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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230606/secretions-of-bifidobacterium-infantis-and-lactobacillus-acidophilus-protect-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function
#1
Shuangshuang Guo, Tyler Gillingham, Yuming Guo, Di Meng, Weishu Zhu, W Allen Walker, Kriston Ganguli
OBJECTIVES: The secreted metabolites of probiotics are cytoprotective to intestinal epithelium and have been shown to attenuate inflammation and reduce gut permeability. The present study was designed to determine the protective effects of probiotic conditioned media (PCM) from Bifidobacterium infantis (BCM) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LCM) on interleukin (IL)-1β-induced intestinal barrier compromise. METHODS: The epithelial barrier was determined by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across a Caco-2 cell monolayer using a Transwell model...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228510/non-glandular-trichomes-of-solanum-carolinense-deter-feeding-by-manduca-sexta-caterpillars-and-cause-damage-to-the-gut-peritrophic-matrix
#2
Rupesh R Kariyat, Jason D Smith, Andrew G Stephenson, Consuelo M De Moraes, Mark C Mescher
Plant trichomes constitute a first line of defence against insect herbivores. The pre- and post-ingestive defensive functions of glandular trichomes are well documented and include direct toxicity, adhesion, antinutrition and defence gene induction. By contrast, the defensive functions of non-glandular trichomes are less well characterized, although these structures are thought to serve as physical barriers that impede herbivore feeding and movement. We experimentally varied the density of stellate non-glandular trichomes in several ways to explore their pre- and post-ingestive effects on herbivores...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218451/specific-inulin-type-fructan-fibers-protect-against-autoimmune-diabetes-by-modulating-gut-immunity-barrier-function-and-microbiota-homeostasis
#3
Kang Chen, Hao Chen, Marijke M Faas, Bart J de Haan, Jiahong Li, Ping Xiao, Hao Zhang, Julien Diana, Paul de Vos, Jia Sun
SCOPE: Dietary fibers capable of modifying gut barrier and microbiota homeostasis, affect the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here we aim to compare modulatory effects of inulin-type fructans (ITFs), natural soluble dietary fibers with different degrees of fermentability from chicory root, on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female NOD mice were weaned to long and short chain ITFs [ITF(l) and ITF(s), 5%] supplemented diet up to 24 weeks...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217700/the-multiple-antibacterial-activities-of-the-bladder-epithelium
#4
REVIEW
Jianxuan Wu, Yuxuan Miao, Soman N Abraham
The urinary tract is subject to frequent challenges from the gut microflora. Indeed, up to 40% of women will experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) contribute to an overwhelming majority of these cases and they typically initiate UTIs by invading the superficial epithelium that lines the bladder lumen. In addition to serving as an effective barrier to noxious agents found in urine, bladder epithelial cells (BECs) play a key physiological role in regulating bladder volume to accommodate urine flow...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217099/berberine-attenuates-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#5
Jing Gong, Meilin Hu, Zhaoyi Huang, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Qingjie Chen, Jingbin Li, Desen Yang, Xin Zou, Lijun Xu, Kaifu Wang, Hui Dong, Fuer Lu
Background: Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Berberine (BBR), a kind of isoquinoline alkaloid, is widely known to be effective for both DM and diarrhea. Here, we explored whether the anti-diabetic effect of BBR was related to the intestine mucosal barrier. Methods and Results: The rat model of T2DM was established by high glucose and fat diet feeding and intravenous injection of streptozocin. Then, those diabetic rats were treated with BBR at different concentrations for 9 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215168/contributions-of-the-interaction-between-dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiota-to-intestinal-health
#6
Ning Ma, Yanan Tian, Yi Wu, Xi Ma
There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions...
February 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214040/reinforcement-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-by-arabinoxylans-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial-arabinoxylans-in-gut-barrier
#7
Bouke N Salden, Freddy J Troost, Ellen Wilms, Pilar Truchado, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Dietmar H Pieper, Ruy Jáuregui, Massimo Marzorati, Tom van de Wiele, Sam Possemiers, Ad A Masclee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic diseases are associated with alterations in microbial composition and impaired gut barrier. Previous in vitro and animal studies have shown that arabinoxylans (AX) have the potential to modulate gut microbiota and gut barrier and therefore could have a protective role. Primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AX on intestinal permeability. Secondary aims included the effect of AX on gene transcription and protein expression of tight junctions (TJ), intestinal microbiota composition and activity, immune response and metabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213891/opioids-and-the-immune-system-friend-or-foe
#8
REVIEW
Lisanne Mirja Plein, Heike L Rittner
Systemically administered opioids are among the most powerful analgesics for treating severe pain. Several negative side-effects (respiratory depression, addiction, nausea, confusion) and the risk of opioid-induced hyperalgesia accompany opioid administration. One other side effect is the potential of opioids to suppress the immune response and thereby to increase the vulnerability for infections. Several studies have investigated the link between opioids and immunosuppression in vitro, in vivo as well as in patients with divergent results: Exogenous opioids such as morphine and fentanyl can impair macrophage and natural killer cell as well as T cell function and weaken the gut barrier in vitro and in animal studies...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212861/accumulation-of-phosphatidylcholine-on-gut-mucosal-surface-is-not-dominated-by-electrostatic-interactions
#9
Agatha Korytowski, Wasim Abuillan, Federico Amadei, Ali Makky, Andrea Gumiero, Irmgard Sinning, Annika Gauss, Wolfgang Stremmel, Motomu Tanaka
The accumulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the intestinal mucus layer is crucial for the protection of colon epithelia from the bacterial attack. It has been reported that the depletion of PC is a distinct feature of ulcerative colitis. Here we addressed the question how PC interacts with its binding proteins, the mucins, which may establish the hydrophobic barrier against colonic microbiota. In the first step, the interactions of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) with two mucin preparations from porcine stomach, have been studied using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, and Langmuir isotherms, suggesting that mucin binds to the surface of DOPC vesicles...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210979/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-ii-allergens-and-role-of-the-microbiome-and-environmental-exposures
#10
REVIEW
George Knaysi, Anna R Smith, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Several properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbial penetration...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#11
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207929/optimisation-of-intestinal-microsomal-preparation-in-the-rat-a-systematic-approach-to-assess-the-influence-of-various-methodologies-on-metabolic-activity-and-scaling-factors
#12
Oliver J D Hatley, Christopher R Jones, Aleksandra Galetin, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan
The metabolic capacity of the intestine and its importance as the initial barrier to systemic exposure can lead to under-estimation of first-pass, and thus overestimation of oral bioavailability. However, the in vitro tools informing estimates of in vivo intestinal metabolism are limited by the complexity of the in vitro matrix preparation and uncertainty with the scaling factors for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. A number of methods currently exist in the literature for the preparation of intestinal microsomes; however, the impact of key steps in the preparation procedure has not been critically assessed...
February 16, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207815/generalist-dispersers-promote-germination-of-an-alien-fleshy-fruited-tree-invading-natural-grasslands
#13
Martín Raúl Amodeo, María Belén Vázquez, Sergio Martín Zalba
Plants with animal-dispersed fruits seem to overcome the barriers that limit their spread into new habitats more easily than other invasive plants and, at the same time, they pose special difficulties for containment, control or eradication. The effects of animals on plant propagules can be very diverse, with positive, neutral or negative consequences for germination and recruitment. Moreover, the environmental conditions where the seeds are deposited and where the post-dispersal processes take place can be crucial for their fate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197380/the-influence-of-gut-decontamination-prophylactic-antibiotics-on-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-and-survival-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Bertrand Routy, Caroline Letendre, David Enot, Maxime Chénard-Poirier, Vikram Mehraj, Noémie Charbonneau Séguin, Khaled Guenda, Kathia Gagnon, Paul-Louis Woerther, David Ghez, Silvy Lachance
The intestinal microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). High-dose conditioning regimens given prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) modulate the composition of gut microbiota and damage the gut epithelial barrier, resulting in increased systemic inflammation. We assessed whether gut decontamination with antibiotics (ATB) prior to aHSCT influenced the frequency of aGVHD and mortality in 500 patients from two Canadian centers between 2005 and 2012...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194462/designing-an-efficient-multi-epitope-oral-vaccine-against-helicobacter-pylori-using-immunoinformatics-and-structural-vaccinology-approaches
#15
Navid Nezafat, Mahboobeh Eslami, Manica Negahdaripour, Mohammad Reza Rahbar, Younes Ghasemi
Helicobacter pylori is the cunning bacterium that can live in the stomachs of many people without any symptoms, but gradually can lead to gastric cancer. Due to various obstacles, which are related to anti-H. pylori antibiotic therapy, recently developing an anti-H. pylori vaccine has attracted more attention. In this study, different immunoinformatics and computational vaccinology approaches were employed to design an efficient multi-epitope oral vaccine against H. pylori. Our multi-epitope vaccine is composed of heat labile enterotoxin IIc B (LT-IIc) that is used as a mucosal adjuvant to enhance vaccine immunogenicity for oral immunization, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) to increase vaccine stability in acidic pH of gut, one experimentally protective antigen, OipA, and two hypothetical protective antigens, HP0487 and HP0906, and "CTGKSC" peptide motif that target epithelial microfold cells (M cells) to enhance vaccine uptake from the gut barrier...
February 14, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194099/gut-to-brain-dysbiosis-mechanisms-linking-western-diet-consumption-the-microbiome-and-cognitive-impairment
#16
REVIEW
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Scott E Kanoski
Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191487/preparation-of-protein-containing-extracts-from-microbiota-rich-intestinal-contents
#17
Patricia Dillenburg-Pilla, Carlos R Zárate-Bladés, Phyllis B Silver, Reiko Horai, Rachel R Caspi
The contribution of microbiota in regulating multiple physiological and pathological host responses has been studied intensively in recent years. Evidence suggests that commensal microbiota can directly modulate different populations of cells of the immune system (e.g., Ivanov et al., 2008; Atarashi et al., 2011). Recently, we showed that protein extracts from gut commensal microbiota can activate retina-specific T cells, allowing these autoreactive T cells to then break through the blood-retinal barrier and trigger autoimmune uveitis in the recipient (Horai et al...
September 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187526/secondary-bile-acid-induced-dysbiosis-promotes-intestinal-carcinogenesis
#18
Hailong Cao, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Baoru Deng, Sinan Wang, Yujie Zhang, Shan Wang, Shenhui Luo, Weiqiang Wang, Yanrong Qi, Jianxin Gao, Xiaocang Cao, Fang Yan, Bangmao Wang
The gut microbiota plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal tumorigenesis. Deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid increased by a western diet, is associated with intestinal carcinogenesis. However, evidence relating bile acids, intestinal microbiota and tumorigenesis is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of DCA on induction of intestinal dysbiosis and its roles in intestinal carcinogenesis. Alteration of the composition of the intestinal microbiota was induced in DCA-treated mice, which was accompanied by impaired intestinal barrier, gut low grade inflammation and tumor progression...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185248/mastering-gut-permeability-new-roles-for-old-friends
#19
Michael Bramhall, Colby Zaph
Mast cells are innate immune cells that respond rapidly to infection in barrier tissues such as the skin and intestinal mucosa. Expulsion of parasitic worms in the gut involves a robust type 2 host response, and an acute mastocytosis is often generated at the site of infection. However, the role of mast cells in resistance to worm infections appears to be parasite specific. Mast cells are also involved in tissue repair, but the long-term contribution of mast cell activation after worm expulsion has not been definitively studied...
February 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180112/oral-multiple-sclerosis-drugs-inhibit-the-in-vitro-growth-of-epsilon-toxin-producing-gut-bacterium-clostridium-perfringens
#20
Kareem R Rumah, Timothy K Vartanian, Vincent A Fischetti
There are currently three oral medications approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two of these medications, Fingolimod, and Teriflunomide, are considered to be anti-inflammatory agents, while dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is thought to trigger a robust antioxidant response, protecting vulnerable cells during an MS attack. We previously proposed that epsilon toxin from the gut bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, may initiate newly forming MS lesions due to its tropism for blood-brain barrier (BBB) vasculature and central nervous system myelin...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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