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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330471/slc26a3-dra-prevents-tnf-alpha-induced-barrier-dysfunction-and-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-acute-colitis
#1
Xiangming Ding, Dongxiao Li, Mengke Li, Han Wang, Qin He, Yunwu Wang, Hongbing Yu, Dean Tian, Qin Yu
SLC26A3 encodes a Cl-/HCO3- ion transporter that is also known as downregulated in adenoma (DRA) and is involved in HCO3-/mucus formation. The role of DRA in the epithelial barrier has not been previously established. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro mechanisms of DRA in the colon epithelial barrier. Immunofluorescence (IF) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) studies reveal that DRA binds directly to tight junction (TJ) proteins and affects the expression of TJ proteins in polarized Caco-2BBe cells...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328785/immune-responses-in-the-liver
#2
Paul Kubes, Craig Jenne
The liver is a key, frontline immune tissue. Ideally positioned to detect pathogens entering the body via the gut, the liver appears designed to detect, capture, and clear bacteria, viruses, and macromolecules. Containing the largest collection of phagocytic cells in the body, this organ is an important barrier between us and the outside world. Importantly, as portal blood also transports a large number of foreign but harmless molecules (e.g., food antigens), the liver's default immune status is anti-inflammatory or immunotolerant; however, under appropriate conditions, the liver is able to mount a rapid and robust immune response...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#3
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325027/pathogens-microbiome-and-the-host-emergence-of-the-ecological-koch-s-postulates
#4
Pascale Vonaesch, Mark Anderson, Philippe J Sansonetti
Even though tremendous progress has been made in the last decades to elucidate the mechanisms of intestinal homeostasis, dysbiosis and disease, we are only at the beginning of understanding the complexity of the gut ecosystem and the underlying interaction networks. We are also only starting to unravel the mechanisms that pathogens have evolved to overcome the barriers imposed by the microbiota and host to exploit the system to their own benefit. Recent work in these domains clearly indicates that the 'traditional Koch's postulate', which state that a given pathogen leads to a distinct disease, are not valid for all 'infectious' diseases, but that a more complete and complex interpretation of the Koch's postulate is needed in order to understand and explain them...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317503/er-stress-mobilization-of-death-associated-protein-kinase-1-dependent-xenophagy-counteracts-mitochondria-stress-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#5
Fernando Lopes, Åsa V Keita, Alpana Saxena, Jose Luis Reyes, Nicole Mancini, Ala Al Rajabi, Arthur Wang, Cristiane Baggio, Michael Dicay, Rob van Dalen, Younghee Ahn, Matheus Carneiro, Nathan Peters, Jong M Rho, Wallace MacNaughton, Stephan E Girardin, Humberto Jijon, Dana J Philpott, Johan D Söderholm, Derek M McKay
The gut microbiome contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which bacteria can be present within the epithelium. Epithelial barrier function is decreased in IBD, and dysfunctional epithelial mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been individually associated with IBD. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of ER and mitochondrial stresses significantly disrupt epithelial barrier function. Here, we treated human colonic biopsies, epithelial colonoids, and epithelial cells with an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol (DNP), with or without the ER stressor tunicamycin, and assessed epithelial barrier function by monitoring internalization and translocation of commensal bacteria...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317252/flavonoids-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract-local-and-systemic-effects
#6
REVIEW
P I Oteiza, C G Fraga, D A Mills, D H Taft
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of flavonoids, which ultimately define the health effects of these bioactives. These aspects are modulated by the interactions of flavonoids with other dietary components, environmental factors, the host, and the GI microbiota. Flavonoid can target molecules in the luminal content, the different GI tract cell types, and the microbiota. Importantly, flavonoid actions at the GI tract can have an impact systemically, e...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315980/probiotics-or-pro-healers-the-role-of-beneficial-bacteria-in-tissue-repair
#7
Jovanka Lukic, Vivien Chen, Ivana Strahinic, Jelena Begovic, Hadar Lev-Tov, Stephen C Davis, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Irena Pastar
Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms, known to exert numerous positive effects on human health, primarily in the battle against pathogens. Probiotics have been associated with improved healing of intestinal ulcers, and healing of infected cutaneous wounds. This manuscript reviews the latest findings on probiotics related to their pro-healing properties on gut epithelium and skin. Proven mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria exert their beneficial effects include direct killing of pathogens, competitive displacement of pathogenic bacteria, reinforcement of epithelial barrier, induction of fibroblasts and epithelial cells' migration and function...
January 8, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314490/a-mixture-of-lactobacillus-species-isolated-from-traditional-fermented-foods-promote-recovery-from-antibiotic-induced-intestinal-disruption-in-mice
#8
Ying Shi, Xi Zhao, Zhao Jianxin, Zhang Hao, Qixiao Zhai, Arjan Narbad, Wei Chen
AIMS: This study evaluated the antibiotic-induced changes in microbial ecology, intestinal dysbiosis and low-grade inflammation; and the combined effect of four different Lactobacillus species on recovery of microbiota composition and improvement of gut barrier function in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Administration of the antibiotic ampicillin for 2 weeks decreased microbial community diversity, induced caecum tumefaction and increased gut permeability in mice. Application of a probiotic cocktail of four Lactobacillus species (JUP-Y4) modulated the microbiota community structure and promoted the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314441/alterations-in-the-gut-barrier-and-involvement-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-murine-postoperative-ileus
#9
S-S Lin, R-Q Zhang, L Shen, X-J Xu, K Li, A-V Bazhin, J Fichna, Y-Y Li
BACKGROUND: The changes in the gut barrier (GB) and associated mechanisms in postoperative ileus (POI) are still unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in inflammation, which may cause GB dysfunction and POI. Here, the roles of the GB in POI in relation to TLR4-dependent signaling pathways were explored. METHODS: POI was induced by small bowel manipulation in wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (TLR4-/-) mice. Twenty-four hours after manipulation, indices of gastrointestinal (GI) transit, GB structure and function, inflammation, and related signaling pathways were analyzed...
January 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313885/interferon-%C3%AE-treatment-increases-endocannabinoid-and-related-n-acylethanolamine-levels-in-t84-human-colon-carcinoma-cells
#10
Mireille Alhouayek, Linda Rankin, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Christopher J Fowler
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are involved in regulation of gut function, but relatively little is known as to whether inflammatory cytokines such as interferon γ (IFNγ) affect their levels. We have investigated this in vitro using T84 colon cancer cells, which when cultured in monolayers differentiate to form adult colonic crypt-like cells with excellent permeability barrier properties. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: NAE levels were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis...
January 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313275/microbiome-immunomodulation-and-the-neuronal-system
#11
REVIEW
Eric Marietta, Irina Horwath, Veena Taneja
Vertebrates harbor both symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria on the body and various mucosal surfaces. Of these surfaces, the intestine has the most diverse composition. This composition is dependent upon various environmental and genetic factors, with diet exerting the maximum influence. Significant roles of the intestinal bacteria are to stimulate the development of a competent mucosal immune system and to maintain tolerance within the intestine. One manner in which this is achieved is by the establishment of epithelial integrity by microbiota found in healthy individuals (healthy microbiota); however, in the case of a disrupted intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which can be caused by various conditions, the epithelial integrity is compromised...
January 8, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311138/bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-differentially-regulate-intestinal-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a1-partially-through-tlr4-mapk-pi3k-pathway
#12
Xuejiao Gao, Ting Li, Bin Wei, Zhixiang Yan, Nan Hu, Yanjuan Huang, Beilei Han, Tai-Seng Wai, Wei Yang, Ru Yan
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) constitutes an important part of intestinal epithelial barrier and catalyzes glucuronidation of many endogenous compounds and drugs. Down-regulation of UGT1A1 in inflammation has been reported, while the association with gut dysbiosis is poorly defined. This study verified the involvement of gut microbiota in intestinal UGT1A1 regulation using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rat colitis model plus fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Generally, both DSS induction and colitis-to-normal FMT suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of UGT1A1 and nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NRs) in colon, but enhanced mRNA and decreased protein of rUGT1A1/rNRs in small intestine...
January 8, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306937/the-effects-of-stress-and-meditation-on-the-immune-system-human-microbiota-and-epigenetics
#13
Ayman Mukerji Househam, Christine Tara Peterson, Deepak Chopra
Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290442/effects-of-heat-stress-and-dietary-zinc-source-on-performance-and-mammary-epithelial-integrity-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#14
X Weng, A P A Monteiro, J Guo, C Li, R M Orellana, T N Marins, J K Bernard, D J Tomlinson, J M DeFrain, S E Wohlgemuth, S Tao
Dietary Zn and heat stress alter gut integrity in monogastric animals. However, effects of Zn on mammary epithelial integrity in heat-stressed lactating dairy cows have not been studied. Multiparous lactating Holstein cows (n = 72) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to study the effects of environment and Zn source on performance and mammary epithelial integrity. Treatments included 2 environments [cooled (CL) or not cooled (NC)] and 2 Zn sources [75 mg/kg of supplemental Zn as Zn hydroxychloride (IOZ) or 35 mg/kg of Zn hydroxychloride + 40 mg/kg of Zn-Met complex (ZMC)]...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290360/trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-harmful-protective-or-diagnostic-marker-in-lifestyle-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Artur Nowiński, Marcin Ufnal
Diet has been considered a general health determinant for many years. Recent research shows a connection between gut microbiota composition that is shaped by our diet and lifestyle diseases. Several studies point to a positive correlation between elevated plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut bacteria metabolite, and an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Therefore, it has been suggested that TMAO is a link between the diet, gut microbiota, and illness. Emerging experimental and clinical evidence shows that TMAO may be involved in the etiology of hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and renal failure...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290146/multifunctional-role-of-35-kilodalton-hyaluronan-in-promoting-defense-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#16
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Kourtney P Nickerson, Aaron C Petrey, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against orally acquired pathogens. Dysregulation of this protective barrier is a primary driver of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis) and also infant gastrointestinal infections. Previously, our lab reported that hyaluronan (HA) isolated from human milk induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin in vivo and protects against Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated that commercially available 35 kDa size HA induces the expression of β-defensin, upregulates the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and attenuates murine Citrobacter rodentium infection in vivo...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277971/intake-of-fish-oil-specifically-modulates-colonic-muc2-expression-in-middle-aged-rats-by-suppressing-the-glycosylation-process
#17
Yafang Ma, Guanghong Zhou, Yingqiu Li, Yingying Zhu, Xiaobo Yu, Fan Zhao, He Li, Xinglian Xu, Chunbao Li
SCOPE: Dietary fats have been shown to affect gut microbiota composition and aging gene expression of middle-aged rats at a normal dose, but little is known about such an effect on gut barrier. In this study, the changes in colonic Muc2 expression were investigated and the underlying mechanism was also proposed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-six middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of diets containing soybean oil, lard or fish oil (4%). The rats were fed for 5 weeks and then goblet cells, Muc2 expression and inflammatory cytokines in the colon were measured...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276171/bifidobacteria-or-fiber-protects-against-diet-induced-microbiota-mediated-colonic-mucus-deterioration
#18
Bjoern O Schroeder, George M H Birchenough, Marcus Ståhlman, Liisa Arike, Malin E V Johansson, Gunnar C Hansson, Fredrik Bäckhed
Diet strongly affects gut microbiota composition, and gut bacteria can influence the colonic mucus layer, a physical barrier that separates trillions of gut bacteria from the host. However, the interplay between a Western style diet (WSD), gut microbiota composition, and the intestinal mucus layer is less clear. Here we show that mice fed a WSD have an altered colonic microbiota composition that causes increased penetrability and a reduced growth rate of the inner mucus layer. Both barrier defects can be prevented by transplanting microbiota from chow-fed mice...
December 16, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276042/intestinal-tight-junctions-are-severely-altered-in-nec-preterm-neonates
#19
Amir Bein, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, Dan Arbell, Betty Schwartz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder of the intestine endangering the health and survival of preterm infants. It is well established that the gut barrier is severely damaged in NEC patients, nonetheless an in depth investigation of modifications at the transcriptional and translational levels of tight junction genes and proteins during NEC are still missing. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the expression of tight junctions and other associated proteins during NEC and determine their correlation to the disease severity...
December 7, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272976/recent-advancements-in-nanoparticle-based-drug-delivery-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#20
Rahul Mittal, Amit P Patel, Vasanti M Jhaveri, Sae-In Samantha Kay, Luca H Debs, James M Parrish, Debbie R Pan, Desiree Nguyen, Jeenu Mittal, Rahul Dev Jayant
The emergent field of nanoparticles has presented a wealth of opportunities for improving the treatment of human diseases. Recent advances have allowed for promising developments in drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Modified delivery systems allow improved drug delivery over traditional pH, microbe, or receptor dependent models, while antibody association allows for more advanced imaging modalities. Nanoparticles have potential clinical application in the field of gastroenterology as they offer several advantages compared to the conventional treatment systems including target drug delivery, enhanced treatment efficacy, and reduced side effects...
December 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
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