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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929662/-effect-of-astragaloside-on-mrna-expression-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-signal-transduction-in-anemia-model-mice-induced-by-chemotherapy
#1
Tie Qiao, Ke Liang, Jin Ma, Shu-Ru Lin, Bing-Yuan Zheng, Li-de Zhang
To study the influence of astragaloside on mRNA expression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal transduction in anemia model mice induced by chemotherapy, 48 male BALB/c mice which were 6-7 week old were picked as the research objects and randomly divided into four groups, blank group, model group, astragaloside group and astragaloside IV group. Each group was 12 mice. Chemotherapy anemia model was established by cyclophosphamide. The mice were drawn blood from eyeball after 14 days treatment. The QPCR was used to test the mRNA concentrations of Akt, PI3K, BCL-xl, bad, FoxO, mTOR, PTEN in mouse spleen...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925355/loss-of%C3%A2-foxo-rescues-stem-cell-aging-in-drosophila-germ-line
#2
Filippo Artoni, Rebecca Kreipke, Ondina Palmeira, Connor Dixon, Zachary Goldberg, Hannele Ruohola-Baker
Aging stem cells lose the capacity to properly respond to injury and regenerate their residing tissues. Here, we utilized the ability of Drosophila melanogaster germline stem cells (GSCs) to survive exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) as a model of adult stem cell injury and identified a regeneration defect in aging GSCs: while aging GSCs survive exposure to IR, they fail to reenter the cell cycle and regenerate the germline in a timely manner. Mechanistically, we identify foxo and mTOR homologue, Tor as important regulators of GSC quiescence following exposure to ionizing radiation...
September 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911141/glucagon-decreases-igf-1-bioactivity-in-humans-independently-of-insulin-by-modulating-its-binding-proteins
#3
Zeinab Sarem, Christiane Bumke-Vogt, Ayman M Mahmoud, Biruhalem Assefa, Martin O Weickert, Aikatarini Adamidou, Volker Bähr, Jan Frystyk, Matthias Möhlig, Joachim Spranger, Stefanie Lieske, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Ayman M Arafat
Context: Depending on its lipolytic activity, glucagon plays a promising role in obesity treatment. Glucagon-induced growth hormone (GH) release can promote its effect on lipid metabolism, although the underlying mechanisms have not been well-defined. Objective: The present study highlights the glucagon effect on the GH/insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) axis in vivo and in vitro, taking into consideration insulin as a confounding factor...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903430/resveratrol-inhibits-age-dependent-spontaneous-tumorigenesis-by-sirt1-mediated-post-translational-modulations-in-the-annual-fish-nothobranchius-guentheri
#4
Tingting Liu, Long Ma, Zhaodi Zheng, Fenglin Li, Shan Liu, Yingbo Xie, Guorong Li
Resveratrol, SIRT1 activator, inhibits carcinogenesis predominantly performed in transgenic animal models, orthotopic cancers of nude mice or different cancer cell lines, but its effects during process of spontaneous tumors using vertebrate models remain untested. Spontaneous liver neoplasm is an age-related disease and is inhibited by resveratrol in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri, which indicates that the fish can act as an excellent model to study spontaneous tumorigenesis. Totally, 175 fish were fed with resveratrol and another 175 fish for controls...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894507/foxo-transcriptional-factors-and-long-term-living
#5
REVIEW
Ghulam Murtaza, Abida Kalsoom Khan, Rehana Rashid, Saiqa Muneer, Syed Muhammad Farid Hasan, Jianxin Chen
Several pathologies such as neurodegeneration and cancer are associated with aging, which is affected by many genetic and environmental factors. Healthy aging conceives human longevity, possibly due to carrying the defensive genes. For instance, FOXO (forkhead box O) genes determine human longevity. FOXO transcription factors are involved in the regulation of longevity phenomenon via insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling. Only one FOXO gene (FOXO DAF-16) exists in invertebrates, while four FOXO genes, that is, FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6 are found in mammals...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892167/effect-of-cadmium-on-kitl-pre-mrna-alternative-splicing-in-murine-ovarian-granulosa-cells-and-its-associated-regulation-by-mirnas
#6
Wenxiang Wang, Jie Chen, Lingfeng Luo, Yuchen Li, Jin Liu, Wenchang Zhang
In this study, we established an in vitro exposure model of murine ovarian granulosa cells to observe the effect of Cd on alternative splicing of the kitl pre-mRNA and subsequently to explore the role of kitl gene expression regulation-related miRNAs through miRNA prediction, miRNA chip, bioinformatics and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Our results showed that the kitl1/kitl2 mRNA ratio was significantly different (P < 0.05) at different dosages and times. The miRNA chip analysis showed that the miRNA expression profiles for the Cd treatment were significantly changed, and the expression of 29 miRNAs involved in alternative splicing of the kitl pre-mRNA was changed...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891792/pgam5-promotes-lasting-foxo-activation-after-developmental-mitochondrial-stress-and-extends-lifespan-in-drosophila
#7
Martin Borch Jensen, Yanyan Qi, Rebeccah Riley, Liya Rabkina, Heinrich Jasper
The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) has been associated with long lifespan across metazoans. In C. elegans, mild developmental mitochondrial stress activates UPR(mt) reporters and extends lifespan. We show that similar developmental stress is necessary and sufficient to extend Drosophila lifespan, and identify Phosphoglycerate Mutase 5 (PGAM5) as a mediator of this response. Developmental mitochondrial stress leads to activation of FoxO, via Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) and Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK)...
September 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889023/suppression-of-foxo3a-attenuates-neurobehavioral-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury-through-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy
#8
Liqian Sun, Manman Zhao, Man Liu, Peng Su, Jingbo Zhang, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Zhongxue Wu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious insult that frequently leads to neurological impairments. Forkhead box O (FoxO) 3a, as transcription factor, has been confirmed to modulate autophagic process. Moreover, FoxO3a is expressed throughout the brain including the hippocampus. However, the role of FoxO3a in the pathophysiology of TBI is unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether FoxO3a has the neuroprotective effects on rats subjected to TBI, and further to explore the potential molecular mechanisms...
September 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881698/reduction-oxidation-pathways-involved-in-cancer-development-a-systematic-review-of-literature-reviews
#9
REVIEW
Xīn Gào, Ben Schöttker
Oxidative stress results from an imbalance of the reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production and the oxidants defense system. Extensive research during the last decades has revealed that oxidative stress can mediate cancer initiation and development by leading not only to molecular damage but also to a disruption of reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling. In order to provide a global overview of the redox signaling pathways, which play a role in cancer formation, we conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and ISI Web of Science and identified 185 relevant reviews published in the last 10 years...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878670/daf-16-foxo-transcription-factor-in-aging-and-longevity
#10
REVIEW
Xiaojuan Sun, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
Aging is associated with age-related diseases and an increase susceptibility of cancer. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms that underlie aging and longevity would contribute to implications for preventing and treating the age-dependent diseases or cancers. Multiple signaling pathways such as the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, TOR signaling, AMPK pathway, JNK pathway and germline signaling have been found to be involved in aging and longevity. And DAF-16/FOXO, as a key transcription factor, could integrate different signals from these pathways to modulate aging, and longevity via shuttling from cytoplasm to nucleus...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878027/death-by-hdac%C3%A2-inhibition-in-synovial-sarcoma-cells
#11
Aimée N Laporte, Neal M Poulin, Jared J Barrott, Xiu Qing Wang, Alireza Lorzadeh, Ryan Vander Werff, Kevin B Jones, T Michael Underhill, Torsten O Nielsen
Conventional cytotoxic therapies for synovial sarcoma provide limited benefit, and no drugs specifically targeting the causative SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein are currently available. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has been shown in previous studies to disrupt the synovial sarcoma oncoprotein complex, resulting in apoptosis. To understand the molecular effects of HDAC inhibition, RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis was undertaken in six human synovial sarcoma cell lines. HDAC inhibition induced pathways of cell cycle arrest, neuronal differentiation and response to oxygen-containing species, effects also observed in other cancers treated with this class of drugs...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874536/microrna-277-targets-insulin-like-peptides-7-and-8-to-control-lipid-metabolism-and-reproduction-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#12
Lin Ling, Vladimir A Kokoza, Changyu Zhang, Emre Aksoy, Alexander S Raikhel
Hematophagous female mosquitoes transmit numerous devastating human diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, Zika virus, and others. Because of their obligatory requirement of a vertebrate blood meal for reproduction, these mosquitoes need a lot of energy; therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms linking metabolism and reproduction is of particular importance. Lipids are the major energy store providing the fuel required for host seeking and reproduction. They are essential components of the fat body, a metabolic tissue that is the insect analog of vertebrate liver and adipose tissue...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861129/genome-wide-dna-methylation-analysis-in-blood-cells-from-patients-with-werner-syndrome
#13
T Guastafierro, M G Bacalini, A Marcoccia, D Gentilini, S Pisoni, A M Di Blasio, A Corsi, C Franceschi, D Raimondo, A Spanò, P Garagnani, F Bondanini
BACKGROUND: Werner syndrome is a progeroid disorder characterized by premature age-related phenotypes. Although it is well established that autosomal recessive mutations in the WRN gene is responsible for Werner syndrome, the molecular alterations that lead to disease phenotype remain still unidentified. RESULTS: To address whether epigenetic changes can be associated with Werner syndrome phenotype, we analysed genome-wide DNA methylation profile using the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip in the whole blood from three patients affected by Werner syndrome compared with three age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859991/1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-promotes-osteogenesis-by-promoting-wnt-signaling-pathway
#14
Yi Xiong, Yixin Zhang, Na Xin, Ying Yuan, Qin Zhang, Ping Gong, Yingying Wu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) remarkably affects bone metabolism and causes multiple skeletal disorders, which are associated with the increased oxidative stress that activates Forkhead family of transcription factors (FoxOs). 1α,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D, plays a potential role in the prevention of glucose tolerance. However, its mechanism of action in high glucose-induced energy disorders remains unclear. In vitro study shows that 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes osteogenesis in high glucose-induced oxidative stress mainly results from increased osteoblasts proliferation and decreased apoptosis...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845602/the-function-of-dendritic-cells-in-modulating-the-host-response
#15
Liang Song, Guangyu Dong, Lijia Guo, Dana T Graves
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that capture, process and present antigens to lymphocytes to initiate and regulate the adaptive immune response. DCs detect bacteria in skin and mucosa and migrate into regional lymph nodes, where they stimulate antigen-specific T and B lymphocyte activation and proliferation. DCs direct CD4 T cells to differentiate to T cell subsets such as Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells. The periodontium is chronically exposed to oral bacteria that stimulate an inflammatory response to induce gingivitis or periodontitis...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839231/genetic-deficiency-in-neuronal-peroxisomal-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-causes-the-interruption-of-dauer-development-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Saeram Park, Young-Ki Paik
Although peroxisomal fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation is known to be critical for animal development, the cellular mechanisms that control the manner in which its neuronal deficiency causes developmental defects remain unclear. To elucidate the potential cellular consequences of neuronal FA metabolic disorder for dauer development, an alternative developmental process in Caenorhabditis elegans that occurs during stress, we investigated the sequential effects of its corresponding genetic deficiency. Here, we show that the daf-22 gene in peroxisomal FA β-oxidation plays a distinct role in ASK neurons, and its deficiency interrupts dauer development even in the presence of the exogenous ascaroside pheromones that induce such development...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837808/elevated-expression-of-microrna-873-facilitates-th17-differentiation-by-targeting-forkhead-box-o1-foxo1-in-the-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Lining Liu, Yifan Liu, Min Yuan, Liming Xu, Huanxia Sun
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease, and its pathogenesis remains mostly unknown. MicroRNAs (miRs) has drawn much attention as a crucial regulator of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-873 expression was significantly up-regulated in patients with SLE, and its expression was positively associated with the disease severity. CD4(+) T cells, especially the Th17 subset, were found to be the major source of miR-873 expression. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches, we further showed that miR-873 could facilitate the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells into Th17 lineage...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827349/the-4e-bp-growth-pathway-regulates-the-effect-of-ambient-temperature-on-drosophila-metabolism-and-lifespan
#18
Gil B Carvalho, Ilaria Drago, Sany Hoxha, Ryuichi Yamada, Olena Mahneva, Kimberley D Bruce, Alina Soto Obando, Bruno Conti, William W Ja
Changes in body temperature can profoundly affect survival. The dramatic longevity-enhancing effect of cold has long been known in organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals, yet the underlying mechanisms have only recently begun to be uncovered. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, this process is regulated by a thermosensitive membrane TRP channel and the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor, but in more complex organisms the underpinnings of cold-induced longevity remain largely mysterious. We report that, in Drosophila melanogaster, variation in ambient temperature triggers metabolic changes in protein translation, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and posttranslational regulation of the translation repressor, 4E-BP (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein)...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826496/the-calcineurin-foxo-murf1-signaling-pathway-regulates-myofibril-integrity-in-cardiomyocytes
#19
Hirohito Shimizu, Adam D Langenbacher, Jie Huang, Kevin Wang, Georg Otto, Robert Geisler, Yibin Wang, Jau-Nian Chen
Altered Ca(2+) handling is often present in diseased hearts undergoing structural remodeling and functional deterioration. However, whether Ca(2+) directly regulates sarcomere structure has remained elusive. Using a zebrafish ncx1 mutant, we explored the impacts of impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis on myofibril integrity. We found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase murf1 is upregulated in ncx1-deficient hearts. Intriguingly, knocking down murf1 activity or inhibiting proteasome activity preserved myofibril integrity, revealing a MuRF1-mediated proteasome degradation mechanism that is activated in response to abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis...
August 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822991/aquatide-activation-of-sirt1-reduces-cellular-senescence-through-a-sirt1-foxo1-autophagy-axis
#20
Chae Jin Lim, Yong-Moon Lee, Seung Goo Kang, Hyung W Lim, Kyong-Oh Shin, Se Kyoo Jeong, Yang Hoon Huh, Suin Choi, Myungho Kor, Ho Seong Seo, Byeong Deog Park, Keedon Park, Jeong Keun Ahn, Yoshikazu Uchida, Kyungho Park
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a relevant environment factor to induce cellular senescence and photoaging. Both autophagy- and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1)-dependent pathways are critical cellular processes of not only maintaining normal cellular functions, but also protecting cellular senescence in skin exposed to UV irradiation. In the present studies, we investigated whether modulation of autophagy induction using a novel synthetic SIRT1 activator, heptasodium hexacarboxymethyl dipeptide-12 (named as Aquatide), suppresses the UVB irradiation-induced skin aging...
September 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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