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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050194/update-on-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-anorectal-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Tanisa Patcharatrakul, Satish S C Rao
Anorectal disorders are common and present with overlapping symptoms. They include several disorders with both structural and functional dysfunction(s). Because symptoms alone are poor predictors of the underlying pathophysiology, a diagnosis should only be made after evaluating symptoms and physiologic and structural abnormalities. A detailed history, a thorough physical and digital rectal examination and a systematic evaluation with high resolution and/or high definition three-dimensional (3D) anorectal manometry, 3D anal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance defecography and neurophysiology tests are essential to correctly identify these conditions...
October 23, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049888/closing-in-behavior-compensation-or-attraction
#2
Elisabetta Ambron, Nicoletta Beschin, Chiara Cerrone, Sergio Della Sala
OBJECTIVE: Closing-in behavior (CIB) defines the abnormal misplacement of the copy performance, positioned very closed to or on the top of the model. This symptom is observed in graphic copying by patients suffering from different neurological diseases, most commonly dementia. The cognitive origins of this behavior are still a matter of investigation, and research of the last 10 years has been focused on exploring 2 main accounts of CIB, the compensation and the attraction hypotheses, providing evidence in both directions...
October 19, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049464/clustering-of-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-first-degree-and-second-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
Margaret O'Brien, Tom Burke, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Russell McLaughlin, John Gibbons, Susan Byrne, Marta Pinto-Grau, Marwa Elamin, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman
Importance: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition primarily involving the motor system. There is increasing epidemiologic evidence of an association between ALS and a wider spectrum of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders among family members, including schizophrenia and psychotic illness and suicidal behavior. Objective: To examine the frequency and range of neuropsychiatric conditions that occur within individual first-degree and second-degree relatives of patients with ALS...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049348/chronic-administration-of-fluoxetine-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-change-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#4
Yanxia Lu, Cyrus S Ho, Xin Liu, Anna N Chua, Wei Wang, Roger S McIntyre, Roger C Ho
This study evaluated the chronic effects of fluoxetine, a commonly prescribed SSRI antidepressant, on the peripheral and central levels of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-17 over a 4-interval in a rat model of chronic mild stress (CMS) which resembles the human experience of depression. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to CMS+vehicle (n = 9), CMS+fluoxetine (n = 9) and the control (n = 6) groups. Sucrose preference and forced swim tests were performed to assess behavioral change...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049292/rejection-sensitivity-as-a-vulnerability-marker-for-depressive-symptom-deterioration-in-men
#5
Jannika De Rubeis, Ricardo G Lugo, Michael Witthöft, Stefan Sütterlin, Markus R Pawelzik, Claus Vögele
Consistent across time and cultures, men and male adolescents older than 14 years of age appear underrepresented in mood disorders, and are far less likely than women to seek psychological help. The much higher rate of suicide amongst males suggests that depression in men might be underreported. One of the core human motives is to seek acceptance by others and avoid rejection. Rejection Sensitivity (RS) has been conceptualized as the cognitive-affective processing disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely respond to cues of rejection in the behavior of others...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048603/postpartum-depressive-symptoms-moderate-the-link-between-mothers-neural-response-to-positive-faces-in-reward-and-social-regions-and-observed-caregiving
#6
Judith K Morgan, Chaohui Guo, Eydie L Moses-Kolko, Mary L Phillips, Stephanie D Stepp, Alison E Hipwell
Postpartum depression may disrupt socio-affective neural circuitry and compromise provision of positive parenting. Although work has evaluated how parental response to negative stimuli is related to caregiving, research is needed to examine how depressive symptoms during the postpartum period may be related to neural response to positive stimuli, especially positive faces, given depression's association with biased processing of positive faces. The current study examined the association between neural response to adult happy faces and observations of maternal caregiving and the moderating role of postpartum depression, in a sample of 18- to 22-year old mothers (n = 70) assessed at 17 weeks (s...
October 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048506/the-comfort-ability-pain-management-workshop-a-preliminary-nonrandomized-investigation-of-a-brief-cognitive-biobehavioral-and-parent-training-intervention-for-pediatric-chronic-pain
#7
Rachael Coakley, Tessa Wihak, Joe Kossowsky, Christina Iversen, Carolina Donado
Objective: Psychological intervention is widely recognized as an integral part of the recovery process from pediatric chronic pain, but service acquisition is often limited by resource barriers. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and satisfaction of a brief, structured, skills-based, group intervention designed expressly to address gaps in service delivery. Exploratory outcomes were also assessed. Method: Adolescents with chronic pain (n = 102; ages 10-17 years) and their mothers (n = 105) completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, 1-week, 1-month, and 3-month posttreatment...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048481/parental-bonding-in-adolescents-with-and-without-chronic-pain
#8
Subhadra Evans, Claudia Moloney, Laura C Seidman, Lonnie K Zeltzer, Jennie C I Tsao
Parental responses influence children's pain; however, the specific role of parental bonding in pediatric pain has not been examined. Depressive symptomology is frequently reported in children with chronic pain (CP) and may play a role in the relationship between parental bonding and pain. This study examined the connections between maternal/paternal bonding (perceived care and control) and symptoms of pain and depression in adolescents with CP and in healthy adolescents. Participants included 116 adolescents (aged 12-17) with CP ( n  = 55) and without ( n  = 61)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048187/electronic-cigarette-user-plasma-nicotine-concentration-puff-topography-heart-rate-and-subjective-effects-influence-of-liquid-nicotine-concentration-and-user-experience
#9
Marzena Hiler, Alison Breland, Tory Spindle, Sarah Maloney, Thokozeni Lipato, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Alan Shihadeh, Alexa Lopez, Carolina Ramôa, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarette (ECIG) nicotine delivery and other effects may depend on liquid nicotine concentration and user experience. This study is the first to systematically examine the influence of ECIG liquid nicotine concentration and user experience on nicotine delivery, heart rate, puff topography, and subjective effects. Thirty-three ECIG-experienced individuals and 31 ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed 4 laboratory conditions consisting of 2, 10-puff bouts (30-sec interpuff interval) with a 3.3-V ECIG battery attached to a 1...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048183/an-initial-study-of-behavioral-addiction-symptom-severity-and-demand-for-indoor-tanning
#10
Amel Becirevic, Derek D Reed, Michael Amlung, James G Murphy, Jerod L Stapleton, Joel J Hillhouse
Indoor tanning remains a popular activity in Western cultures despite a growing body of literature suggesting its link to skin cancer and melanoma. Advances in indoor tanning research have illuminated problematic patterns of its use. With problems such as difficulty quitting, devoting resources toward its use at the expense of healthy activities, and excessive motivation and urges to tan, symptoms of excessive indoor tanning appear consistent with behavioral addiction. The present study bridges the gap between clinical approaches to understanding indoor tanning problems and behavioral economic considerations of unhealthy habits and addiction...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047368/comparison-and-predictors-of-treatment-adherence-and-remission-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-treated-with-paliperidone-palmitate-or-atypical-oral-antipsychotics-in-community-behavioral-health-organizations
#11
Jeffrey P Anderson, Zeynep Icten, Veronica Alas, Carmela Benson, Kruti Joshi
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to antipsychotic treatment increases the likelihood of relapse and progressive symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia. Atypical long-acting injectables, including paliperidone palmitate (PP), may increase adherence and improve symptoms. This study compared and assessed predictors of treatment patterns and symptom remission among schizophrenia patients treated with PP versus atypical oral antipsychotic therapy (OAT) in community behavioral health organizations (CBHOs)...
October 18, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047301/pimavanserin-novel-pharmacotherapy-for-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#12
Zeyad T Sahli, Frank I Tarazi
Pimavanserin is the first FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic drug indicated for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP). Areas covered: This review focuses on the preclinical discovery of pimavanserin. It analyzes the pharmacological, behavioral and molecular mechanisms of pimavanserin and their contribution to the therapeutic advantages of the drug as reported in published preclinical and clinical studies, and product labels. Expert opinion: Pimavanserin exhibits a unique pharmacological profile with nanomolar affinity at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors...
October 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046649/psychological-flexibility-as-a-buffer-against-caregiver-distress-in-families-with-psychosis
#13
Jens E Jansen, Ulrik H Haahr, Hanne-Grethe Lyse, Marlene B Pedersen, Anne M Trauelsen, Erik Simonsen
Background: Research has shown that caregivers of persons with psychosis play an invaluable role in recovery, but unfortunately, often report high levels of distress. While cognitive models of caregiver distress have been well-supported, there is still limited knowledge of the psychological factors involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioral therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes. Aim: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver distress...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046270/-mydepressionlookslike-examining-public-discourse-about-depression-on-twitter
#14
E Megan Lachmar, Andrea K Wittenborn, Katherine W Bogen, Heather L McCauley
BACKGROUND: Social media provides a context for billions of users to connect, express sentiments, and provide in-the-moment status updates. Because Twitter users tend to tweet emotional updates from daily life, the platform provides unique insights into experiences of mental health problems. Depression is not only one of the most prevalent health conditions but also carries a social stigma. Yet, opening up about one's depression and seeking social support may provide relief from symptoms...
October 18, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046178/a-psychiatric-formulary-for-long-duration-spaceflight
#15
Eric Friedman, Brian Bui
Behavioral health is essential for the safety, well-being, and performance of crewmembers in both human spaceflight and Antarctic exploration. Over the past five decades, psychiatric issues have been documented in orbital spaceflight. In Antarctica, literature suggests up to 5% of wintering crewmembers could meet criteria for a psychiatric illness, including mood disorders, stressor-related disorders, sleep-wake disorders, and substance-related disorders. Experience from these settings indicates that psychiatric disorders on deep space missions must be anticipated...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046132/maternal-breastfeeding-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Ping-Tao Tseng, Yen-Wen Chen, Brendon Stubbs, Andre F Carvalho, Paul Whiteley, Chia-Hung Tang, Wei-Cheng Yang, Tien-Yu Chen, Dian-Jeng Li, Che-Sheng Chu, Wei-Chieh Yang, Hsin-Yi Liang, Ching-Kuan Wu, Cheng-Fang Yen, Pao-Yen Lin
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of conditions variably affecting communicative and social interactive abilities presenting alongside behaviors with various restricted and repetitive patterns. In addition to genetic factors that influence the onset of the symptoms, there is growing interest in the potential involvement of non-genetic environmental factors. Some aspects of breastfeeding practices, including rates, timing, or optimality, have been put forward as environmental risk factors for autism...
October 18, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045769/placebo-effects-in-the-treatment-of-noncognitive-symptoms-of-alzheimer-s-disease-analysis-of-the-catie-ad-data
#17
Chisa Ozawa, Rachel Roberts, Kazunari Yoshida, Takefumi Suzuki, Barry Lebowitz, Suzanne Reeves, Robert Howard, Takayuki Abe, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyuki Uchida
OBJECTIVE: To compare symptom trajectories between placebo and active drug responders and to examine whether early placebo improvement would be associated with subsequent placebo response in the treatment of patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of data from 371 patients with DSM-IV Alzheimer's disease in Phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness for Alzheimer's disease (CATIE-AD) (April 2001 to November 2004) was conducted...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045260/encopresis-plus
#18
DePorres Cormier, Marie Reilly, Amy Young, Marilyn Augustyn
Dexter is a 12-year-old boy who presents with his maternal grandmother for follow-up to primary care for secondary encopresis. Dexter presented, 18 months ago, with a 3-month history of secondary encopresis. At that time, a comprehensive assessment revealed functional constipation resulting in encopresis. Dexter's symptoms resolved with a combination of medication management and behavioral strategies; laxatives were discontinued 12 months ago.Dexter's grandmother reports that for the past 6 months, her grandson developed encopresis once again...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045258/early-behavioral-risks-of-childhood-and-adolescent-daytime-urinary-incontinence-and-nocturnal-enuresis
#19
Monica M A Vasconcelos, Patricia East, Estela Blanco, Emily S Lukacz, Gabriela Caballero, Betsy Lozoff, Sheila Gahagan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether infant temperament and childhood internalizing, externalizing, and inattention symptoms increase the likelihood of daytime urinary incontinence or nocturnal enuresis at 10 years and adolescence (11.9-17.8 years). METHOD: Data were from a longitudinal cohort of 1119 healthy Chilean children. We assessed behavioral symptoms at infancy, 5 years, and 10 years and their relationship with subsequent daytime urinary incontinence and nocturnal enuresis...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044537/in-vivo-imaging-of-the-internal-nasal-valve-during-different-conditions-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#20
Anna S Englhard, Maximilian Wiedmann, Georg J Ledderose, Bryan Lemieux, Alan Badran, Joseph C Jing, Zhongping Chen, Veronika Volgger, Brian J F Wong
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we proposed long-range optical coherence tomography (LR-OCT) to be an effective method for the quantitative evaluation of the nasal valve geometry. Here, the objective was to quantify the reduction in the internal nasal valve angle and cross-sectional area that results in subjective nasal airway obstruction and to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the valve during respiration using LR-OCT. METHODS: For 16 healthy individuals, LR-OCT was performed in each naris during: 1) normal respiration, 2) peak forced inspiration, 3) lateral nasal wall depression (to the onset of obstructive symptoms), and 4) after application of a topical decongestant...
October 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
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