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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531784/gut-microbiota-mediated-benefits-of-barley-kernel-products-on-metabolism-gut-hormones-and-inflammatory-markers-as-affected-by-co-ingestion-of-commercially-available-probiotics-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#1
Anne Nilsson, Elin Johansson-Boll, Jonna Sandberg, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barley kernel based products have been shown to induce benefits on blood glucose regulation, cardio-metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones in a time perspective of 11-16 h after intake. The mechanisms have been assigned to gut fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the modulatory effects of barley on markers of metabolic- and appetite regulation are affected by a dietary background including a mixture of commercially available probiotics...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530714/cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-arise-from-two-main-thymic-precursors
#2
Roland Ruscher, Rebecca L Kummer, You Jeong Lee, Stephen C Jameson, Kristin A Hogquist
TCRαβ(+)CD4(-)CD8α(+)CD8β(-) intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (CD8αα IELs) are an abundant population of thymus-derived T cells that protect the gut barrier surface. We sought to better define the thymic IEL precursor (IELp) through analysis of its maturation, localization and emigration. We defined two precursor populations among TCRβ(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes by dependence on the kinase TAK1 and rigorous lineage-exclusion criteria. Those IELp populations included a nascent PD-1(+) population and a T-bet(+) population that accumulated with age...
May 22, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527800/from-pre-to-postweaning-transformation-of-the-young-calf-s-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
Sarah J Meale, Frederique Chaucheyras-Durand, Harma Berends, Le Luo Guan, Michael A Steele
The ruminant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) faces the challenge of protecting the host from luminal contents and pathogens, while supporting the absorption and metabolism of nutrients for growth and maintenance. The GIT of the calf in early life undergoes some of the most rapid microbial and structural changes documented in nature, and these adaptations in GIT function make the young calf susceptible to GIT diseases and disorders. Despite these challenges, the calf's GIT has a certain degree of plasticity and can sense nutrient supply and respond to bioactive ingredients...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526946/evolutionary-ecology-of-multitrophic-interactions-between-plants-insect-herbivores-and-entomopathogens
#4
Ikkei Shikano
Plants play an important role in the interactions between insect herbivores and their pathogens. Since the seminal review by Cory and Hoover (2006) on plant-mediated effects on insect-pathogen interactions, considerable progress has been made in understanding the complexity of these tritrophic interactions. Increasing interest in the areas of nutritional and ecological immunology over the last decade have revealed that plant primary and secondary metabolites can influence the outcomes of insect-pathogen interactions by altering insect immune functioning and physical barriers to pathogen entry...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#5
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522995/dysbiosis-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-decreased-antimicrobial-peptide-level-in-paneth-cells-during-hypertriglyceridemia-related-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-in-rats
#7
Chunlan Huang, Jing Chen, Jingjing Wang, Hui Zhou, Yingying Lu, Lihong Lou, Junyuan Zheng, Ling Tian, Xingpeng Wang, Zhongwei Cao, Yue Zeng
Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) aggravates the course of acute pancreatitis (AP). Intestinal barrier dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of AP during which dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota contributes to the dysfunction in intestinal barrier. However, few studies focus on the changes in intestine during HTG-related acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). Here, we investigated the changes in intestinal microbiota and Paneth cell antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in HTG-related ANP (HANP) in rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet to induce HTG and ANP was induced by retrograde injection of 3...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521317/mechanisms-of-tolerance-induction
#8
Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn, Pantipa Chatchatee
Food allergy results from failure in oral tolerance that usually occurs in infancy or early childhood. Exposure to peanut and hen's egg via the inflamed and disrupted epithelial barrier in children with severe atopic dermatitis is a risk factor for the development of allergy to these foods and supports the hypothesis that epicutaneous exposure in the absence of oral feeding is an important pathway of allergic IgE sensitization in infants. In recent years, the collective evidence has pointed toward the protective effect of an early feeding with peanut and egg in children with eczema, taking advantage of the pathways underlying oral tolerance to counteract epicutaneous exposure...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520994/gut-microbiota-mediated-protection-against-diarrheal-infections
#9
Stefanie L Vogt, B Brett Finlay
Background: The mammalian gut microbiota is a highly abundant and diverse microbial community that resides in the gastrointestinal tract. One major benefit that the gut microbiota provides to its host is colonization resistance-the ability to prevent colonization by foreign microbes, including diarrheal pathogens such as Clostridium difficile , Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . Methods: We conducted a literature review of the effects of the gut microbiota on infection by diarrheal pathogens...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520752/antimicrobial-peptides-extend-lifespan-in-drosophila
#10
Gerrit Loch, Ingo Zinke, Tetsushi Mori, Pilar Carrera, Jonas Schroer, Haruko Takeyama, Michael Hoch
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important defense molecules of the innate immune system. High levels of AMPs are induced in response to infections to fight pathogens, whereas moderate levels induced by metabolic stress are thought to shape commensal microbial communities at barrier tissues. We expressed single AMPs in adult flies either ubiquitously or in the gut by using the inducible GeneSwitch system to tightly regulate AMP expression. We found that activation of single AMPs, including Drosocin, resulted in a significant extension of Drosophila lifespan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520587/complementary-roles-of-nod2-in-hematopoietic-and-nonhematopoietic-cells-in-preventing-gut-barrier-dysfunction-dependent-on-mlck-activity
#11
Ziad Al Nabhani, Nicolas Montcuquet, Maryline Roy, Monique Dussaillant, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Frédérick Barreau
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) pathogenesis is multifactorial involving genetic and environmental factors. Loss of function mutations in the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene are the main genetic risk factor for CD. Like patients with CD, Nod2 mice are characterized by an enhanced Th1 immune response and a defective mucosal barrier function evidenced by increased intestinal permeability. We previously showed that the latter is related to hematopoietic Nod2 deficiency. Our aim was to explore the mechanisms by which Nod2 expressed in the hematopoietic and in the nonhematopoietic compartments interplay to control epithelial paracellular permeability...
May 16, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511289/human-enthesis-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells
#12
Richard J Cuthbert, Evangelos M Fragkakis, Robert Dunsmuir, Zhi Li, Mark Coles, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Peter Giannoudis, Elena Jones, Yasser M El-Sherbiny, Dennis McGonagle
Objective Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) play a pivotal role in barrier tissues such as the gut and the skin, two important sites of disease in spondyloarthropathy (SpA). It was investigated whether normal and injured human enthesis, the key target tissue in early SpA, harboured ILC3s in entheseal soft tissue (EST) and adjacent peri-entheseal bone (PEB). Methods Interspinous ligament and spinous process bone was collected from donors with no systemic inflammatory disease, enzymatically digested and immunophenotyped...
May 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506921/decrease-of-blood-anti-%C3%AE-1-3-galactose-abs-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-ms-and-clinically-isolated-syndrome-cis-patients
#13
L Le Berre, J Rousse, P-A Gourraud, B-M Imbert-Marcille, A Salama, G Evanno, G Semana, A Nicot, E Dugast, P Guérif, C Adjaoud, T Freour, S Brouard, F Agbalika, R Marignier, D Brassat, D-A Laplaud, E Drouet, V Van Pesch, J-P Soulillou
The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains elusive. Among the possible causes, the increase of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies during EBV primo-infection of Infectious mononucleosis (IMN) may damage the integrity of the blood-brain barrier facilitating the transfer of EBV-infected B cells and anti-EBV T cell clones in the brain. We investigated the change in titers of anti-Neu5Gc and anti-α1,3 Galactose antibodies in 49 IMN, in 76 MS, and 73 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients, as well as age/gender-matched healthy individuals...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505204/compartment-specific-distribution-of-human-intestinal-innate-lymphoid-cells-is-altered-in-hiv-patients-under-effective-therapy
#14
Benjamin Krämer, Felix Goeser, Philipp Lutz, Andreas Glässner, Christoph Boesecke, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Dominik Kaczmarek, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Vittorio Branchi, Steffen Manekeller, Robert Hüneburg, Tobias van Bremen, Tobias Weismüller, Christian P Strassburg, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Ulrich Spengler, Jacob Nattermann
Innate lymphocyte cells (ILCs), a novel family of innate immune cells are considered to function as key orchestrators of immune defences at mucosal surfaces and to be crucial for maintaining an intact intestinal barrier. Accordingly, first data suggest depletion of ILCs to be involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated damage of the intestinal mucosa and subsequent microbial translocation. However, although ILCs are preferentially localized at mucosal surfaces, only little is known regarding distribution and function of ILCs in the human gastrointestinal tract...
May 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504710/a1-beta-casein-milk-protein-and-other-environmental-pre-disposing-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
J S J Chia, J L McRae, S Kukuljan, K Woodford, R B Elliott, B Swinburn, K M Dwyer
Globally type 1 diabetes incidence is increasing. It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is influenced by environmental factors in people with specific human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. We propose that a complex interplay between dietary triggers, permissive gut factors and potentially other influencing factors underpins disease progression. We present evidence that A1 β-casein cows' milk protein is a primary causal trigger of type 1 diabetes in individuals with genetic risk factors...
May 15, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500047/self-reactive-vh4-34-expressing-igg-b-cells-recognize-commensal-bacteria
#16
Jean-Nicolas Schickel, Salomé Glauzy, Yen-Shing Ng, Nicolas Chamberlain, Christopher Massad, Isabelle Isnardi, Nathan Katz, Gulbu Uzel, Steven M Holland, Capucine Picard, Anne Puel, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Eric Meffre
The germline immunoglobulin (Ig) variable heavy chain 4-34 (VH4-34) gene segment encodes in humans intrinsically self-reactive antibodies that recognize I/i carbohydrates expressed by erythrocytes with a specific motif in their framework region 1 (FWR1). VH4-34-expressing clones are common in the naive B cell repertoire but are rarely found in IgG memory B cells from healthy individuals. In contrast, CD27(+)IgG(+) B cells from patients genetically deficient for IRAK4 or MYD88, which mediate the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except TLR3, contained VH4-34-expressing clones and showed decreased somatic hypermutation frequencies...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498296/interleukin-22-prevents-microbial-dysbiosis-and-promotes-intestinal-barrier-regeneration-following-acute-injury
#17
Adam M Hammer, Niya L Morris, Abigail R Cannon, Omair M Khan, Robin C Gagnon, Nellie V Movtchan, Ilse van Langeveld, Xiaoling Li, Bin Gao, Mashkoor A Choudhry
Intestine barrier disruption and bacterial translocation can contribute to sepsis and multiple organ failure- leading causes of mortality in burn-injured patients. Additionally, findings suggest ethanol (alcohol) intoxication at the time of injury worsens symptoms associated with burn injury. We have previously shown that interleukin-22 (IL-22) protects from intestinal leakiness and prevents overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria following ethanol and burn injury, but how IL-22 mediates these effects has not been established...
May 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485323/rhubarb-monomers-protect-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-in-sepsis-via-junction-proteins
#18
Lyu Wang, Yun-Liang Cui, Zhe Zhang, Zhao-Fen Lin, De-Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: Leakage of the intestinal mucosal barrier may cause translocation of bacteria, then leading to multiorgan failure. This study hypothesized that rhubarb monomers might protect the gut mucosal barrier in sepsis through junction proteins. METHODS: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 230-250 g) under anesthesia and sedation were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After surgical preparation, rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6 or 8 each group): sham group (Group A: normal saline gavage); sepsis group (Group B: normal saline gavage); Group C (intraperitoneally, dexamethasone 0...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484432/rice-bran-and-probiotics-alter-the-porcine-large-intestine-and-serum-metabolomes-for-protection-against-human-rotavirus-diarrhea
#19
Nora Jean Nealon, Lijuan Yuan, Xingdong Yang, Elizabeth P Ryan
Human rotavirus (HRV) is a leading cause of severe childhood diarrhea, and there is limited vaccine efficacy in the developing world. Neonatal gnotobiotic pigs consuming a prophylactic synbiotic combination of probiotics and rice bran (Pro+RB) did not exhibit HRV diarrhea after challenge. Multiple immune, gut barrier protective, and anti-diarrheal mechanisms contributed to the prophylactic efficacy of Pro+RB when compared to probiotics (Pro) alone. In order to understand the molecular signature associated with diarrheal protection by Pro+RB, a global non-targeted metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the large intestinal contents and serum of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482064/gut-liver-axis-and-sterile-signals-in-the-development-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#20
Gyongyi Szabo, Jan Petrasek
Background: Innate immunity plays a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced liver inflammation. Understanding the inter-relationship of signals from within and outside of the liver that trigger liver inflammation is pivotal for development of novel therapeutic targets of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Aim: The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in the field of alcohol-induced liver inflammation. Methods: A detailed literature review was performed using the PubMed database published between January 1980 and December 2016...
May 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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