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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#1
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811479/membrane-free-culture-and-real-time-barrier-integrity-assessment-of-perfused-intestinal-epithelium-tubes
#2
Sebastiaan J Trietsch, Elena Naumovska, Dorota Kurek, Meily C Setyawati, Marianne K Vormann, Karlijn J Wilschut, Henriëtte L Lanz, Arnaud Nicolas, Chee Ping Ng, Jos Joore, Stefan Kustermann, Adrian Roth, Thomas Hankemeier, Annie Moisan, Paul Vulto
In vitro models that better reflect in vivo epithelial barrier (patho-)physiology are urgently required to predict adverse drug effects. Here we introduce extracellular matrix-supported intestinal tubules in perfused microfluidic devices, exhibiting tissue polarization and transporter expression. Forty leak-tight tubules are cultured in parallel on a single plate and their response to pharmacological stimuli is recorded over 125 h using automated imaging techniques. A study comprising 357 gut tubes is performed, of which 93% are leak tight before exposure...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811235/sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-s100-fca-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-tight-junction-and-toll-like-receptor-signaling-pathway
#3
Jin-Lu Wu, Jia-Yun Zou, En-De Hu, Da-Zhi Chen, Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ming-Fang Zhao, Yong-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent investigation revealed that dysbiosis in the gut flora and disruption of permeability of intestinal barrier are possible causes for the development of autoimmune hepatitis. Supplementation of sodium butyrate has been suggested to protect liver injury from disrupted permeability of small intestine. In current study, we employed S100/Freund's complete adjuvant induced autoimmune hepatitis to investigate therapeutic efficacy of sodium butyrate and its mechanism in the liver and upper small intestine...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803860/intestinal-permeability-changes-systemic-endotoxemia-inflammatory-serum-markers-and-sepsis-after-whipple-s-operation-for-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-head
#4
Mario Schietroma, Beatrice Pessia, Francesco Carlei, Gianfranco Amicucci
POURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate the relationship between failure of gut barrier function, inflammatory markers and septic complications after pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY: 44 patients were enrolled in this prospective observational clinical study and underwent curative open pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas. All patients underwent assessment of intestinal permeability using the lactulose/manitol excretions ratios (L/M ratio), endotoxemia, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, and elastase levels before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 3 and 7...
July 29, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800679/the-short-chain-fatty-acid-sodium-butyrate-exerts-protective-effects-through-ameliorating-blood-milk-barrier-disruption-and-modulating-inflammatory-response-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-mastitis-model
#5
Jing-Jing Wang, Zheng-Kai Wei, Xu Zhang, Ya-Nan Wang, Yun-He Fu, Zheng-Tao Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are fermentation end products produced by the gut bacteria,which have been shown to ameliorate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism involved remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of sodium butyrate (SB) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis model. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Effects of increasing doses of SB on blood-milk barrier function and inflammation are studied in LPS-induced mastitis...
August 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795875/animal-models-for-studying-epithelial-barriers-in-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer
#6
Tiaosi Xing, Rolando Camacho Salazar, Yan-Hua Chen
The intestinal epithelial cells line the luminal surface of the entire gastrointestinal tract which is crucial for the absorption of nutrients and prevention of pathogens entering from the external environment. The epithelial barrier plays an important role in organ development, disease pathogenesis, and aging. The major component of an epithelial barrier is the single columnar epithelium and tight junctions. Tight junctions are located at the most apical region of the junctional complex and contain many integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, the claudin family, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790872/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-current-insights
#7
REVIEW
Sarah W Kinsinger
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal (GI) condition associated with significant health care utilization and quality-of-life impairment. Latest research indicates that the brain-gut axis plays a key role in the disorder, and the presence of psychological factors and central processing deficits contribute to symptom severity and disability. Psychological therapies as a whole have demonstrated good efficacy in reducing the severity of IBS symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been tested most rigorously in multiple randomized controlled trials and consistently demonstrates significant and durable effects on IBS symptoms and quality of life...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783170/loss-of-claudin-3-expression-induces-il6-gp130-stat3-signaling-to-promote-colon-cancer-malignancy-by-hyperactivating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#8
R Ahmad, B Kumar, Z Chen, X Chen, D Müller, S M Lele, M K Washington, S K Batra, P Dhawan, A B Singh
The hyperactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts as a switch to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promote colorectal cancer. However, due to its essential role in gut homeostasis, therapeutic targeting of this pathway has proven challenging. Additionally, IL-6/Stat-3 signaling, activated by microbial translocation through the dysregulated mucosal barrier in colon adenomas, facilitates the adenoma to adenocarcinomas transition. However, inter-dependence between these signaling pathways and key mucosal barrier components in regulating colon tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782508/circulating-and-tissue-resident-cd4-t-cells-with-reactivity-to-intestinal-microbiota-are-abundant-in-healthy-individuals-and-function-is-altered-during-inflammation
#9
Ahmed N Hegazy, Nathaniel R West, Michael J T Stubbington, Emily Wendt, Kim I M Suijker, Angeliki Datsi, Sebastien This, Camille Danne, Suzanne Campion, Sylvia H Duncan, Benjamin M J Owens, Holm H Uhlig, Andrew McMichael, Andreas Bergthaler, Sarah A Teichmann, Satish Keshav, Fiona Powrie
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interactions between commensal microbes and the immune system are tightly regulated and maintain intestinal homeostasis, but little is known about these interactions in humans. We investigated responses of human CD4(+) T cells to the intestinal microbiota. We measured the abundance of T cells in circulation and intestinal tissues that respond to intestinal microbes and determined their clonal diversity. We also assessed their functional phenotypes and effects on intestinal resident cell populations, and studied alterations in microbe-reactive T cells in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation...
August 3, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782046/circulating-loxl2-levels-reflect-severity-of-intestinal-fibrosis-and-galt-cd4-t-lymphocyte-depletion-in-treated-hiv-infection
#10
Sophie Seang, Anoma Somasunderam, Maitreyee Nigalye, Ma Somsouk, Timoty W Schacker, Joyce L Sanchez, Peter W Hunt, Netanya S Utay, Jordan E Lake
BACKGROUND: Incomplete immune reconstitution may occur despite successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) fibrosis may contribute via local CD4(+) T lymphocyte depletion, intestinal barrier disruption, microbial translocation, and immune activation. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, we measured circulating fibrosis biomarker levels on cryopreserved plasma from adult HIV-infected (HIV+) SCOPE study participants on suppressive ART who also had fibrosis quantification on recto-sigmoid biopsies...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781746/recent-advances-in-understanding-listeria-monocytogenes-infection-the-importance-of-subcellular-and-physiological-context
#11
REVIEW
Daryl J V David, Pascale Cossart
The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes ( Lm) is the causative agent of listeriosis, a rare but fatal foodborne disease. During infection, Lm can traverse several host barriers and enter the cytosol of a variety of cell types. Thus, consideration of the extracellular and intracellular niches of Lm is critical for understanding the infection process. Here, we review advances in our understanding of Lm infection and highlight how the interactions between the host and the pathogen are context dependent. We discuss discoveries of how Lm senses entry into the host cell cytosol...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769935/deciphering-the-complex-signaling-systems-that-regulate-intestinal-epithelial-cell-death-processes-and-shedding
#12
REVIEW
Angela M Patterson, Alastair J M Watson
Intestinal epithelial cells play a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis. Shedding of intestinal cells in a controlled manner is critical to maintenance of barrier function. Barrier function is maintained during this shedding process by a redistribution of tight junctional proteins to facilitate closure of the gap left by the shedding cell. However, despite the obvious importance of epithelial cell shedding to gut health, a central question is how the extrusion of epithelial cells is achieved, enabling barrier integrity to be maintained in the healthy gut and restored during inflammation remains largely unanswered...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768258/septic-complications-after-resection-for-middle-or-low-rectal-cancer-role-of-gut-barrier-function-and-inflammatory-serum-markers
#13
Mario Schietroma, Beatrice Pessia, Sara Colozzi, Francesco Carlei, Marco Clementi, Gianfranco Amicucci, Stefano Guadagni
BACKGROUND: The focus of this study was to understand the relationship between the failure of gut barrier function, inflammatory markers and septic complications after resection for extraperitoneal rectal cancer. METHODS: One hundred seven patients were enrolled into this prospective observational study and underwent open colorectal resection for extraperitoneal cancer. All patients underwent an assessment of intestinal permeability (L/M ratio), endotoxemia, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and elastase levels before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7...
August 3, 2017: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766554/campylobacter-jejuni-impairs-sodium-transport-and-epithelial-barrier-function-via-cytokine-release-in-human-colon
#15
R Bücker, S M Krug, V Moos, C Bojarski, M R Schweiger, M Kerick, A Fromm, S Janßen, M Fromm, N A Hering, B Siegmund, T Schneider, C Barmeyer, J D Schulzke
Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of foodborne bacterial enteritis worldwide. Patients present with diarrhea and immune responses lead to complications like arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome. Although studies exist in animal and cell models, we aimed at a functional and structural characterization of intestinal dysfunction and the involved regulatory mechanisms in human colon. First, in patients' colonic biopsies, sodium malabsorption was identified as an important diarrheal mechanism resulting from hampered epithelial ion transport via impaired epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β- and γ-subunit...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763062/pathogen-mediated-nmda-receptor-autoimmunity-and-cellular-barrier-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#16
G Kannan, K L Gressitt, S Yang, C R Stallings, E Katsafanas, L A Schweinfurth, C L G Savage, M B Adamos, K M Sweeney, A E Origoni, S Khushalani, S Bahn, F M Leweke, F B Dickerson, R H Yolken, M V Pletnikov, E G Severance
Autoantibodies that bind the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) may underlie glutamate receptor hypofunction and related cognitive impairment found in schizophrenia. Exposure to neurotropic pathogens can foster an autoimmune-prone environment and drive systemic inflammation leading to endothelial barrier defects. In mouse model cohorts, we demonstrate that infection with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, caused sustained elevations of IgG class antibodies to the NMDAR in conjunction with compromised blood-gut and blood-brain barriers...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761367/protein-losing-enteropathy-comprehensive-review-of-the-mechanistic-association-with-clinical-and-subclinical-disease-states
#17
REVIEW
David G Levitt, Michael D Levitt
Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) has been associated with more than 60 different conditions, including nearly all gastrointestinal diseases (Crohn's disease, celiac, Whipple's, intestinal infections, and so on) and a large number of non-gut conditions (cardiac and liver disease, lupus, sarcoidosis, and so on). This review presents the first attempt to quantitatively understand the magnitude of the PLE in relation to the associated pathology for three different disease categories: 1) increased lymphatic pressure (e...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761156/aggravation-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-by-orally-administered-porphyromonas-gingivalis-through-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-gut-immune-system
#18
Keisuke Sato, Naoki Takahashi, Tamotsu Kato, Yumi Matsuda, Mai Yokoji, Miki Yamada, Takako Nakajima, Naoki Kondo, Naoto Endo, Reiko Yamamoto, Yuichiro Noiri, Hiroshi Ohno, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
Porhyromonas gingivalis, a causative bacterium of periodontitis, is implicated in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mainly because of expressing peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) that generates RA-related autoantigens. However, compared with other periodontopathic bacteria, the precise role of P. gingivalis in RA is largely unknown. We found that orally administered P. gingivalis changed the gut microbiome with concomitant elevation of serum endotoxin and inflammatory markers, and impairment of the gut barrier function...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761060/administration-of-lactobacillus-salivarius-li01-or-pediococcus-pentosaceus-li05-prevents-ccl4-induced-liver-cirrhosis-by-protecting-the-intestinal-barrier-in-rats
#19
Ding Shi, Longxian Lv, Daiqiong Fang, Wenrui Wu, Chenxia Hu, Lichen Xu, Yanfei Chen, Jing Guo, Xinjun Hu, Ang Li, Feifei Guo, Jianzhong Ye, Yating Li, Dewi Andayani, Lanjuan Li
Alterations in the gut microbiome have been reported in liver cirrhosis, and probiotic interventions are considered a potential treatment strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01, Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI and Bacillus licheniformis Zhengchangsheng on CCl4-induced cirrhotic rats. Only administration of LI01 or LI05 prevented liver fibrosis and down-regulated the hepatic expression of profibrogenic genes...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751453/maternal-modifiers-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota-metabolic-consequences
#20
Christopher M Mulligan, Jacob E Friedman
Transmission of metabolic diseases from mother to child is multifactorial and includes genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. Evidence in rodents, humans and non-human primates support the scientific premise that exposure to maternal obesity or high-fat diet during pregnancy creates a long-lasting metabolic signature on the infant innate immune system and the juvenile microbiota which predisposes the offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. In neonates, gastrointestinal microbes introduced through the mother are noted for their ability to serve as direct inducers/regulators of the infant immune system...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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