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gut barrier

Ottavia Romoli, Mathilde Gendrin
The microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes interferes with mosquito infection by Plasmodium and influences mosquito fitness, therefore affecting vectorial capacity. This natural barrier to malaria transmission has been regarded with growing interest in the last 20 years, as it may be a source of new transmission-blocking strategies. The last decade has seen tremendous progress in the functional characterisation of the tripartite interactions between the mosquito, its microbiota and Plasmodium parasites. In this review, we provide insights into the effects of the mosquito microbiota on Plasmodium infection and on mosquito physiology, and on how these aspects together influence vectorial capacity...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Luc Van Kaer, Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez
The intestine is continuously exposed to commensal microorganisms, food, and environmental agents and also serves as a major portal of entry for many pathogens. A critical defense mechanism against microbial invasion in the intestine is the single layer of epithelial cells that separates the gut lumen from the underlying tissues. The barrier function of the intestinal epithelium is supported by cells and soluble factors of the intestinal immune system. Chief among them are intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs), which are embedded in the intestinal epithelium and represent one of the single largest populations of lymphocytes in the body...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
John-Peter Ganda Mall, Lina Östlund-Lagerström, Carl Mårten Lindqvist, Samal Algilani, Dara Rasoal, Dirk Repsilber, Robert J Brummer, Åsa V Keita, Ida Schoultz
BACKGROUND: Despite the substantial number of older adults suffering from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms little is known regarding the character of these complaints and whether they are associated with an altered intestinal barrier function and psychological distress. Our aim was to explore the relationship between self-reported gut health, intestinal permeability and psychological distress among older adults. METHODS: Three study populations were included: 1) older adults with GI symptoms (n = 24), 2) a group of older adults representing the general elderly population in Sweden (n = 22) and 3) senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy ageing (n = 27)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Zhijuan Qiu, Brian S Sheridan
The intestinal immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract by generating tolerant responses to dietary antigens and commensal bacteria while mounting effective immune responses to enteropathogenic microbes. In addition, it has become clear that local intestinal immunity has a profound impact on distant and systemic immunity. Therefore, it is important to study how an intestinal immune response is induced and what the immunologic outcome of the response is...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xiying Wu, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Yuheng Luo, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Jun He
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the effects of different fiber fractions on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal development in a porcine model. METHODS: Blood and tissue samples were collected from thirty-two weaned pigs fed with control diet (CON) or diet containing 5 % cellulose (CEL), xylan (XYL) or β-glucan (GLU). RESULTS: This reserch showed that GLU supplementation decreased the growth performance of pigs (P <0...
February 6, 2018: Nutrition
Shenglin Fang, Zhao Zhuo, Xiaonan Yu, Haichao Wang, Jie Feng
The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of excess iron in a liquid iron preparation (especially on intestinal barrier function) and the possible etiology of side effects or diseases caused by the excess iron. In study 1, forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (4-5 wk old) were subjected to oral gavage with 1 ml vehicle (0.01 mol/L HCl) or 1 ml liquid iron preparation containing 8 mg, 16 mg or 24 mg of iron for 30 d. Iron status, oxidative stress, histology (H&E staining), ultrastructure (electron microscopy) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) in the intestines and liver were assessed...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
V Jung-Schroers, M Adamek, S Harris, H Syakuri, A Jung, I Irnazarow, D Steinhagen
The effect of dietary β-glucan on the bacterial community in the gut of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined after oral application of Aeromonas hydrophila. Carp received either feed supplemented with 1% MacroGard® , a β-1,3/1,6-glucan, or a β-glucan-free diet. Fourteen days after feeding, half of the carp from each group were intubated with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of a pathogenic strain of A. hydrophila. Gut samples were taken 12 hr to 7 days after application and analysed using microbiological and molecular biological techniques (NGS, RT-PCR-DGGE)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Paulo André Dias Bastos, Lúcio Lara Santos, Rui Miguel Pinheiro Vitorino
The human gut barrier is the tissue exposed to the highest load of microorganisms, harbouring 100 trillion bacteria. In addition, the gut's renewal rate outruns that of any other human tissue. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly optimized defense molecules in the intestinal barrier optimized to maintain gastrointestinal homeostasis. Alterations in AMPs activity can lead to or result from human gastrointestinal diseases. In this review, unique, conserved, or otherwise regular alterations in the expression patterns of human AMPs across gastrointestinal inflammatory and infectious diseases were analyzed for pattern elucidation...
March 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Homero San-Juan-Vergara, Eduardo Zurek, Nadim J Ajami, Christian Mogollon, Mario Peña, Ivan Portnoy, Jorge I Vélez, Christian Cadena-Cruz, Yirys Diaz-Olmos, Leidy Hurtado-Gómez, Silvana Sanchez-Sit, Danitza Hernández, Irina Urruchurtu, Pierina Di-Ruggiero, Ella Guardo-García, Nury Torres, Oscar Vidal-Orjuela, Diego Viasus, Joseph F Petrosino, Guillermo Cervantes-Acosta
HIV infection has a tremendous impact on the immune system's proper functioning. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is significantly disarrayed during HIV infection. Compositional changes in the gut microbiota might contribute to the mucosal barrier disruption, and consequently to microbial translocation. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating changes in the fecal microbiota of HIV-infected individuals from Colombia. We analyzed the fecal microbiota of 37 individuals via 16S rRNA gene sequencing; 25 HIV-infected patients and 12 control (non-infected) individuals, which were similar in body mass index, age, gender balance and socioeconomic status...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liwei Liu, Jihong Yao, Zhenlu Li, Guo Zu, Dongcheng Feng, Yang Li, Wasim Qasim, Su Zhang, Tong Li, Huizhi Zeng, Xiaofeng Tian
Impairment in gut barrier function induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Intestinal barrier function requires the tight coordination of epithelial migration, proliferation and differentiation. We previously observed that nuclear receptor-related protein 1 (nurr1)-mediated proliferative pathway was impaired in intestinal I/R injury. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of nurr1 on intestinal barrier function and to evaluate microRNA (miRNA)-nurr1-mediated restoration of intestinal barrier function in intestinal I/R injury...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Raffaella Mastrocola, Ilario Ferrocino, Erica Liberto, Fausto Chiazza, Alessia Sofia Cento, Debora Collotta, Giulia Querio, Debora Nigro, Valeria Bitonto, Juan Carlos Cutrin, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Mariaconcetta Durante, Emanuela Masini, Manuela Aragno, Chiara Cordero, Luca Cocolin, Massimo Collino
Despite clinical findings suggesting that the form (liquid versus solid) of the sugars may significantly affect the development of metabolic diseases, no experimental data are available on the impact of their formulations on gut microbiota, integrity and hepatic outcomes. In the present sudy, C57Bl/6j mice were fed a standard diet plus water (SD), a standard diet plus 60% fructose syrup (L-Fr) or a 60% fructose solid diet plus water (S-Fr) for 12 weeks. Gut microbiota was characterized through 16S rRNA phylogenetic profiling and shotgun sequencing of microbial genes in ileum content and related volatilome profiling...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Vida Abedi, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Interactions among the gut microbiome, dysregulated immune responses, and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nlrx1 -/- mice have exacerbated disease severity, colonic lesions, and increased inflammatory markers. Global transcriptomic analyses demonstrate enhanced mucosal antimicrobial defense response, chemokine and cytokine expression, and epithelial cell metabolism in colitic Nlrx1 -/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Cell-specificity studies using cre-lox mice demonstrate that the loss of NLRX1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recapitulate the increased sensitivity to DSS colitis observed in whole body Nlrx1 -/- mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Peng Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Murphy L Y Wan, Hani El-Nezami
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver cancer, is one of the dreaded complications of chronic liver disease. Recent experimental and clinical studies have revealed that the alteration of gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in the onset of chronic liver diseases, including HCC. Altered gut microbiota and endotoxemia are increasingly recognized as critical components in promoting the progression of chronic liver diseases to HCC. Probiotics have been suggested as a novel, safe and cost-effective approach to prevent or treat HCC...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Jonas Reinholz, Christopher Diesler, Susanne Schöttler, Maria Kokkinopoulou, Sandra Ritz, Katharina Landfester, Volker Mailänder
The transport of nanocarriers through barriers like the gut in a living organism involves the transcytosis of these nanocarriers through the cell layer dividing two compartments. Understanding how this process works is not only essential to further developing strategies for a more effective nanocarrier transport system but also for providing fundamental insights into the barrier function as a means of protection against micro- and nanoplastics in the food chain. We therefore set out to investigate the different uptake mechanisms, intracellular trafficking and the routes for exocytosis for small polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs ca...
March 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Zhimin Du, Ki Hyung Kim, Juil Kim, Yuseok Moon
Adlay is a cereal crop that has long been used as traditional herbal medicine and as a highly nourishing food. However, deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide, frequently spoils grains, including adlay, via fungal infection. On the basis of an assumption that the actions of DON in the gut could be modified by adlay consumption, we simulated the impacts of co-exposure in enterocytes and investigated the effectiveness of treatment with adlay for reducing the risk of DON-induced inflammation and epithelia barrier injury...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yohei Mikami, Gianluca Scarno, Beatrice Zitti, Han-Yu Shih, Yuka Kanno, Angela Santoni, John J O'Shea, Giuseppe Sciumè
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) producing IL-22 and/or IL-17, designated as ILC3, comprise a heterogeneous subset of cells involved in regulation of gut barrier homeostasis and inflammation. Exogenous environmental cues in conjunction with regulated expression of endogenous factors are key determinants of plasticity of ILC3 towards the type 1 fate. Herein, by using mouse models and transcriptomic approaches, we defined at the molecular level, initial events driving ILC3 expressing natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR+ ILC3) to acquire type 1 features...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Mengxia Wang, Yongxiong Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Yuan Li, Haihui Zheng, Fangli Ma, ChungWah Ma, Xiaojun Zhang, Biyu Lu, Zhiyong Xie, Qiongfeng Liao
Weaning is an essential and important event for infants and rodent animals, and the dietary supplementation plays a crucial role in regulating the composition and function of gut microbiota in the initial period after weaning. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of two probiotics along with three polysaccharides (PP) in weaned rats. Male SD rats, 21 days of age, were divided into two groups: one group was administered with PP for four weeks and the other was not. Body weight, food intake, gut epithelial barrier function, digestive enzyme activities, and the composition and function of gut microbiota were analyzed...
March 9, 2018: Food & Function
Camille Pochard, Sabrina Coquenlorge, Marie Freyssinet, Philippe Naveilhan, Arnaud Bourreille, Michel Neunlist, Malvyne Rolli-Derkinderen
Gone are the days when enteric glial cells (EGC) were considered merely as satellites of enteric neurons. Like their brain counterpart astrocytes, EGC express an impressive number of receptors for neurotransmitters and intercellular messengers, thereby contributing to neuroprotection and to the regulation of neuronal activity. EGC also produce different soluble factors that regulate neighboring cells among which are intestinal epithelial cells. A better understanding of EGC response to an inflammatory environment, often referred to as enteric glial reactivity, could help define the physiological role of EGC and the importance of this reactivity in maintaining gut functions...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Tanwee Das De, Punita Sharma, Tina Thomas, Deepak Singla, Sanjay Tevatiya, Seena Kumari, Charu Chauhan, Jyoti Rani, Vartika Srivastava, Ramandeep Kaur, Kailash C Pandey, Rajnikant Dixit
Mosquitoes that transmit many deadly infectious diseases also need to keep fighting against many microbial infections. Constitutive expression of multiple antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in almost all body tissues is believed to facilitate the effective management of these local infections. When any infection breaches the local barrier, AMPs are induced rapidly in non-target tissues such as hemocytes (HCs) and establish their co-ordination with systemic immune effectors to clear off the body infection. But how interorgan immune communication is managed during local and systemic infections remain largely unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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