psychological stress potentially feed back to the gut ecosystem that can further compromise physiological, cognitive, and social functioning...
June 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611517/urinary-metabolic-insights-into-host-gut-microbial-interactions-in-healthy-and-ibd-children
#15
Francois-Pierre Martin, Ming-Ming Su, Guo-Xiang Xie, Seu Ping Guiraud, Martin Kussmann, Jean-Philippe Godin, Wei Jia, Andreas Nydegger
AIM: To identify metabolic signatures in urine samples from healthy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) children. METHODS: We applied liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling to identify and quantify bile acids and host-gut microbial metabolites in urine samples collected from 21 pediatric IBD patients monitored three times over one year (baseline, 6 and 12 mo), and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy children...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606477/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-enriched-lipid-emulsion-improves-paneth-cell-function-via-the-il-22-stat3-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-total-parenteral-nutrition
#16
Jiwei Wang, Feng Tian, Huijun Zheng, Hao Tian, Peng Wang, Li Zhang, Xuejin Gao, Xinying Wang
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction or failure. Long-term TPN impairs gut barrier function and contributes to infections and poor clinical outcomes. However, the underlying mechanisms of TPN-related gut barrier damage has not been fully elucidated, and effective measures are still rare. Here, we compared the effects of a predominantly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids emulsion (PUFAs; Intralipid) and a lipid emulsion containing n-3 PUFAs (Intralipid plus Omegaven) on antimicrobial peptides produced by Paneth cells...
June 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605173/barriers-to-hiv-remission-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#17
REVIEW
Theresa Rossouw, Joseph D Tucker, Gert U van Zyl, Kenly Sikwesi, Catherine Godfrey
INTRODUCTION: HIV eradication and remission research has largely taken place in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), there may be factors that have a substantial impact on the size of the latent HIV reservoir and the immunological response to infection. If a curative strategy is to be available to all HIV-infected individuals, these factors must be understood. METHODS: We use a scoping review to examine the literature on biological factors that may have an impact on HIV persistence in LMIC...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604843/alcohol-associated-intestinal-dysbiosis-impairs-pulmonary-host-defense-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#18
Derrick R Samuelson, Judd E Shellito, Vincent J Maffei, Eric D Tague, Shawn R Campagna, Eugene E Blanchard, Meng Luo, Christopher M Taylor, Martin J J Ronis, Patricia E Molina, David A Welsh
Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, vancomycin, and metronidazole) via daily gavage for two weeks...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604735/fungal-dysbiosis-immunity-and-interactions-at-mucosal-barriers
#19
REVIEW
Iliyan D Iliev, Irina Leonardi
Fungi and mammals share a co-evolutionary history and are involved in a complex web of interactions. Studies focused on commensal bacteria suggest that pathological changes in the microbiota, historically known as dysbiosis, are at the root of many inflammatory diseases of non-infectious origin. However, the importance of dysbiosis in the fungal community - the mycobiota - was only recently acknowledged to have a pathological role, as novel findings have suggested that mycobiota disruption can have detrimental effects on host immunity...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604414/dietary-iron-and-heme-iron-consumption-genetic-susceptibility-and-risk-of-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Hamed Khalili, Punyanganie S de Silva, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Paul Lochhead, Amit Joshi, John J Garber, James R Richter, Jenny Sauk, Andrew T Chan
BACKGROUND: Dietary iron and heme, likely through their effect on gut commensal bacteria and colonic barrier function, have been shown to modulate colonic inflammation in animal models of colitis. Nonetheless, the link between dietary total and heme iron and risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been previously explored. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 165,331 U.S. women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II...
July 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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