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Pulmonary cancer

Matthew T Koroscil, Andrew Skabelund
Introduction: Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the Mississippi River valley. We describe a rare case of chronic pulmonary blastomycosis complicated by large pulmonary cavitation in a young service member who was misdiagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Case Presentation: A 25-year-old active duty male presented to his primary care provider with complaints of hemoptysis, fatigue, weight loss, and fever. Computed tomography chest with contrast identified a large cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe (RUL)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Brandi R Newsome, Karen McDonnell, Jennifer Hucks, Robin Dawson Estrada
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common smoking-related illness. COPD often is underemphasized as a comorbidity except when considering issues surrounding surgical treatment options. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to provide nurses with an overview of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment implications of COPD. METHODS: Definitions, differentials, and treatment considerations are provided, and clinical implications and resources are described...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Fernando A Angarita, Sergio A Acuna, Erin Cordeiro, Ahmad Elnahas, Subir Sutradhar, Timothy Jackson, Tulin D Cil
PURPOSE: Postoperative complication rates for elderly women undergoing breast cancer surgery have not been well studied. We describe the postoperative complication rates of elderly (≥ 70 years) women with breast cancer and compare them with young (40-69 years) women. METHODS: Data were extracted from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2004-2014). We included women with invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery. Outcomes were 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality (complications), which were compared between young and elderly women...
March 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Tina Streitparth, Denis Schumacher, Robert Damm, Bjoern Friebe, Konrad Mohnike, Ortrud Kosiek, Maciej Pech, Jens Ricke, Florian Streitparth
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and predictive factors of RFA of primary and secondary lung malignancies. Patients and Methods: 79 patients with 129 primary and secondary lung malignancies were enrolled in a retrospective study. We treated 74 pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer, 13 malignant melanoma lesions, 13 renal cancer metastases, 5 primary lung malignancies and 24 tumors of other different entities. All patients were considered to be unsuitable candidates for surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Jing Li, Xiao Liang, Jun Zhang, Yunzhi Yin, Tiantian Zuo, Yiyue Wang, Xiaoming Yang, Qi Shen
In this study, heparin and polyethyleneimine-folic acid modified graphene oxide was designed and synthesized as a dual-targeting biomaterial to load doxorubicin (DOX@GPFH) with high loading capacity for enhanced cellular uptake. GDC0941, a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt phosphorylation inhibitor, was selected to enhance anti-metastasis effect of DOX@GPFH via down-regulating expression of matrix metalloproteinase. Modified with heparin, the stability of DOX@GPFH was significantly enhanced and the drug loading ratio increased largely from 64...
March 12, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Luke S Howard
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively common cardiopulmonary emergency that is a major cause of hospitalization and morbidity and is the primary cause of mortality associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). During the last decade, one of the biggest changes in the management of PE has been the approval of four non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs; apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban) for the treatment of PE and deep vein thrombosis and secondary prevention of VTE. Areas covered: This article reviews the evolving management of PE in the NOAC era and addresses three fundamental questions: who should receive NOACs over conventional heparin/vitamin K antagonist regimens for the treatment of acute PE; whether patients should be treated as inpatients or outpatients; and how long patients should be treated to reduce the risk of recurrence? Expert commentary: The management of PE is changing...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Noor Hafizah Arbain, Norazlinaliza Salim, Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Tin Wui Wong, Mahiran Basri, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman
Bioavailability of quercetin, a flavonoid potentially known to combat cancer, is challenging due to hydrophobic nature. Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion system could be used as nanocarrier for quercertin to be delivered to lung via pulmonary delivery. The novelty of this nanoformulation was introduced by using palm oil ester/ricinoleic acid as oil phase which formed spherical shape nanoemulsion as measured by transmission electron microscopy and Zetasizer analyses. High energy emulsification method and D-optimal mixture design were used to optimize the composition towards the volume median diameter...
March 14, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Weifeng Li, Ruoqi Zhao, Xiumei Wang, Fang Liu, Jinmeng Zhao, Qing Yao, Wenbing Zhi, Zehong He, Xiaofeng Niu
Nobiletin (NOB), a citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-insulin resistance activities. Although the anti-inflammatory activity of NOB already reported, its involvement in lung protection has not been reported. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory response of NOB in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated A549 cells and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. The animals were pre-treated with NOB (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or DEX (5 mg/kg) at 12 and 1 h before intranasal instillation of LPS...
March 14, 2018: Inflammation
Cornelia Nitipir, Octav Ginghina, Liliana Popa, Florin Andrei, Nicolaie Tudor, Irina Radu, Cristian Iaciu, Cristina Orlov, Florina Vasilescu, Cristian Balalau, Grigoris Leon, Carolina Negrei, Maria Alexandra Barbu
Although gastric metastases have been estimated to occur in less than 2% of cancer patients, an increased use of upper digestive tract endoscopy allows for a higher detection of secondary gastric tumors. We describe the case of a 66-year-old male patient presenting with mild pain in the sternum and upper abdominal area. Physical examination revealed a right parietal skull tumor, with no other significant clinical changes. Upon exclusion of an acute coronary syndrome, upper digestive tract endoscopy was performed, showing the presence of an ulcerated tumor located in the gastric fundus...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Yufeng Du, Xiaoyan Hao, Xuejun Liu
The present study aimed to investigate the expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor-2B-antisense RNA 1 CDKN2B-AS1 in patients with peripheral blood of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A total of 24 patients with IPF and 24 healthy controls were included in the study, four patients with IPF and four healthy controls were selected randomly to extract RNA. There were no other diseases such as hypertension and diabetes in the two groups. RNA from peripheral blood was extracted by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis was performed...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
A Arfaoui Toumi, A Blel, R Aloui, H Zaibi, M Ksentinini, M S Boudaya, N Znaidi, Y Zidi, H Aouina, S Rammeh Rommani
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances, non-small cell lung cancer carries a grim prognosis. For appropriate treatment selection, the updated guidelines recommend broad molecular profiling for all patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Precise histological subtyping and targeted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) testing are mandatory. METHODS: Herein, we assessed the EGFR mutation status of 26 formalin fixed-paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples of lung adenocarcinoma...
March 11, 2018: Current Research in Translational Medicine
Jacob C Easaw, Susan McCall, Adrian Azim
Stable cancer patients diagnosed with a pulmonary embolus or deep vein thrombosis are commonly referred to the emergency department for management. This practice strains an already overburdened emergency department and is associated with long wait times and poor disease/injection education for patients. This pilot study sought to determine if stable cancer patients with newly diagnosed cancer-associated thrombosis could be effectively managed by community-based pharmacists who followed an evidence-based protocol to prescribe and initiate low-molecular weight heparin therapy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Lea Ann Matura, Susan Malone, Rosario Jaime-Lara, Barbara Riegel
Fatigue, a commonly reported symptom, is defined as an overwhelming, debilitating, and sustained sense of exhaustion that decreases the ability to function and carry out daily activities. To date, cancer researchers have been in the forefront in investigating the possible biological mechanisms of fatigue, identifying inflammation, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and activation of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe fatigue and what is known about the biological mechanisms described in cancer in five chronic, noninfectious illnesses: heart failure, multiple sclerosis, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Andre M Samuel, Pablo J Diaz-Collado, Raj J Gala, Matthew L Webb, Adam M Lukasiewicz, Bryce A Basques, Daniel D Bohl, Han Jo Kim, Jonathan N Grauer
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To determine the rate of venous thromboembolism event (VTE) and risk factors for their occurrence in patients with vertebral fractures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (VTE) events are a significant source of potentially preventable morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. In patients with traumatic vertebral fractures, a common high-energy injury sometimes resulting in spinal cord injury, there is debate about what factors may be associated with such VTEs...
March 13, 2018: Spine
Hye In Jung, Jae Seok Park, Mi-Young Lee, ByeongJu Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Sun Hyo Park, Won-Il Choi, Choong Won Lee
We aimed to explore lung cancer prevalence in interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients with or without connective tissue disorder (CTD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in comparison with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD).We evaluated lung cancer prevalence associated with ILD and IPF using Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) data from January to December 2011. This database (HIRA-NPS-2011-0001) was sampled using random sampling of outpatients; 1,375,842 sample cases were collected, and 670,258 (age ≥ 40 ys) were evaluated...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Per Lehnert, Theis Lange, Christian Holdflod Møller, Peter Skov Olsen, Jørn Carlsen
This study reports the incidence, clinical profile and mortality for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) patients in the Danish population in four eras from 2004 to 2014. Patients admitted with first-time acute PE from 2004 through 2014 were identified from national patient registries classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, World Health Organization. A total of 30,275 patients from a population of 4,301,673 adult residents aged 18 years or older were diagnosed with first-time acute PE, corresponding to an incidence of 64 (95% confidence interval: 61-66) per 100,000 adult residents per year...
March 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Waiel Abusnina, Eric Yiman Auyoung, Mohammed Megri, Toni Pacioles
Small cell carcinomas (SCCs) are aggressive neoplasms commonly associated with a pulmonary origin. However, albeit rare, extrapulmonary SCC can occur in a variety of sites with an incidence in North America approximated to be 0.1% to 0.4%. Among these sites, approximately 10% of extrapulmonary SCC cases occur in the prostate and are associated with a poor mortality with a median survival of 10 months. Because of the rarity of the prostatic SCC, there is no formal treatment protocol. In this case report, we present a patient who was diagnosed with SCC in the prostate as primary origin...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Reinier Snetselaar, Matthijs F M van Oosterhout, Jan C Grutters, Coline H M van Moorsel
The enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is essential for telomere maintenance. In replicating cells, maintenance of telomere length is important for the preservation of vital genetic information and prevention of genomic instability. A common genetic variant in TERT , rs2736100 C/A, is associated with both telomere length and multiple diseases. Carriage of the C allele is associated with longer telomere length, while carriage of the A allele is associated with shorter telomere length. Furthermore, some diseases have a positive association with the C and some with the A allele...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Kun Qian, Hao Hu, Hui Xu, Y George Zheng
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are crucial epigenetic regulators in eukaryotic organisms that serve as histone writers for chromatin remodeling. PRMTs also methylate a variety of non-histone protein substrates to modulate their function and activity. The development of potent PRMT inhibitors has become an emerging and imperative research area in the drug discovery field to provide novel therapeutic agents for treating diseases and as tools to investigate the biological functions of PRMTs. PRMT1 is the major type I enzyme that catalyzes the formation of asymmetric dimethyl arginine, and PRMT1 plays important regulatory roles in signal transduction, transcriptional activation, RNA splicing, and DNA repair...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
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