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X Huang, L Weng, L Yi, M Li, Y Y Feng, Y Tian, J G Xia, Q Y Zhan, B Du
Objective: To examine the clinical features of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) caused by pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) admitted into two medical intensive care units (ICU) in non- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected immunocompromised patients. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted among 92 non-HIV patients with ARF caused by PCP in medical ICU of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and China-Japan Friendship Hospital between Jan 2010 and Dec 2015. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological findings, complications, as well as therapy and mortality were included in the analysis...
October 18, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Suhail Al-Saleh, Priya Sayal, Derek Stephens, Joshua Florence, Aman Sayal, Adele Baker, Faiza Syed, Indra Narang, Reshma Amin
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to identify clinical predictors associated with changes in settings for pediatric invasive and noninvasive positive airway pressure therapy, which could help inform the allocation of limited polysomnogram (PSG) resources. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted in children who underwent one or more PSGs for technology titration. Children were included if they were using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) therapy, or invasive positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) the night of the PSG...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
K Hopster, B Jacobson, C Hopster-Iversen, K Rohn, S B R Kästner
Inappropriate mechanical ventilation can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inhalation anaesthesia and ventilation with and without recruitment (RM) and PEEP titration on alveolar integrity in horses. Twenty-three horses were divided into 4 groups (group OLC ventilated with OLC, group IPPV ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation, group NV non-ventilated, and group C non-anaesthetized control group). After sedation with xylazine and induction with diazepam and ketamine anaesthetized horses were under isoflurane anaesthesia for 5...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Valiollah Amri Maleh, Mahmood Monadi, Behzad Heidari, Parviz Amri Maleh, Ali Bijani
BACKGROUND: Application noninvasive ventilation in the patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reduced mortality. This case-control study was designed to compare efficiency and outcome of non-invasive (NIV) versus invasive positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) in respiratory failure due to COPD. METHODS: The patients were assigned to NIV or IPPV intermittantly.The clinical parameters, including RR (respiratory rate), BP (blood pressure), HR (heart rate) and PH, PaCO2, PaO2 before and 1, 4 and 24 h after treatment were measured...
2016: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Prema Subramaniam, Jacqueline J Ho, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have suggested that nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) starting in the immediate postnatal period before the onset of respiratory disease (prophylactic CPAP) may be beneficial in reducing the need for intubation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm or low birth weight infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine if prophylactic nasal CPAP started soon after birth regardless of respiratory status in the very preterm or very low birth weight infant reduces the use of IPPV and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) without adverse effects...
June 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Samantha K Barton, Mary Tolcos, Suzanne L Miller, Charles Christoph-Roehr, Georg M Schmölzer, Timothy J M Moss, Stuart B Hooper, Euan M Wallace, Graeme R Polglase
Mechanical ventilation is a risk factor for cerebral inflammation and brain injury in preterm neonates. The risk increases proportionally with the intensity of treatment. Recent studies have shown that cerebral inflammation and injury can be initiated in the delivery room. At present, initiation of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) in the delivery room is one of the least controlled interventions a preterm infant will likely face. Varying pressures and volumes administered shortly after birth are sufficient to trigger pathways of ventilation-induced lung and brain injury...
2016: Neonatology
Arjan B Te Pas, Marcus J Kitchen, Katie Lee, Megan J Wallace, Andreas Fouras, Robert A Lewis, Naoto Yagi, Kentaro Uesugi, Stuart B Hooper
BACKGROUND: A sustained inflation (SI) facilitates lung aeration, but the most effective pressure and duration are unknown. We investigated the effect of gestational age (GA) and airway liquid volume on the required inflation pressure and SI duration. METHODS: Rabbit kittens were delivered at 27, 29, and 30 d gestation, intubated and airway liquid was aspirated. Either no liquid (control) or 30 ml/kg of liquid was returned to the airways. Lung gas volumes were measured by plethysmography and phase-contrast X-ray-imaging...
2016: Pediatric Research
M Zhang, L T Teo, M H Goh, J Leow, K T S Go
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Occult pneumothorax (OPTX) is defined as air within the pleural cavity that is undetectable on normal chest X-rays, but identifiable on computed tomography. Currently, consensus is divided between tube thoracostomy and conservative management for OPTX. METHODS: The aim of this retrospective study is to determine whether OPTX can be managed conservatively and whether any adverse events occur under conservative management. Data on all trauma patients from 1 Jan 2010 to 31 December 2012 were obtained from our hospital's trauma registry...
December 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Alf Kozian, Moritz Kretzschmar, James E Baumgardner, Jens Schreiber, Göran Hedenstierna, Anders Larsson, Thomas Hachenberg, Thomas Schilling
The data of a corresponding animal experiment demonstrates that nebulized methacholine (MCh) induced severe bronchoconstriction and significant inhomogeneous ventilation and pulmonary perfusion (V̇A/Q̇) distribution in pigs, which is similar to findings in human asthma. The inhalation of MCh induced bronchoconstriction and delayed both uptake and elimination of desflurane (Kretzschmar et al., 2015) [1]. The objective of the present data is to determine V̇A/Q̇ matching by Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET) in piglets before and during methacholine- (MCh-) induced bronchoconstriction, induced by MCh infusion, and to assess the blood concentration profiles for desflurane (DES) by Micropore Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MMIMS)...
December 2015: Data in Brief
Nirmal Kavalloor Visruthan, Pratibha Agarwal, Bhavani Sriram, Victor Samuel Rajadurai
INTRODUCTION: Late preterm (LP) neonates (34 to 36 weeks gestation) are often managed like term neonates though current literature has identified them to have greater complications. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate and compare morbidity and resource utilisation in LPs especially in view of paucity of Asian studies in this regard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective audit was carried out on 12,459 neonates born in KK Women's and Children's Hospital (KKWCH)...
July 2015: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Myura Nagendran, Pubudu de Silva, Steve Harris
BACKGROUND: Implementation of the National Early Warning Score in the National Health Service (NHS) has renewed focus on prompt identification and referral of the deteriorating ward patient. A large body of published work suggests that delay in both referral and admission to critical care can be associated with poor outcomes. We sought to explore factors associated with early provision of respiratory support in a cohort of deteriorating ward patients referred to the critical care team...
February 26, 2015: Lancet
Mohammad Eliyas Patwary, Mohammad Shahbaz Khan, Ashutosh Marwah, Vishal Singh, Sudhir Shekhawat, Rajesh Sharma
BACKGROUND: Results of the arterial switch operation (ASO) for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with large ventricular septal defect (VSD) and for Taussig Bing anomaly (TBA) in a tertiary care center of a developing country were retrospectively analyzed. METHODS: From January 2007 through June 2013, a total of 30 patients with TBA and 54 patients having TGA with large VSD underwent ASO with VSD closure. Age at surgery for TBA was 27 days to 7 years (median age 3 months) and for TGA with VSD it was 1 day to 6 years (median age 2 months)...
July 2015: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Jacqueline J Ho, Prema Subramaniam, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. In infants with progressive respiratory insufficiency, intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with surfactant is the standard treatment for the condition, but it is invasive, potentially resulting in airway and lung injury. Continuous distending pressure (CDP) has been used for the prevention and treatment of RDS, as well as for the prevention of apnoea, and in weaning from IPPV...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Clemens Kill, Monika Galbas, Christian Neuhaus, Oliver Hahn, Pascal Wallot, Karl Kesper, Hinnerk Wulf, Wolfgang Dersch
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend mechanical ventilation with Intermitted Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) during resuscitation. The influence of the novel ventilator mode Chest Compression Synchronized Ventilation (CCSV) on gas exchange and arterial blood pressure compared with IPPV was investigated in a pig model. METHODS: In 12 pigs (general anaesthesia/intubation) ventricular fibrillation was induced and continuous chest compressions were started after 3 min...
2015: PloS One
Manjunath Prabhu, Tim Thomas Joseph
Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a rare congenital anomaly of lung causing over aeration of one or more lobes of a histologically normal lung. It presents in infancy with respiratory distress due to compression atelectasis and often associated with mediastinal shift and hypotension. CLE poses a challenge in diagnosis and positive pressure ventilation due to air trapping. We report a case of 8-week-old infant with CLE posted for right lobectomy. Strategies to prevent misdiagnosis, over aeration and use of IPPV have been reviewed...
July 2012: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Elizabeth E Foglia, Louise S Owen, Marta Thio, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Gianluca Lista, Arjan Te Pas, Helmut Hummler, Vinay Nadkarni, Anne Ades, Michael Posencheg, Martin Keszler, Peter Davis, Haresh Kirpalani
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants require assistance recruiting the lung to establish a functional residual capacity after birth. Sustained inflation (SI) combined with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) may be a superior method of aerating the lung compared with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with PEEP in extremely preterm infants. The Sustained Aeration of Infant Lungs (SAIL) trial was designed to study this question. METHODS/DESIGN: This multisite prospective randomized controlled unblinded trial will recruit 600 infants of 23 to 26 weeks gestational age who require respiratory support at birth...
March 15, 2015: Trials
Roland Gerull, Helen Manser, Helmut Küster, Tina Arenz, Stephan Arenz, Mathias Nelle
UNLABELLED: Evidence for target values of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), CO2, and pH has changed substantially over the last 20 years. A representative survey concerning treatment strategies in extremely low-birth-weight infants (ELBW) was sent to all German neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) treating ELBW infants in 1997. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2011 and sent to all NICUs in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. During the observation period, NICUs targeting SaO2 of 80, 85, and 90 % have increased, while units aiming for 94 and 96 % decreased (all p < 0...
September 2015: European Journal of Pediatrics
Filip Cools, Martin Offringa, Lisa M Askie
BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure due to lung immaturity is a major cause of mortality in preterm infants. Although the use of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) in neonates with respiratory failure saves lives, its use is associated with lung injury and chronic lung disease. A newer form of ventilation called high frequency oscillatory ventilation has been shown in experimental studies to result in less lung injury. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine the effect of the elective use of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) as compared to conventional ventilation (CV) on the incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD), mortality and other complications associated with prematurity and assisted ventilation in preterm infants who were mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tomohito Ishizuka, Jun Tamura, Tsukasa Nagaro, Kanako Sudo, Takaharu Itami, Mohammed Ahamed Umar, Kenjirou Miyoshi, Tadashi Sano, Kazuto Yamashita
Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min...
December 2014: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Georg M Schmölzer, Manoj Kumar, Khalid Aziz, Gerhard Pichler, Megan O'Reilly, Gianluca Lista, Po-Yin Cheung
CONTEXT: Sustained inflation (SI) has been advocated as an alternative to intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) during the resuscitation of neonates at birth, to facilitate the early development of an effective functional residual capacity, reduce atelectotrauma and improve oxygenation after the birth of preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to review the available literature on the use of SI compared with IPPV at birth in preterm infants for major neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and death...
July 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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