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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923183/the-distal-consequences-of-physical-and-emotional-neglect-in-emerging-adults-a-person-centered-multi-wave-longitudinal-study
#1
Joseph R Cohen, Suvarna V Menon, Ryan C Shorey, Vi Donna Le, Jeff R Temple
Despite being the most prevalent form of child maltreatment, the correlates and consequences of neglect are poorly understood, particularly during early adulthood. The present multi-wave, longitudinal study sought to address this gap in this literature by examining physical and emotional neglect in emerging adults in a diverse community sample. 580 adolescents (AgeMean=18.25; AgeSD=0.59; 58.3% female; 31% Hispanic, 28.9% Caucasian; 26.2% African-American; 13.9% other) completed self-report measures for child maltreatment at baseline, and measures for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use every year for three years...
December 3, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922915/lifestyle-behaviors-perceived-stress-and-inflammation-of-individuals-with-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#2
Debra Lynch Kelly, Debra E Lyon, Deidre Periera, Cynthia Garvan, John Wingard
BACKGROUND: Stress is a potent immunomodulator contributing to chronic conditions. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening late effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation associated with stress and exaggerated immune response that may be associated to lifestyle behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore associations among lifestyle behaviors, perceived stress, and inflammation of individuals with cGVHD. METHODS: A secondary analysis from a prospective observational study of 24 adults (≥18 years) with cGVHD was conducted...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922721/an-exploratory-investigation-of-animal-hoarding-symptoms-in-a-sample-of-adults-diagnosed-with-hoarding-disorder
#3
Jennifer E Ung, Mary E Dozier, Christiana Bratiotis, Catherine R Ayers
OBJECTIVE: The extant research on animal hoarding has a dearth of information on animal hoarding tendencies in adults diagnosed with hoarding disorder (HD). In the present study, we investigated possible recurrent animal hoarding behavioral and symptom patterns in individuals diagnosed with hoarding disorder. METHODS: Hoarding severity scores from baseline assessments for 65 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with HD were analyzed with respect to their present and past animal ownership characteristics...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922640/brain-network-reorganization-differs-in-response-to-stress-in-rats-genetically-predisposed-to-depression-and-stress-resilient-rats
#4
N Gass, R Becker, A J Schwarz, W Weber-Fahr, C Clemm von Hohenberg, B Vollmayr, A Sartorius
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains a pressing clinical problem. Optimizing treatment requires better definition of the specificity of the involved brain circuits. The rat strain bred for negative cognitive state (NC) represents a genetic animal model of TRD with high face, construct and predictive validity. Vice versa, the positive cognitive state (PC) strain represents a stress-resilient phenotype. Although NC rats show depressive-like behavior, some symptoms such as anhedonia require an external trigger, i...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922605/pattern-of-structural-brain-changes-in-social-anxiety-disorder-after-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-a-longitudinal-multimodal-mri-study
#5
V R Steiger, A B Brühl, S Weidt, A Delsignore, M Rufer, L Jäncke, U Herwig, J Hänggi
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM)...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922594/cacna1c-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-depression-related-behaviors-via-redd1
#6
Zeeba D Kabir, Anni S Lee, Caitlin E Burgdorf, Delaney Fischer, Aditi M Rajadhyaksha, Ethan Mok, Bryant Rizzo, Richard C Rice, Kamalpreet Singh, Kristie T Ota, Danielle M Gerhard, Kathryn C Schierberl, Michael Glass, Ronald S Duman, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
The CACNA1C gene that encodes the L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) Cav1.2 subunit has emerged as a candidate risk gene for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, all marked with depression-related symptoms. Although cacna1c heterozygous (HET) mice have been previously reported to exhibit an antidepressant-like phenotype, the molecular and circuit-level dysfunction remains unknown. Here we report that viral vector-mediated deletion of cacna1c in the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice recapitulates the antidepressant-like effect observed in cacna1c HET mice using the sucrose preference test (SPT), the forced swim test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST)...
December 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922239/predictors-of-self-esteem-in-adolescents-with-a-psychiatric-referral
#7
Devrim Akdemir, Tuna Çak, Cihan Aslan, Büşra Sultan Aydos, Kevser Nalbant, Füsun Çuhadaroğlu-Çetin
In the literature self-esteem is found to be lower in clinically referred adolescents compared to adolescents without any psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study is to examine self-esteem and associated socio-demographical and psychological factors in clinically referred adolescents in Turkey. Three hundred forty-nine adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry with a psychiatric complaint were enrolled. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Parenting Style Scale (PSS) and Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF) were used for the evaluation...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920752/the-effect-of-emotion-and-reward-contingencies-on-relational-memory-in-major-depression-an-eye-movement-study-with-follow-up
#8
Viola L Nemeth, Gergo Csete, Gergely Drotos, Nora Greminger, Zoltan Janka, Laszlo Vecsei, Anita Must
Background: Episodic memory disturbances were found to constitute a potential trait marker for major depression (MD). The recall of positive or rewarding information in a relational context is specifically impaired. Eye-movement recording constitutes a novel, direct approach to examine implicit memory performance. Here we aimed to assess the effect of emotional context and implicit virtual monetary reward or loss on viewing patterns in association with relational memory in a 6-months follow-up study in MD. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with MD and 30 healthy participants were trained to associate a face (happy/sad/neutral) with a background scene...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920666/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-the-evolution-of-the-amygdalar-hippocampal-habenular-connectivity-in-vertebrates
#9
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking) and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing) behavior are essential for all free moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Therefore, even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must have been capable of generating these behaviors. The current article describes the evolution of the forebrain with special reference to the development of the misery-fleeing system. Although, the earliest vertebrate ancestor already possessed a dorsal pallium, which corresponds to the human neocortex, the structure and function of the neocortex was acquired quite recently within the mammalian evolutionary line...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919585/the-patient-s-perspective-the-effect-of-levodopa-on-parkinson-symptoms
#10
Heidemarie Zach, Michiel Dirkx, Jaco W Pasman, Bastiaan R Bloem, Rick C Helmich
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic medication adjustments in Parkinson's disease are often solely based on patient reports. However, it is unclear how well patient-based ratings of the levodopa response correlate with clinician-based ratings, and whether this correlation differs between motor symptoms. Here we compare patient-clinician agreement for the effect of levodopa on resting tremor and bradykinesia/rigidity. Furthermore, given patients' reports that tremor is most troublesome during stress, we test for differences in patient-clinician agreement between tremor at rest and stress-induced tremor...
November 27, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919376/usability-evaluation-of-the-smart-application-for-youth-with-mtbi
#11
Judith W Dexheimer, Brad G Kurowski, Shilo H Anders, Nicole McClanahan, Shari L Wade, Lynn Babcock
OBJECTIVE: There is a dearth of evidence-based treatments available to address the significant morbidity associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). To address this gap, we designed a novel user-friendly, web-based application. We describe the preliminary evaluation of feasibility and usability of the application to promote recovery following mTBI in youth, the Self-Monitoring Activity-Restriction and Relaxation Treatment (SMART). SMART incorporates real-time recommendations for individualized symptom management and activity restriction along with training in cognitive-behavioral coping strategies...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918931/effectiveness-of-an-educational-intervention-the-encourage-autonomous-self-enrichment-program-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Hiroko Joboshi, Michiyo Oka
BACKGROUND: Self-management is an important step toward preventing and impeding the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, patients with chronic kidney disease may have few or no subjective symptoms and therefore might consider self-management to be unnecessary. Effective support and encouragement of self-management in patients with chronic kidney disease is therefore required. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the effectiveness of the Encourage Autonomous Self-Enrichment patient education program, which supports patient autonomy and intrinsic motivations with the aim of improving self-efficacy and sustaining self-management, on perceived self-efficacy, self-management behaviors, and physiological endpoints (blood pressure and renal function parameters) in patients with chronic kidney disease...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918841/community-effectiveness-rct-of-a-comprehensive-psychosocial-treatment-for-high-functioning-children-with-asd
#13
Marcus L Thomeer, Christopher Lopata, James P Donnelly, Adam Booth, Andrew Shanahan, Veronica Federiconi, Christin A McDonald, Jonathan D Rodgers
This community effectiveness randomized clinical trial examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive psychosocial treatment, summerMAX, when implemented by a community agency. Fifty-seven high-functioning children (48 male, 9 female), ages 7-12 years with autism spectrum disorder participated in this study. The 5-week summerMAX treatment included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social/social-communication skills, interpretation of nonliteral language skills, face-emotion recognition skills, and interest expansion...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918778/efficacy-of-oral-risperidone-haloperidol-or-placebo-for-symptoms-of-delirium-among-patients-in-palliative-care-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Meera R Agar, Peter G Lawlor, Stephen Quinn, Brian Draper, Gideon A Caplan, Debra Rowett, Christine Sanderson, Janet Hardy, Brian Le, Simon Eckermann, Nicola McCaffrey, Linda Devilee, Belinda Fazekas, Mark Hill, David C Currow
Importance: Antipsychotics are widely used for distressing symptoms of delirium, but efficacy has not been established in placebo-controlled trials in palliative care. Objective: To determine efficacy of risperidone or haloperidol relative to placebo in relieving target symptoms of delirium associated with distress among patients receiving palliative care. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind, parallel-arm, dose-titrated randomized clinical trial was conducted at 11 Australian inpatient hospice or hospital palliative care services between August 13, 2008, and April 2, 2014, among participants with life-limiting illness, delirium, and a delirium symptoms score (sum of Nursing Delirium Screening Scale behavioral, communication, and perceptual items) of 1 or more...
December 5, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918698/associations-between-physical-activity-and-depressive-symptoms-by-weight-status-among-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-results-from-diabetes-miles-australia
#15
Melinda J Craike, Kylie Mosely, Jessica L Browne, Frans Pouwer, Jane Speight
BACKGROUND: To examine associations between physical activity (PA) and depressive symptoms among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM), and whether associations varied according to weight status. METHODS: Diabetes MILES - Australia is a national survey of adults with diabetes, focused on behavioral and psychosocial issues. Data from 705 respondents with Type 2 DM were analyzed, including: demographic and clinical characteristics, PA (IPAQ-SF), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), and BMI (self-reported height and weight)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918321/the-role-of-relocation-patterns-and-psychosocial-stressors-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-among-earthquake-survivors
#16
Ebru Salcioglu, Sahin Ozden, Furkan Ari
The psychological impact of relocation within and outside of a disaster region was examined in 541 survivors of the 2011 Van earthquake in Turkey at 16.5 months postdisaster. Relocation out of the region was determined by disaster-related property/financial losses and fear during the earthquake. Anticipatory fear of future earthquakes and less sense of control over life were the strongest predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Relocation within the disaster region predicted PTSD but not depression...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917869/neurophysiological-characterization-of-attentional-performance-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-patients-in-a-reverse-translated-task
#17
Jared W Young, Andrew W Bismark, Yinming Sun, Wendy Zhang, Meghan McIlwain, Ibrahim Grootendorst, Gregory A Light
Attentional dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ) contributes to the functional deficits ubiquitous to the disorder. Identifying the neural substrates of translational measures of attentional dysfunction would prove invaluable for developing therapeutics. Attentional performance is typically assessed via continuous performance tasks (CPTs), though many place additional cognitive demands with little cross-species test-relevance. Herein, event related potentials (ERPs) were utilized to investigate the neurophysiological correlates of attention and response inhibition of SZ and healthy participants, while they performed the cross-species translated five-choice CPT (5C-CPT)...
December 5, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917740/delirium-superimposed-on-dementia-phenomenological-differences-between-patients-with-and-without-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-a-specialized-delirium-unit
#18
Jennifer Abengaña, Mei Sian Chong, Laura Tay
BACKGROUND: Overlap between neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and delirium complicates diagnosis of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). This study sought to examine differences in delirium presentation and outcomes between DSD patients with and without pre-existing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of older adults with DSD admitted to a specialized delirium unit (December 2010-August 2012)...
December 5, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917460/moderators-of-parent-training-for-disruptive-behaviors-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Luc Lecavalier, Tristram Smith, Cynthia Johnson, Karen Bearss, Naomi Swiezy, Michael G Aman, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Yanhong Deng, James Dziura, Lawrence Scahill
We conducted a 6 month, randomized trial of parent training (PT) versus a parent education program (PEP) in 180 young children (158 boys, 22 girls), ages 3-7 years, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PT was superior to PEP in decreasing disruptive and noncompliant behaviors. In the current study, we assess moderators of treatment response in this trial. Thirteen clinical and demographic variables were evaluated as potential moderators of three outcome variables: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale (ABC-I), Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ), and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (CGI-I)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917451/reversal-learning-reveals-cognitive-deficits-and-altered-prediction-error-encoding-in-the-ventral-striatum-in-huntington-s-disease
#20
Katharina Nickchen, Rebecca Boehme, Maria Del Mar Amador, Thomas D Hälbig, Katharina Dehnicke, Patricia Panneck, Joachim Behr, Konstantin Prass, Andreas Heinz, Lorenz Deserno, Florian Schlagenhauf, Josef Priller
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative condition characterized by a triad of movement disorder, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits. The striatum is particularly vulnerable to the effects of mutant huntingtin, and cell loss can already be found in presymptomatic stages. Since the striatum is well known for its role in reinforcement learning, we hypothesized to find altered behavioral and neural responses in HD patients in a probabilistic reinforcement learning task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
December 5, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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