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gut barrier

Cheong K C Kwong Chung, Francesca Ronchi, Markus B Geuking
Healthy host-microbial mutualism relies on compartmentalization and proper regulation of systemic and mucosal immune responses. Nevertheless, the systemic immune system is frequently exposed to bouts of bacteraemia, which can trigger systemic antimicrobial immune reactivity including CD4(+) T cells. Low level bacteraemia can occur when immune compartmentalization is compromised, for example in the presence of innate immune deficiency or following use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). We generated an Escherichia coli strain expressing a defined T helper neo-epitope to study systemic antigen-specific antimicrobial CD4(+) T cells and their potential involvement in the pathogenicity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
October 24, 2016: Immunology
Adriaan A van Beek, Bruno Sovran, Floor Hugenholtz, Ben Meijer, Joanne A Hoogerland, Violeta Mihailova, Corine van der Ploeg, Clara Belzer, Mark V Boekschoten, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Wilbert P Vermeij, Paul de Vos, Jerry M Wells, Pieter J M Leenen, Claudio Nicoletti, Rudi W Hendriks, Huub F J Savelkoul
Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-week bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1(-/Δ7) mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20 weeks, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1(-/Δ7) mice was characterized by a thin (< 10 μm) mucus layer...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a first-line therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) thought to induce remission through changes in the gut microbiome. With microbiome assessment largely focused on microbial taxonomy and diversity, it remains unclear to what extent EEN induces functional changes that thereby contribute to its therapeutic effect. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 15 pediatric CD patients prior to and after EEN treatment, as well as from 5 healthy controls...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Raphael Jose Ferreira Felizardo, Angela Castoldi, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
Recent findings regarding the influence of the microbiota in many inflammatory processes have provided a new way to treat diseases. Now, one may hypothesize that the origin of a plethora of diseases is related to the health of the gut microbiota and its delicate, although complex, interface with the epithelial and immune systems. The 'westernization' of diets, for example, is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota. Such alterations have been found to correlate directly with the increased incidence of diabetes and hypertension, the main causes of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs), which, in turn, have a high estimated prevalence...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
R Onnainty, E M Schenfeld, J P Petiti, M R Longhi, A Torres, M A Quevedo, G E Granero
Here, a novel drug delivery system was developed for the hydrochlorothiazide (HCT):ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) inclusion complex loaded into chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs)[CS/HCT:ßCD NPs]. It was found, for the first time, that exposure of the intestinal mucosa to free HCT resulted in an increased and abnormal intestinal permeability associated with several injuries to the intestinal epithelium. Nevertheless, the HCT delivery system obtained ameliorated the damage of the intestinal epithelium induced by HCT...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Yanling Wei, Jun Yang, Jun Wang, Yang Yang, Juan Huang, Hao Gong, Hongli Cui, Dongfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of gut-derived infections, making it a potential therapeutic target against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after sepsis. However, the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating this disease has been rarely investigated. METHODS: Two male patients, a 65-year-old and an 84-year-old, were initially diagnosed with cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, respectively, after admission...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Petrus R de Jong, José M González-Navajas, Nicolaas J G Jansen
Failure of gut homeostasis is an important factor in the pathogenesis and progression of systemic inflammation, which can culminate in multiple organ failure and fatality. Pathogenic events in critically ill patients include mesenteric hypoperfusion, dysregulation of gut motility, and failure of the gut barrier with resultant translocation of luminal substrates. This is followed by the exacerbation of local and systemic immune responses. All these events can contribute to pathogenic crosstalk between the gut, circulating cells, and other organs like the liver, pancreas, and lungs...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Najate Achamrah, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in plasma and plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal barrier. RECENT FINDINGS: Experimental studies showed that glutamine is able to modulate intestinal permeability and tight junction protein expression in several conditions. Recent articles underlined its putative beneficial role in gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. SUMMARY: Glutamine is a major nutrient to maintain intestinal barrier function in animals and humans...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
J L Chen, P Zheng, C Zhang, B Yu, J He, J Yu, J Q Luo, X B Mao, Z Q Huang, D W Chen
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of benzoic acid (BA) on growth performance, intestinal development and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. Ninety weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: a basal diet (CON), the basal diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1) and 5000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). At the end of days 14 and 42, six pigs per treatment were randomly selected to collect plasma and intestinal samples. Results showed that BA supplementation not only improved final body weight, daily growth and feed conversion ratio from days 15 to 42 and days 1 to 42, but also decreased the activity of plasma diamine oxidase (day 42) and the pH values of jejunal contents (day 14) (p < 0...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Lijun Du, John J Kim, Jinhua Shen, Ning Dai
The barrier function of the intestine is essential for maintaining the normal homeostasis of the gut and mucosal immune system. Abnormalities in intestinal barrier function expressed by increased intestinal permeability have long been observed in various gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Imbalance of metabolizing junction proteins and mucosal inflammation contributes to intestinal hyperpermeability. Emerging studies exploring in vitro and in vivo model system demonstrate that Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase- (ROCK-) and myosin light chain kinase- (MLCK-) mediated pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal permeability...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Ludmila Khailova, Christine H Baird, Aubri A Rush, Christopher Barnes, Paul E Wischmeyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent clinical trials and in vivo models demonstrate probiotic administration can reduce occurrence and improve outcome of pneumonia and sepsis, both major clinical challenges worldwide. Potential probiotic benefits include maintenance of gut epithelial barrier homeostasis and prevention of downstream organ dysfunction due to systemic inflammation. However, mechanism(s) of probiotic-mediated protection against pneumonia remain poorly understood. This study evaluated potential mechanistic targets in the maintenance of gut barrier homeostasis following Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treatment in a mouse model of pneumonia...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Maurizio Koch
Microbes are mostly important for the digestion of food, the absorption of some micronutrients, and the production of vitamins. The microbiota stimulates lymphoid structures in the gastrointestinal mucosa and decrease pathogens by competing for nutrients and space. Bacterial translocation is defined as the escape of gut bacteria and their products through the intestinal mucosa to the outside of the intestine as portovenous or systemic circulation. This is induced by a leaky gut barrier. There is evidence for a role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Sarah A Ross, Jonathan A Lane, Mariarosaria Marotta, Devon Kavanaugh, Joseph Thomas Ryan, Lokesh Joshi, Rita M Hickey
Milk oligosaccharides have many associated bioactivities which can contribute to human health and offer protective properties to the host. Such bioactivities include anti-infective properties whereby oligosaccharides interact with bacterial cells and prevent adhesion to the host and subsequent colonization. Milk oligosaccharides have also been shown to alter the glycosylation of intestinal cells, leading to a reduction in pathogenic colonization. In addition, these sugars promote adhesion of commensal bacterial strains to host cells as well as possessing the ability to alter mucin expression in intestinal cells and improve barrier function...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Bernard Despax, Patrice Raynaud, Eric Houdeau, Muriel Thomas
Given the growing use of nanotechnology in many common consumer products, including foods, evaluation of the consequences of chronic exposure to nanoparticles in humans has become a major public health issue. The oral route of exposure has been poorly explored, despite the presence of a fraction of nano-sized particles in certain food additives/supplements and the incorporation of such particles into packaging in contact with foods. After their ingestion, these nanoparticles pass through the digestive tract, where they may undergo physicochemical transformations, with consequences for the luminal environment, before crossing the epithelial barrier to reach the systemic compartment...
October 14, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Valeriy A Poroyko, Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B Chang, David Gozal
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Seong-Hwan Park, Juil Kim, Dongwook Kim, Yuseok Moon
Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent mycotoxin worldwide, leads to economic losses for animal food production. Swine is a most sensitive domestic animal to DON due to rapid absorption and low detoxification by gut microbiota. Specifically, DON can severely damage pig intestinal tissue by disrupting the intestinal barrier and inducing inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effects of several mycotoxin detoxifiers including bentonites, yeast cell wall components, and mixture-typed detoxifier composed of mineral, microorganisms, and phytogenic substances on DON-insulted intestinal barrier and pro-inflammatory responses using in vitro porcine enterocyte culture model...
October 10, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Ester Arévalo Sureda, Björn Weström, Stefan G Pierzynowski, Olena Prykhodko
BACKGROUND: The intestinal barrier is immature in newborn mammals allowing for transfer of bioactive macromolecules, e.g. protecting antibodies, from mother's milk to the blood circulation and in neonatal rodents lasts until weaning. This passage involves the neonatal-Fc-receptor (FcRn) binding IgG in the proximal and highly endocytic vacuolated enterocytes in the distal immature small intestine (SI). Recent studies have suggested an involvement of the transcription factor B-lymphocyte-induced maturation-protein-1 (Blimp-1) in the regulation of SI maturation in mice...
2016: PloS One
B Dréno, E Araviiskaia, E Berardesca, G Gontijo, M Sanchez Viera, L F Xiang, R Martin, T Bieber
The skin is a complex barrier organ made of a symbiotic relationship between microbial communities and host tissue via complex signals provided by the innate and the adaptive immune systems. It is constantly exposed to various endogenous and exogenous factors which impact this balanced system potentially leading to inflammatory skin conditions comprising infections, allergies or autoimmune diseases. Unlike the gut and stool microbiome which has been studied and described for many years, investigations on the skin or scalp microbiome only started recently...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, GLP-1, GLP-2, and GIP exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels, and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
October 12, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
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