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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079723/toward-automating-hiv-identification-machine-learning-for-rapid-identification-of-hiv-related-social-media-data
#1
Sean D Young, Wenchao Yu, Wei Wang
INTRODUCTION: "Social big data" from technologies such as social media, wearable devices, and online searches continue to grow and can be used as tools for HIV research. Although researchers can uncover patterns and insights associated with HIV trends and transmission, the review process is time consuming and resource intensive. Machine learning methods derived from computer science might be used to assist HIV domain experts by learning how to rapidly and accurately identify patterns associated with HIV from a large set of social data...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045898/transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-thrombospondin-1-expression-a-computational-model
#2
Chen Zhao, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Aleksander S Popel
Hypoxia is an important physiological stress signal that drives angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels. Besides an increase in the production of pro-angiogenic signals such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia also stimulates the production of anti-angiogenic signals. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is one of the anti-angiogenic factors whose synthesis is driven by hypoxia. Cellular synthesis of TSP-1 is tightly regulated by different intermediate biomolecules including proteins that interact with hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), transcription factors that are activated by receptor and intracellular signaling, and microRNAs which are small non-coding RNA molecules that function in post-transcriptional modification of gene expression...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968836/effects-of-a-peer-assisted-tai-chi-qigong-programme-on-social-isolation-and-psychological-wellbeing-in-chinese-hidden-elders-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Aileen W K Chan, Doris S F Yu, K C Choi, Helen Y L Chan, Eliza M L Wong
BACKGROUND: The term hidden elder is used in Chinese society to describe older adults who are socially isolated and refuse social participation. Substantial evidence has indicated the important role of social isolation in increasing psychiatric morbidity and mortality risks in later life. Innovative service is promptly needed to address the social and psychological health needs of hidden elders. We aimed to test the feasibility and the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-assisted tai-chi-qigong programme in strengthening social networks and enhancing psychosocial wellbeing of Chinese hidden elders...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887782/ambient-particulate-matter-landscape-fire-smoke-and-emergency-ambulance-dispatches-in-sydney-australia
#4
Farhad Salimi, Sarah B Henderson, Geoffrey G Morgan, Bin Jalaludin, Fay H Johnston
BACKGROUND: Emergency ambulance dispatches (EAD) are a novel outcome for evaluating the public health impacts of air pollution. We assessed the relationships between ambient particulate matter (PM) from all sources, PM from landscape fire smoke (LFS), and EADs likely to be associated with cardiorespiratory problems in the Sydney greater metropolitan region for an 11-year period from 2004 to 2015. METHODS: EAD codes are assigned at the time of the call to emergency services using standard computer assisted algorithms...
November 22, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854282/cellular-automata-based-application-for-driver-assistance-in-indoor-parking-areas
#5
Cándido Caballero-Gil, Pino Caballero-Gil, Jezabel Molina-Gil
This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa...
November 15, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746825/segmentation-of-hyperacute-cerebral-infarcts-based-on-sparse-representation-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#6
Xiaodong Zhang, Shasha Jing, Peiyi Gao, Jing Xue, Lu Su, Weiping Li, Lijie Ren, Qingmao Hu
Segmentation of infarcts at hyperacute stage is challenging as they exhibit substantial variability which may even be hard for experts to delineate manually. In this paper, a sparse representation based classification method is explored. For each patient, four volumetric data items including three volumes of diffusion weighted imaging and a computed asymmetry map are employed to extract patch features which are then fed to dictionary learning and classification based on sparse representation. Elastic net is adopted to replace the traditional L0-norm/L1-norm constraints on sparse representation to stabilize sparse code...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733872/local-anaesthetic-drug-administration-in-dentistry-using-computer-assisted-anaesthetic-delivery-system-a-systematic-review
#7
Gowri Sivaramakrishnan, Kannan Sridharan
BACKGROUND: Local anaesthetics play a key role in reducing pain and anxiety during dental treatment. However the disadvantage of using syringe and needle technique in the maxilla, proximal to the apices of the teeth is that it is painful and also leads to collateral anaesthesia. Hence this systematic review aims to identify whether computer assisted local anaesthetic delivery system could produce predictable results similar to conventional syringe needle technique and also eliminate the disadvantages...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712705/first-and-foremost-battle-the-virus-eliciting-patient-preferences-in-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-using-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#8
Axel Mühlbacher, Susanne Bethge
BACKGROUND: There has been tremendous progress regarding treatment options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Several interferon-free regimens are awaiting regulatory approval. These innovations promise substantial reductions in the burden of disease and side effects as well as a decrease in treatment duration. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this quantitaitive study was to elicit patient preferences for attributes of innovative antiviral therapies for hepatitis C. METHODS: A systematic literature search and 14 semi-structured interviews were performed, resulting in eight patient-relevant characteristics...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640107/-computer-assisted-prescription-of-labile-blood-products-what-are-we-expecting
#9
G Daurat
Computer assisted prescription of labile blood products is just at its beginning. Current programs already allow embedding automatically such data as patient's and prescribers' identification or ward details to produce readable prescriptions, also complying with part of Good Practice guidelines. Now prescriptions can also be sent electronically to the Etablissement Francais du Sang, the French blood products services. Usually they are computer programs specialised in transfusion and interfaced with the main patient's file software...
November 2016: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574119/computational-prediction-of-regulatory-premature-transcription-termination-in-bacteria
#10
Adi Millman, Daniel Dar, Maya Shamir, Rotem Sorek
A common strategy for regulation of gene expression in bacteria is conditional transcription termination. This strategy is frequently employed by 5'UTR cis-acting RNA elements (riboregulators), including riboswitches and attenuators. Such riboregulators can assume two mutually exclusive RNA structures, one of which forms a transcriptional terminator and results in premature termination, and the other forms an antiterminator that allows read-through into the coding sequence to produce a full-length mRNA. We developed a machine-learning based approach, which, given a 5'UTR of a gene, predicts whether it can form the two alternative structures typical to riboregulators employing conditional termination...
August 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563155/political-leaders-and-the-media-can-we-measure-political-leadership-images-in-newspapers-using-computer-assisted-content-analysis
#11
Loes Aaldering, Rens Vliegenthart
Despite the large amount of research into both media coverage of politics as well as political leadership, surprisingly little research has been devoted to the ways political leaders are discussed in the media. This paper studies whether computer-aided content analysis can be applied in examining political leadership images in Dutch newspaper articles. It, firstly, provides a conceptualization of political leader character traits that integrates different perspectives in the literature. Moreover, this paper measures twelve political leadership images in media coverage, based on a large-scale computer-assisted content analysis of Dutch media coverage (including almost 150...
2016: Quality & Quantity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547534/computer-assisted-initial-diagnosis-of-rare-diseases
#12
Rui Alves, Marc Piñol, Jordi Vilaplana, Ivan Teixidó, Joaquim Cruz, Jorge Comas, Ester Vilaprinyo, Albert Sorribas, Francesc Solsona
Introduction. Most documented rare diseases have genetic origin. Because of their low individual frequency, an initial diagnosis based on phenotypic symptoms is not always easy, as practitioners might never have been exposed to patients suffering from the relevant disease. It is thus important to develop tools that facilitate symptom-based initial diagnosis of rare diseases by clinicians. In this work we aimed at developing a computational approach to aid in that initial diagnosis. We also aimed at implementing this approach in a user friendly web prototype...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449786/using-the-behavior-change-technique-taxonomy-v1-to-conceptualize-the-clinical-content-of-breaking-free-online-a-computer-assisted-therapy-program-for-substance-use-disorders
#13
Stephanie Dugdale, Jonathan Ward, Jan Hernen, Sarah Elison, Glyn Davies, Daniel Donkor
BACKGROUND: In recent years, research within the field of health psychology has made significant progress in terms of advancing and standardizing the science of developing, evaluating and reporting complex behavioral change interventions. A major part of this work has involved the development of an evidence-based Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1), as a means of describing the active components contained within such complex interventions. To date, however, this standardized approach derived from health psychology research has not been applied to the development of complex interventions for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD)...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424767/quantum-computation-based-on-photonic-systems-with-two-degrees-of-freedom-assisted-by-the-weak-cross-kerr-nonlinearity
#14
Ming-Xing Luo, Hui-Ran Li, Hong Lai
Most of previous quantum computations only take use of one degree of freedom (DoF) of photons. An experimental system may possess various DoFs simultaneously. In this paper, with the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, we investigate the parallel quantum computation dependent on photonic systems with two DoFs. We construct nearly deterministic controlled-not (CNOT) gates operating on the polarization spatial DoFs of the two-photon or one-photon system. These CNOT gates show that two photonic DoFs can be encoded as independent qubits without auxiliary DoF in theory...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381172/computational-prediction-of-electron-ionization-mass-spectra-to-assist-in-gc-ms-compound-identification
#15
Felicity Allen, Allison Pon, Russ Greiner, David Wishart
We describe a tool, competitive fragmentation modeling for electron ionization (CFM-EI) that, given a chemical structure (e.g., in SMILES or InChI format), computationally predicts an electron ionization mass spectrum (EI-MS) (i.e., the type of mass spectrum commonly generated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry). The predicted spectra produced by this tool can be used for putative compound identification, complementing measured spectra in reference databases by expanding the range of compounds able to be considered when availability of measured spectra is limited...
August 2, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380801/a-calibration-method-for-realistic-neutron-dosimetry-in-radiobiological-experiments-assisted-by-mcnp-simulation
#16
Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni, Dragana Krstic, Dragoslav Nikezic, Kwan Ngok Yu
Many studies on biological effects of neutrons involve dose responses of neutrons, which rely on accurately determined absorbed doses in the irradiated cells or living organisms. Absorbed doses are difficult to measure, and are commonly surrogated with doses measured using separate detectors. The present work describes the determination of doses absorbed in the cell layer underneath a medium column (DA) and the doses absorbed in an ionization chamber (DE) from neutrons through computer simulations using the MCNP-5 code, and the subsequent determination of the conversion coefficients R (= DA/DE)...
September 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318270/a-health-surveillance-software-framework-to-deliver-information-on-preventive-healthcare-strategies
#17
Alessandra Alaniz Macedo, Juliana Tarossi Pollettini, José Augusto Baranauskas, Julia Carmona Almeida Chaves
A software framework can reduce costs related to the development of an application because it allows developers to reuse both design and code. Recently, companies and research groups have announced that they have been employing health software frameworks. This paper presents the design, proof-of-concept implementations and experimentation of the Health Surveillance Software Framework (HSSF). The HSSF is a framework that tackles the demand for the recommendation of surveillance information aiming at supporting preventive healthcare strategies...
August 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303704/infectio-a-generic-framework-for-computational-simulation-of-virus-transmission-between-cells
#18
Artur Yakimovich, Yauhen Yakimovich, Michael Schmid, Jason Mercer, Ivo F Sbalzarini, Urs F Greber
Viruses spread between cells, tissues, and organisms by cell-free and cell-cell mechanisms, depending on the cell type, the nature of the virus, or the phase of the infection cycle. The mode of viral transmission has a large impact on disease development, the outcome of antiviral therapies or the efficacy of gene therapy protocols. The transmission mode of viruses can be addressed in tissue culture systems using live-cell imaging. Yet even in relatively simple cell cultures, the mechanisms of viral transmission are difficult to distinguish...
January 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232429/analyzing-language-in-suicide-notes-and-legacy-tokens
#19
Michael J Egnoto, Darrin J Griffin
BACKGROUND: Identifying precursors that will aid in the discovery of individuals who may harm themselves or others has long been a focus of scholarly research. AIM: This work set out to determine if it is possible to use the legacy tokens of active shooters and notes left from individuals who completed suicide to uncover signals that foreshadow their behavior. METHOD: A total of 25 suicide notes and 21 legacy tokens were compared with a sample of over 20,000 student writings for a preliminary computer-assisted text analysis to determine what differences can be coded with existing computer software to better identify students who may commit self-harm or harm to others...
March 2016: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214306/alascan-a-graphical-user-interface-for-alanine-scanning-free-energy-calculations
#20
Vijayaraj Ramadoss, François Dehez, Christophe Chipot
Computation of the free-energy changes that underlie molecular recognition and association has gained significant importance due to its considerable potential in drug discovery. The massive increase of computational power in recent years substantiates the application of more accurate theoretical methods for the calculation of binding free energies. The impact of such advances is the application of parent approaches, like computational alanine scanning, to investigate in silico the effect of amino-acid replacement in protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes, or probe the thermostability of individual proteins...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
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