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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526479/foxo-mediates-the-timing-of-pupation-through-regulating-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#1
Xianyu Lin, Na Yu, Guy Smagghe
The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the major developmental hormone in insects, controls all the developmental transitions including ecdysis and metamorphosis. In our study with last larval stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of Forkhead box protein O (FoxO) resulted in reduced food intake and larval mass and this agreed with a reduction in the expression of insulin signaling-related genes (insulin-like peptides 2, 3, 4, and chico). Interestingly, we also observed a significant delay in the moment of the pupation and these FoxO-silenced larvae then died at the middle pupal stage...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514752/%C3%AE-msh-inhibits-adipose-inflammation-via-reducing-foxos-transcription-and-blocking-akt-jnk-pathway-in-mice
#2
Guannv Liu, Meihang Li, Muhammad Saeed, Yatao Xu, Qian Ren, Chao Sun
Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) abates inflammation in multiple tissues, while Forkhead box proteins O (FoxOs) stimulate inflammatory cascade. However, the relationship between αMSH and FoxOs in adipose inflammation remains unclear. In this study, we used LPS-induced inflammation model, attempted to interpret the function of αMSH in inflammation and the interactions with FoxOs. Results indicated that upon inflammatory situation, the secretion of αMSH and the expression of its receptor MC5R were greatly decreased, but FoxOs expressions were elevated...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506762/the-nuclear-phosphatase-scp4-regulates-foxo-transcription-factors-during-muscle-wasting-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Xinyan Liu, Rizhen Yu, Lijing Sun, Giacomo Garibotto, Xia Lin, Yanlin Wang, Sandhya S Thomas, Rongshan Li, Zhaoyong Hu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and related inflammatory responses stimulate protein-energy wasting, a complication causing loss of muscle mass. Primarily, muscle wasting results from accelerated protein degradation via autophagic/lysosomal and proteasomal pathways, but mechanisms regulating these proteolysis pathways remain unclear. Since dephosphorylation of FoxOs regulates ubiquitin/proteasome protein metabolism, we tested whether a novel nuclear phosphatase, the small C-terminal domain phosphatase (SCP) 4, regulates FoxOs signaling and, in turn, muscle wasting...
May 12, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490635/the-foxo-transcription-factor-controls-insect-growth-and-development-by-regulating-juvenile-hormone-degradation-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#4
Baosheng Zeng, Yuping Huang, Jun Xu, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Hua Bai, Subba Reddy Palli, Yongping Huang, Anjiang Tan
Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO (BmFOXO) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488343/master-and-commander-foxo-s-role-in-muscle-atrophy
#5
H T Langer
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a primary clinical symptom associated with many diseases such as cachexia, sarcopenia, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders and myopathies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465493/reduction-oxidation-pathways-involved-in-cancer-development-a-systematic-review-of-literature-reviews
#6
REVIEW
Xīn Gào, Ben Schöttker
Oxidative stress results from an imbalance of the reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production and the oxidants defense system. Extensive research during the last decades has revealed that oxidative stress can mediate cancer initiation and development by leading not only to molecular damage but also to a disruption of reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling. In order to provide a global overview of the redox signaling pathways, which play a role in cancer formation, we conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and ISI Web of Science and identified 185 relevant reviews published in the last 10 years...
April 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447066/neuronal-functions-of-foxo-daf-16
#7
REVIEW
Sun Y Kim, Ashley E Webb
The FOXO family of transcription factors plays a conserved role in longevity and tissue homeostasis across species. In the mammalian nervous system, emerging evidence has implicated FOXOs in cognitive performance, stem cell maintenance, regeneration, and protection against stress. Much of what we know about neuronal functions of FOXO emerged from recent studies in C. elegans. Similar to mammalian FOXO, the worm FOXO ortholog, called DAF-16, regulates learning and memory, regeneration, and stress resistance in neurons...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445155/retinoblastoma-cells-activate-the-akt-pathway-and-are-vulnerable-to-the-pi3k-mtor-inhibitor-nvp-bez235
#8
Chencheng Xie, Matthew J Freeman, Huarui Lu, Xiaohong Wang, Colleen L Forster, Aaron L Sarver, Timothy C Hallstrom
Retinoblastoma is a pediatric cancer of the retina most often caused by inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor gene. We previously showed that Rb1 loss cooperates with either co-activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, or co-deleting Pten, to initiate retinoblastoma tumors in mice. The objectives of this study were to determine if the AKT pathway is activated in human retinoblastomas and the extent that anti-PI3K therapy induces apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells, alone or in combination with the DNA damaging drugs carboplatin and topotecan...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444134/characterization-of-foxo1-3-and-4-transcription-factors-in-ovaries-of-fetal-prepubertal-and-adult-rhesus-macaques
#9
Alison Y Ting, Mary B Zelinski
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway negatively regulates follicle activation via the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor in rodents. FOXO3 knockout mice exhibit global activation of primordial follicles leading to early depletion of ovarian follicles and subsequent infertility. Whether a similar mechanism for follicle activation exists in the primate ovary is unclear. In the current study, protein localization of FOXO1, 3 and 4 as well as their upstream regulator, AKT/p-AKT, were examined in rhesus macaque ovaries of 3 developmental stages: fetal, prepubertal and adult...
April 22, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437727/new-inter-correlated-genes-targeted-by-diatom-derived-polyunsaturated-aldehydes-in-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus
#10
Nadia Ruocco, Anna Maria Fedele, Susan Costantini, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora, Maria Costantini
The marine environment is continually subjected to the action of stressors (including natural toxins), which represent a constant danger for benthic communities. In the present work using network analysis we identified ten genes on the basis of associated functions (FOXA, FoxG, GFI-1, nodal, JNK, OneCut/Hnf6, TAK1, tcf4, TCF7, VEGF) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, having key roles in different processes, such as embryonic development and asymmetry, cell fate specification, cell differentiation and morphogenesis, and skeletogenesis...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434978/calycosin-promotes-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-through-insulin-signaling-pathway-via-daf-16-age-1-and-daf-2
#11
Lulu Lu, Xuan Zhao, Jianyong Zhang, Miao Li, Yonghao Qi, Lijun Zhou
The naturally occurring calycosin is a known antioxidant that prevents redox imbalance in organisms. However, calycosin's effect on lifespan and its physiological molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that calycosin could prolong the lifespan of Caenorhabditiselegans, and that such extension was associated with its antioxidant capability as well as its ability to enhance stress resistance and reduce ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation. To explore mechanisms of this longevity effect, we assessed the impact of calycosin on lifespans of insulin-signaling impaired worms: daf-2, age-1, and daf-16 mutants...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431977/transcriptome-comparison-reveals-insights-into-muscle-response-to-hypoxia-in-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#12
Bo-Xiang Chen, Shao-Kui Yi, Wei-Feng Wang, Yan He, Yan Huang, Ze-Xia Gao, Hong Liu, Wei-Min Wang, Huan-Ling Wang
The economic and biological significance of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) makes this species important to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of hypoxia response. In the present study, we compared the transcriptional responses to serious hypoxia in skeletal muscle among hypoxia tolerant (MT), sensitive (MS) and control (without hypoxia treatment, MC) M. amblycephala obtained according to the time difference of losing balance after hypoxia treatment. A total of 88,200,889 clean reads were generated and assembled into 44,493 unigenes...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431241/akt-pkb-signaling-navigating-the-network
#13
REVIEW
Brendan D Manning, Alex Toker
The Ser and Thr kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), was discovered 25 years ago and has been the focus of tens of thousands of studies in diverse fields of biology and medicine. There have been many advances in our knowledge of the upstream regulatory inputs into AKT, key multifunctional downstream signaling nodes (GSK3, FoxO, mTORC1), which greatly expand the functional repertoire of AKT, and the complex circuitry of this dynamically branching and looping signaling network that is ubiquitous to nearly every cell in our body...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430387/age-related-reduction-in-the-expression-of-foxo-transcription-factors-and-correlations-with-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#14
Oscar Alvarez-Garcia, Tokio Matsuzaki, Merissa Olmer, Koichi Masuda, Martin K Lotz
Aging is a main risk factor for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the main cause of low back pain. FOXO transcription factors are important regulators of tissue homeostasis and longevity. Here, we determined the expression pattern of FOXO in healthy and degenerated human IVD and the associations with IVD degeneration during mouse aging. FOXO expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal and degenerated human IVD samples and in cervical and lumbar IVD from 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old C57BL/6J mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417222/role-of-foxo-transcription-factors-in-crosstalk-between-mitochondria-and-the-nucleus
#15
Sujin Kim, Hyongjong Koh
FOXO transcription factors are evolutionally conserved regulators of organismal life span downstream of insulin signaling. After integrating cellular signals from various stimuli such as growth factors, oxidative stress, and energy deprivation, FOXO factors induce expression of a specific set of genes that regulate various cellular processes to maintain homeostasis at a cellular or organismal level. In this review, we discuss roles of FOXO proteins in the maintenance of mitochondria, organelles critical for cellular quality control...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400847/gengnianchun-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-enhances-oxidative-stress-resistance-and-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-modulating-daf-16-foxo
#16
Fanhui Meng, Jun Li, Wenjun Wang, Yan Fu
Objective. Gengnianchun (GNC), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is primarily used to improve declining functions related to aging. In this study, we investigated its prolongevity and stress resistance properties and explored the associated regulatory mechanism using a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Methods. Wild-type C. elegans N2 was used for lifespan analysis and oxidative stress resistance assays. Transgenic animals were used to investigate pathways associated with antioxidative stress activity. The effects of GNC on levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of specific genes were examined...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379301/embryo-arrest-and-reactivation-potential-candidates-controlling-embryonic-diapause-in-the-tammar-wallaby-and-mink%C3%A2
#17
Jane C Fenelon, Geoffrey Shaw, Stephen R Frankenberg, Bruce D Murphy, Marilyn B Renfree
Embryonic diapause is a period of developmental arrest which requires coordination of a molecular cross-talk between the endometrium and blastocyst to ensure a successful reactivation, but the exact mechanisms are undefined. The objectives of this study were to screen the tammar blastocyst for potential diapause control factors and to investigate the potential for members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family to coordinate reactivation. A select number of factors were also examined in the mink to determine whether their expression patterns were conserved across diapause species...
April 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371201/ketone-bodies-mimic-the-life-span-extending-properties-of-caloric-restriction
#18
REVIEW
Richard L Veech, Patrick C Bradshaw, Kieran Clarke, William Curtis, Robert Pawlosky, M Todd King
The extension of life span by caloric restriction has been studied across species from yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans to primates. No generally accepted theory has been proposed to explain these observations. Here, we propose that the life span extension produced by caloric restriction can be duplicated by the metabolic changes induced by ketosis. From nematodes to mice, extension of life span results from decreased signaling through the insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling (IIS) pathway...
April 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368421/selected-mitochondrial-dna-landscapes-activate-the-sirt3-axis-of-the-upr-mt-to-promote-metastasis
#19
T C Kenny, P Hart, M Ragazzi, M Sersinghe, J Chipuk, M A K Sagar, K W Eliceiri, T LaFramboise, S Grandhi, J Santos, A K Riar, L Papa, M D'Aurello, G Manfredi, M G Bonini, D Germain
By causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to perturbations in mitochondrial proteostasis. Several studies have linked mtDNA mutations to metastasis of cancer cells but the nature of the mtDNA species involved remains unclear. Our data suggests that no common mtDNA mutation identifies metastatic cells; rather the metastatic potential of several ROS-generating mutations is largely determined by their mtDNA genomic landscapes, which can act either as an enhancer or repressor of metastasis...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359916/identification-of-microrna-biomarkers-in-the-blood-of-breast-cancer-patients-based-on-microrna-profiling
#20
Kai Zhang, Ya-Wen Wang, Yan-Yan Wang, Yu Song, Jiang Zhu, Peng-Chao Si, Rong Ma
Accumulating evidence indicates that human circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) could serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in various cancers. We aimed to explore novel miRNA biomarkers in the blood of breast cancer patients based on miRNA profiling. A miRCURY™ LNA Array was used to identify differentially altered miRNAs in the whole blood of breast cancer patients (n=6) and healthy controls (n=6). Levels of candidate miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in whole blood specimens of 15 breast cancer patients and 13 age-matched healthy control individuals...
March 27, 2017: Gene
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