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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550660/achieving-smoking-cessation-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-special-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Corinne Cather, Gladys N Pachas, Kristina M Cieslak, A Eden Evins
Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment...
May 26, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550500/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-intracerebroventricular-administration-of-%C3%AE-ketoisocaproic-acid-on-oxidative-stress-parameters-and-cognitive-and-noncognitive-behaviors
#2
Luciane Taschetto, Giselli Scaini, Hugo G Zapelini, Ândrea C Ramos, Giulia Strapazzon, Vanessa M Andrade, Gislaine Z Réus, Monique Michels, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, João Quevedo, Patrícia F Schuck, Gustavo C Ferreira, Emilio L Streck
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is biochemically characterized by elevated levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-keto acids in tissue and biological fluids. Neurological symptoms and cerebral abnormalities, whose mechanisms are still unknown, are typical of this metabolic disorder. In the present study, we evaluated the early effects (1 h after injection) and long-term effects (15 days after injection) of a single intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on oxidative stress parameters and cognitive and noncognitive behaviors...
May 27, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550255/sembragiline-in-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-ii-trial-mayflower-road
#3
Stephane Nave, Rachelle S Doody, Mercè Boada, Timo Grimmer, Juha-Matti Savola, Paul Delmar, Meike Pauly-Evers, Tania Nikolcheva, Christian Czech, Edilio Borroni, Benedicte Ricci, Juergen Dukart, Marie Mannino, Tracie Carey, Emma Moran, Inma Gilaberte, Nicoletta Milani Muelhardt, Irene Gerlach, Luca Santarelli, Susanne Ostrowitzki, Paulo Fontoura
BACKGROUND: Sembragiline is a potent, selective, long-acting, and reversible MAO-B inhibitor developed as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of sembragiline in patients with moderate AD. METHODS: In this Phase II study (NCT01677754), 542 patients with moderate dementia (MMSE 13-20) on background acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with/without memantine were randomized (1:1:1) to sembragiline 1 mg, 5 mg, or placebo once daily orally for 52 weeks...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550007/associations-between-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-nonresponsive-feeding-styles-and-practices-in-mothers-of-young-children-a-systematic-review
#4
Ana Cristina Lindsay, Tatiana Mesa, Mary L Greaney, Sherrie F Wallington, Julie A Wright
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a significant global public health problem due to increasing rates worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that nonresponsive parental feeding styles and practices are important influences on children's eating behaviors and weight status, especially during early childhood. Therefore, understanding parental factors that may influence nonresponsive parental feeding styles and practices is significant for the development of interventions to prevent childhood obesity...
May 26, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549713/childhood-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-a-case-series-from-tunisia
#5
Nedia Ben Achour, Saloua Mrabet, Ibtihel Rebai, Ines Abid, Hanene Benrhouma, Hedia Klaa, Aida Rouissi, Ichraf Kraoua, Ilhem Ben Youssef Turki
INTRODUCTION: Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare immune-mediated disorder characterized by opsoclonus, myoclonus, ataxia and behavioral changes. The aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features, etiological aspects and outcome of OMS in Tunisian children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study over 11years (2005-2016) including all patients aged under 18years who were managed for newly diagnosed OMS in a tertiary care research centre for children with neurological symptoms...
May 23, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549649/prolonged-deficits-of-associative-motor-learning-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-after-long-term-administration-of-phencyclidine
#6
Bing Wu, Xu-Dong Zhao, Hui-Min Zhang, Xuan Li, Guang-Yan Wu, Ying-Shan Yang, Chao-Yang Tian, Jian-Feng Sui
Phencyclidine (PCP) is a potent drug of abuse that induces sustained schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans by blocking neurotransmission at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors. Alterations in NMDA receptor function have been linked to numerous behavioral deficits and cognitive dysfunction. Classical eye-blink conditioning (EBC), including delay (dEBC) and trace (tEBC) pafadigms, provides an effective means to study the neurobiology of associative motor learning in rodents, mammals and primates...
May 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549429/sleep-characteristics-in-child-and-adolescent-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-a-case-control-study
#7
Antonin Sebela, Tomas Novak, David Kemlink, Michal Goetz
BACKGROUND: Impairment of sleep and circadian rhythm is a typical feature of bipolar disorder (BD). We carried out an exploratory cross-sectional case-control study to extend the knowledge of sleep characteristics in offspring at risk for BD. METHODS: We investigated 42 offspring of bipolar parents (OB) (mean age 12.5 ± 3.2) and 42 sex and age matched comparison offspring of healthy parents. We administered the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire and The General Behavior Inventory Sleep Subscale (GBISS) to assess circadian preference, and to identify sleep impairment symptoms...
May 26, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548578/emotional-cognitive-and-behavioral-reactions-to-paranoid-symptoms-in-clinical-and-nonclinical-populations
#8
Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, José Pinto-Gouveia, Ermelindo Manuel Bernardo Peixoto
BACKGROUND: Paranoia is a disruptive belief that can vary across a continuum, ranging from persecutory delusions presented in clinical settings to paranoid cognitions that are highly prevalent in the general population. The literature suggests that paranoid thoughts derive from the activation of a paranoid schema or information processing biases that can be sensitive to socially ambiguous stimuli and influence the processing of threatening situations. METHODS: Four groups (schizophrenic participants in active psychotic phases, n=61; stable participants in remission, n=30; participants' relatives, n=32; and, healthy controls, n=64) were assessed with self-report questionnaires to determine how the reactions to paranoia of clinical patients differ from healthy individuals...
2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547408/predictors-of-parent-teacher-agreement-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-their-typically-developing-siblings
#9
Elizabeth A Stratis, Luc Lecavalier
This study evaluated the magnitude of informant agreement and predictors of agreement on behavior and emotional problems and autism symptoms in 403 children with autism and their typically developing siblings. Parent-teacher agreement was investigated on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Agreement between parents and teachers fell in the low to moderate range. Multiple demographic and clinical variables were considered as predictors, and only some measures of parent broad autism traits were associated with informant agreement...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546705/sinonasal-mass-a-recent-study-of-its-clinicopathological-profile
#10
P Agarwal, R Panigrahi
A variety of non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions involving the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses (PNS), and nasopharynx are commonly encountered in clinical practice. The objectives of the study were to identify various pathological conditions that present with sinus or nasal mass, to understand their varied clinical behavior, to know the distribution of various lesions among the different age and sex groups, and to study the management of sinonasal masses and its outcome on follow-up. A prospective study was carried out from September 2013 to August 2015, in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546683/hydration-and-hot-yoga-encouragement-behaviors-and-outcomes
#11
Casey J Mace Firebaugh, Brandon Eggleston
CONTEXT: Currently, the literature on hot yoga is lacking, and there is still much to understand regarding the safety of these practices. However, one point of safety often emphasized is hydration during the practice of hot yoga. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine hydration encouragement by hot yoga instructors and hydration behaviors and related outcomes by hot yoga participants. METHODS: A cross-sectional study (n = 700) collected self-report data on demographics, types and frequency of yoga practiced, hydration behaviors, and self-report measures of adverse outcomes experienced by participants during hot yoga...
May 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546434/behavioral-deficits-following-withdrawal-from-chronic-ethanol-are-influenced-by-slo-channel-function-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Luisa L Scott, Scott J Davis, Rachel C Yen, Greg J Ordemann, Sarah K Nordquist, Deepthi Bannai, Jonathan T Pierce
Symptoms of withdrawal from chronic alcohol use are a driving force for relapse in alcohol dependence. Thus, uncovering molecular targets to lessen their severity is key to breaking the cycle of dependence. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we tested whether one highly conserved ethanol target, the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (known as the BK channel or Slo1), modulates ethanol withdrawal. Consistent with a previous report, we found that C. elegans displays withdrawal-related behavioral impairments after cessation of chronic ethanol exposure...
May 25, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545787/youth-secrets-are-associated-with-poorer-sleep-and-asthma-symptoms-via-negative-affect
#13
Ledina Imami, Samuele Zilioli, Erin T Tobin, Daniel J Saleh, Heidi S Kane, Richard B Slatcher
OBJECTIVE: Among older children and adolescents, keeping secrets from parents is consistently associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. Further, concealing one's thoughts and emotions has been associated with poor physical health outcomes in adults. However, it remains an open question whether secret-keeping is associated with poorer health and health-related behaviors (such as sleep) among youth and, if those hypothesized links exist, what the psychological mechanisms might be...
May 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545580/early-response-in-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-syndromes-of-medically-unexplained-symptoms
#14
Maria Kleinstäuber, Michael J Lambert, Wolfgang Hiller
BACKGROUND: Early dramatic treatment response suggests a subset of patients who respond to treatment before most of it has been offered. These early responders tend to be over represented among those who are well at termination and at follow-up. Early response patterns in psychotherapy have been investigated only for a few of mental disorders so far. The main aim of the current study was to examine early response after five therapy-preparing sessions of a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for syndromes of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS)...
May 25, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545578/the-effect-of-a-mindfulness-based-intervention-in-cognitive-functions-and-psychological-well-being-applied-as-an-early-intervention-in-schizophrenia-and-high-risk-mental-state-in-a-chilean-sample-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Álvaro I Langer, Carlos Schmidt, Rocío Mayol, Marcela Díaz, Javiera Lecaros, Edwin Krogh, Aída Pardow, Carolina Vergara, Guillermo Vergara, Bernardita Pérez-Herrera, María José Villar, Alejandro Maturana, Pablo A Gaspar
BACKGROUND: According to the projections of the World Health Organization, 15% of all disabilities will be associated with mental illnesses by 2020. One of the mental disorders with the largest social impacts due to high personal and family costs is psychosis. Among the most effective psychological approaches to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders at the world level is cognitive behavioral therapy. Recently, cognitive behavioral therapy has introduced several tools and strategies that promote psychological processes based on acceptance and mindfulness...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545416/the-role-of-indonesian-patients-health-behaviors-in-delaying-the-diagnosis-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#16
R Fles, A C R K Bos, Supriyati, D Rachmawati, E Waliyanti, I B Tan, S M Haryana, M K Schmidt, F S T Dewi
BACKGROUND: With an estimated 13,000 newly diagnosed patients per year, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common types of cancer in males in Indonesia. Moreover, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. This study aimed to explore the health behaviors of patients diagnosed with NPC and the possible causes of patient delay in NPC diagnosis. METHODS: A qualitative research method was used to gain better insight into patient behaviors...
May 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545360/melatonin-effects-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-associated-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-a-case-series
#17
Carolin Schaefer, Dieter Kunz, Frederik Bes
OBJECTIVES: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), with its main clinical symptoms of nightmares with dream-enacting behavior, is considered as a possible precursor of neurodegenerative disease. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is known to be capable of provoking RBD-like symptoms by apneic event related arousals. The two sleep related pathologies must coincide in a relevant number of individuals because of overlapping prevalence in similar age groups. Until now RBD symptoms coexisting with OSAS are rarely described in scientific literature and in fact considered as OSAS mimicking RBD...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545320/the-influence-of-pain-related-beliefs-on-physical-activity-and-health-attitudes-in-patients-with-claudication-a-pilot-study
#18
Sherene E Sharath, Panos Kougias, Neal R Barshes
We examined how pain beliefs are related to symptom severity, expectations of risk/benefits, and baseline physical activity among claudicants. Eligible patients at the Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center were administered questionnaires that measured: fear-avoidance beliefs (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire [FABQ]), walking impairment, baseline physical activity, claudication type, and risk/benefit attitudes. Among 20 participants, the median age was 69 years (IQR: 66-75). In our efforts to understand how fear-avoidance beliefs influenced physical activity among people with claudication, we found that 12 participants (63%) thought that the primary etiology of their pain was walking, while 18 (90%) people thought that walking would exacerbate their leg symptoms - suggesting that there was some confusion regarding the effects of walking on claudication...
May 1, 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545008/psychiatric-disorders-in-a-cohort-of-individuals-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#19
L Shriki-Tal, H Avrahamy, Y Pollak, V Gross-Tsur, L Genstil, H J Hirsch, F Benarroch
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric manifestations in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are common and often are the most debilitating problem in these individuals. We present an epidemiological nation-wide survey of psychiatric diagnoses in the PWS population, based on full-range psychiatric interviews. METHODS: We studied the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses (as opposed to a symptom-based approach) in the Israel national cohort of adolescents and adults with PWS. There was a total of 53 (32 males) ages 12 years and older...
April 5, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544470/patients-help-seeking-experiences-and-delaying-in-breast-cancer-diagnosis-a-qualitative-study
#20
Mariko Oshiro, Midori Kamizato
AIM: To identify the influencing factors in help-seeking behavior by comparing delayers with non-delayers in Japanese female patients with breast cancer. METHODS: This is a descriptive qualitative study. A total of 21 female patients with breast cancer (nine delayers and 12 non-delayers) who were at least 3 months to 5 years postdiagnosis were recruited from two hospitals in Okinawa, Japan. Semistructured interviews were carried out and the results were analyzed by using a qualitative inductive approach...
May 23, 2017: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
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