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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782339/transcription-factors-foxo-in-the-regulation-of-homeostatic-hematopoiesis
#1
Vijay Menon, Saghi Ghaffari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work in the past decade has revealed key functions of the evolutionary conserved transcription factors Forkhead box O (FOXO) in the maintenance of homeostatic hematopoiesis. Here the diverse array of FOXO functions in normal and diseased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is reviewed and the main findings in the past decade are highlighted. Future work should reveal FOXO-regulated networks whose alterations contribute to hematological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified unanticipated FOXO functions in hematopoiesis including in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), erythroid cells, and immune cells...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775231/dna-methylation-and-foxo3a-regulate-phlpp1-expression-in-chondrocytes
#2
Clara M Castillejo Becerra, Anna M Mattson, David H H Molstad, Ian M Lorang, Jennifer J Westendorf, Elizabeth W Bradley
The protein phosphatase Phlpp1 is an essential enzyme for proper chondrocyte function. Altered Phlpp1 levels are associated with cancer and degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis. While much is known about the post-transcriptional mechanisms controlling Phlpp1 levels, transcriptional regulation of the Phlpp1 gene locus is underexplored. We previously showed that CpG methylation of the PHLPP1 promoter is lower in osteoarthritic cartilage than in normal cartilage, and indirectly correlates with gene expression...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774136/the-impact-of-mir-9-regulation-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoiesis
#3
Abbas Khosravi, Shaban Alizadeh, Arsalan Jalili, Reza Shirzad, Najmaldin Saki
MicroRNA-9 (MiR-9) dysregulation has been observed in various cancers. Recently, MiR-9 is considered to have a part in hematopoiesis and hematologic malignancies. However, its importance in blood neoplasms is not yet well defined. Thus, this study was conducted in order to assess the significance of MiR-9 role in the development of hematologic neoplasia, prognosis, and treatment approaches. We have shown that a large number of MiR-9 targets (such as FOXOs, SIRT1, CCND1, ID2, CCNG1, Ets, and NFkB) play essential roles in leukemogenesis and that it is overexpressed in different leukemias...
January 30, 2018: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773318/nickel-toxicity-in-p-lividus-embryos-dose-dependent-effects-and-gene-expression-analysis
#4
Rosa Bonaventura, Francesca Zito, Marco Chiaramonte, Caterina Costa, Roberta Russo
Many industrial activities release Nickel (Ni) in the environment with harmful effects for terrestrial and marine organisms. Despite many studies on the mechanisms of Ni toxicity are available, the understanding about its toxic effects on marine organisms is more limited. We used Paracentrotus lividus as a model to analyze the effects on the stress pathways in embryos continuously exposed to different Ni doses, ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mM. We deeply examined the altered embryonic morphologies at 24 and 48 h after Ni exposure...
May 4, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768017/the-signaling-network-resulting-in-ventilator-induced-diaphragm-dysfunction
#5
Huibin Tang, Joseph B Shrager
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for those incapable of adequately ventilating or oxygenating without assistance. Unfortunately, even brief periods of MV result in diaphragm weakness (i.e., "ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction" - VIDD) that may render it difficult to wean the ventilator. Prolonged MV is associated with cascading complications and is a strong risk factor for death. Thus, prevention of VIDD may have a dramatic impact on mortality rates. Here, we summarized the current understanding of the pathogenic events underlying VIDD...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764991/a-dgk%C3%AE-foxo-ubiquitin-proteolytic-axis-controls-fiber-size-during-skeletal-muscle-remodeling
#6
Jae-Sung You, Matthew S Dooley, Chan-Ran Kim, Eui-Jun Kim, Wei Xu, Craig A Goodman, Troy A Hornberger
Skeletal muscle rapidly remodels in response to various stresses, and the resulting changes in muscle mass profoundly influence our health and quality of life. We identified a diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ)-mediated pathway that regulated muscle mass during remodeling. During mechanical overload, DGKζ abundance was increased and required for effective hypertrophy. DGKζ not only augmented anabolic responses but also suppressed ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-dependent proteolysis. We found that DGKζ inhibited the transcription factor FoxO that promotes the induction of the UPS...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752286/genetic-and-cellular-sensitivity-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-to-the-chemotherapeutic-agent-cisplatin
#7
Francisco Javier García-Rodríguez, Carmen Martínez-Fernández, David Brena, Dmytro Kukhtar, Xènia Serrat, Ernest Nadal, Mike Boxem, Sebastian Honnen, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Alberto Villanueva, Julián Cerón
Cisplatin and derivatives are commonly used as chemotherapeutic agents. Although the cytotoxic action of cisplatin on cancer cells is very efficient, clinical oncologists need to deal with two major difficulties: (i) the onset of resistance to the drug, and (ii) the cytotoxic effect in patients. Here we use Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate factors influencing the response to cisplatin in multicellular organisms. In this hermaphroditic model organism, we observed that sperm failure is a major cause in cisplatin-induced infertility...
May 10, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745842/functional-enrichment-analysis-based-on-long-noncoding-rna-associations
#8
Kuo-Sheng Hung, Chung-Chi Hsiao, Tun-Wen Pai, Chin-Hwa Hu, Wen-Shyong Tzou, Wen-Der Wang, Yet-Ran Chen
BACKGROUND: Differential gene expression analysis using RNA-seq data is a popular approach for discovering specific regulation mechanisms under certain environmental settings. Both gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis are major processes for investigating gene groups that participate in common biological responses or possess related functions. However, traditional approaches based on differentially expressed genes only detect a few significant GO terms and pathways, which are frequently insufficient to explain all-inclusive gene regulation mechanisms...
April 24, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733381/the-longevity-snp-rs2802292-uncovered-hsf1-activates-stress-dependent-expression-of-foxo3-through-an-intronic-enhancer
#9
Valentina Grossi, Giovanna Forte, Paola Sanese, Alessia Peserico, Tugsan Tezil, Martina Lepore Signorile, Candida Fasano, Rosaura Lovaglio, Rosanna Bagnulo, Daria C Loconte, Francesco C Susca, Nicoletta Resta, Cristiano Simone
The HSF and FOXO families of transcription factors play evolutionarily conserved roles in stress resistance and lifespan. In humans, the rs2802292 G-allele at FOXO3 locus has been associated with longevity in all human populations tested; moreover, its copy number correlated with reduced frequency of age-related diseases in centenarians. At the molecular level, the intronic rs2802292 G-allele correlated with increased expression of FOXO3, suggesting that FOXO3 intron 2 may represent a regulatory region. Here we show that the 90-bp sequence around the intronic single nucleotide polymorphism rs2802292 has enhancer functions, and that the rs2802292 G-allele creates a novel HSE binding site for HSF1, which induces FOXO3 expression in response to diverse stress stimuli...
May 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729259/insulin-signaling-acts-in-adult-adipocytes-via-gsk-3%C3%AE-and-independently-of-foxo-to-control-drosophila-female-germline-stem-cell-numbers
#10
Alissa R Armstrong, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Tissue-specific stem cells are tied to the nutritional and physiological environment of adult organisms. Adipocytes have key endocrine and nutrient-sensing roles and have emerged as major players in relaying dietary information to regulate other organs. For example, previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster revealed that amino acid sensing as well as diet-dependent metabolic pathways function in adipocytes to influence the maintenance of female germline stem cells (GSCs). How nutrient-sensing pathways acting within adipocytes influence adult stem cell lineages, however, is just beginning to be elucidated...
May 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719213/novel-role-of-forkhead-box-o-4-transcription-factor-in-cancer-bringing-out-the-good-or-the-bad
#11
REVIEW
Shuai Jiang, Zhi Yang, Shouyin Di, Wei Hu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fulin Chen, Yang Yang
Forkhead box O (FOXO) family has recently been highlighted as important transcriptional regulators associated with many diverse carcinomas. Although redundant functionality between FOXO family members with cancer is known, regulatory ability of FOXO4 for tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis is still on the way. FOXO4 significantly regulates cell cycle, resists oxidative stress, and responses to hypoxia. FOXO4 alteration is closely linked to the progression of human cancer. In this review, we introduce the regulation of FOXO4 in physiological and pathological conditions...
April 29, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717416/lowbush-cranberry-acts-through-daf-16-foxo-signaling-to-promote-increased-lifespan-and-axon-branching-in-aging-posterior-touch-receptor-neurons
#12
Courtney Scerbak, Elena Vayndorf, Alicia Hernandez, Colin McGill, Barbara Taylor
Medicinal berries are appreciated for their health benefits, in traditional ecological knowledge and nutrition science. Determining the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of berry supplementation may contribute to our understanding of aging. Here, we report that lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) treatment causes marked nuclear localization of the central aging-related transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in aged Caenorhabditis elegans. Further, functional DAF-16 is required for the lifespan extension, improved mechanosensation, and posterior touch receptor neuron morphological changes induced by lowbush cranberry treatments...
May 1, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716892/human-proislet-peptide-promotes-pancreatic-progenitor-cells-to-ameliorate-diabetes-via-foxo1-menin-mediated-epigenetic-regulation
#13
Zongzhe Jiang, Diwen Shi, Yifan Tu, Jingjing Tian, Wenjian Zhang, Bowen Xing, Jihua Wang, Suhuan Liu, Jinning Lou, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Xianxin Hua, Xiaosong Ma
In this study, we investigated how human proislet peptide (HIP) regulates differentiation of human fetus-derived pancreatic progenitor cells (HFPPCs), and explored the potential link between HIP signaling and the menin pathway, a key pathway that regulates differentiation of pancreatic islets. Our data showed that HIP promoted expression of pro-islet transcription factors (TFs) including PDX-1, MAFA and NKX6.1 as well as other maturation markers of β-cells such as insulin, GLUT2, KIR6.2, SUR1 and VDCC. Moreover, HIP increased insulin content, and promoted the ability of HFPPCs to normalize the blood glucose in diabetic mice...
May 1, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716547/transcriptional-analysis-of-liver-from-chickens-with-fast-meat-bird-moderate-f1-layer-x-meat-bird-cross-and-low-layer-bird-growth-potential
#14
Nicky-Lee Willson, Rebecca E A Forder, Rick Tearle, John L Williams, Robert J Hughes, Greg S Nattrass, Philip I Hynd
BACKGROUND: Divergent selection for meat and egg production in poultry has resulted in strains of birds differing widely in traits related to these products. Modern strains of meat birds can reach live weights of 2 kg in 35 d, while layer strains are now capable of producing more than 300 eggs per annum but grow slowly. In this study, RNA-Seq was used to investigate hepatic gene expression between three groups of birds with large differences in growth potential; meat bird, layer strain as well as an F1 layer x meat bird...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713284/an-integrated-proteomics-and-bioinformatics-approach-reveals-the-anti-inflammatory-mechanism-of-carnosic-acid
#15
Li-Chao Wang, Wen-Hui Wei, Xiao-Wen Zhang, Dan Liu, Ke-Wu Zeng, Peng-Fei Tu
Drastic macrophages activation triggered by exogenous infection or endogenous stresses is thought to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. Carnosic acid (CA), a natural phenolic diterpene extracted from Salvia officinalis plant, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, its role in macrophages activation as well as potential molecular mechanism is largely unexplored. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the anti-inflammatory property of CA using an integrated approach based on unbiased proteomics and bioinformatics analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710817/transcriptional-profiling-of-host-cell-responses-to-virulent-haemophilus-parasuis-new-insights-into-pathogenesis
#16
Shulin Fu, Jing Guo, Ruizhi Li, Yinsheng Qiu, Chun Ye, Yu Liu, Zhongyuan Wu, Ling Guo, Yongqing Hou, Chien-An Andy Hu
Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer’s disease in pigs. H. parasuis can cause vascular damage, although the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the host cell responses involved in the molecular pathway interactions in porcine aortic vascular endothelial cells (PAVECs) induced by H. parasuis using RNA-Seq. The transcriptome results showed that when PAVECs were infected with H. parasuis for 24 h, 281 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified; of which, 236 were upregulated and 45 downregulated...
April 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703888/manipulation-of-insulin-signaling-phenocopies-evolution-of-a-host-associated-polyphenism
#17
Meghan M Fawcett, Mary C Parks, Alice E Tibbetts, Jane S Swart, Elizabeth M Richards, Juan Camilo Vanegas, Meredith Cenzer, Laura Crowley, William R Simmons, Wenzhen Stacey Hou, David R Angelini
Plasticity, the capacity of an organism to respond to its environment, is thought to evolve through changes in development altering the integration of environmental cues. In polyphenism, a discontinuous plastic response produces two or more phenotypic morphs. Here we describe evolutionary change in wing polyphenism and its underlying developmental regulation in natural populations of the red-shouldered soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Insecta: Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) that have adapted to a novel host plant...
April 27, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702159/quinolinic-acid-and-glutamatergic-neurodegeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Tássia Limana da Silveira, Daniele Coradine Zamberlan, Leticia Priscilla Arantes, Marina Lopes Machado, Thayanara Cruz da Silva, Daniela de Freitas Câmara, Abel Santamaría, Michael Aschner, Felix Alexandre Antunes Soares
Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an endogenous neurotoxin that acts as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) agonist generating a toxic cascade, which can lead to neurodegeneration. The action of QUIN in Caenorhabditis elegans and the neurotoxins that allow the study of glutamatergic system disorders have not been carefully addressed. The effects of QUIN on toxicological and behavioral parameters in VM487 and VC2623 transgenic, as well as wild-type (WT) animals were performed to evaluate whether QUIN could be used as a neurotoxin in C...
April 24, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684436/foxo-transcription-factors-in-t-cell-biology-and-tumor-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Chong T Luo, Ming O Li
The evolutionally conserved forkhead box O (Foxo) family of transcription factors is pivotal in the control of nutrient sensing and stress responses. Recent studies have revealed that the Foxo proteins have been rewired to regulate highly specialized T cell activities. Here, we review the latest advances in the understanding of how Foxo transcription factors control T cell biology, including T cell trafficking, naive T cell homeostasis, effector and memory responses, as well as the differentiation and function of regulatory T cells...
April 20, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683489/regulation-of-cellular-senescence-via-the-foxo4-p53-axis
#20
REVIEW
Benjamin Bourgeois, Tobias Madl
Forkhead box O (FOXO) and p53 proteins are transcription factors that regulate diverse signalling pathways to control cell cycle, apoptosis and metabolism. In the last decade both FOXO and p53 have been identified as key players in aging, and their misregulation is linked to numerous diseases including cancers. However, many of the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mysterious, including regulation of ageing by FOXOs and p53. Several activities appear to be shared between FOXOs and p53, including their central role in the regulation of cellular senescence...
April 23, 2018: FEBS Letters
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