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journal of renal nutrition

Anne-Lise Kamper, Svend Strandgaard
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a prevalence of approximately 13% and is most frequently caused by diabetes and hypertension. In population studies, CKD etiology is often uncertain. Some experimental and observational human studies have suggested that high-protein intake may increase CKD progression and even cause CKD in healthy people. The protein source may be important. Daily red meat consumption over years may increase CKD risk, whereas white meat and dairy proteins appear to have no such effect, and fruit and vegetable proteins may be renal protective...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
Xia Xiao, Beng San Yeoh, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an innate immune protein, has emerged as a critical iron regulatory protein during physiological and inflammatory conditions. As a bacteriostatic factor, Lcn2 obstructs the siderophore iron-acquiring strategy of bacteria and thus inhibits bacterial growth. As part of host nutritional immunity, Lcn2 facilitates systemic, cellular, and mucosal hypoferremia during inflammation, in addition to stabilizing the siderophore-bound labile iron pool. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the interaction between Lcn2 and iron, and its effects in various inflammatory diseases...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
Alex R Chang, Cheryl Anderson
Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for multiple physiological functions, recent research raises concerns that high phosphorus intake could have detrimental effects on health. Phosphorus is abundant in the food supply of developed countries, occurring naturally in protein-rich foods and as an additive in processed foods. High phosphorus intake can cause vascular and renal calcification, renal tubular injury, and premature death in multiple animal models. Small studies in human suggest that high phosphorus intake may result in positive phosphorus balance and correlate with renal calcification and albuminuria...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
Peter Stehle, Björn Ellger, Dubravka Kojic, Astrid Feuersenger, Christina Schneid, John Stover, Daniela Scheiner, Martin Westphal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing whether parenteral nutrition regimens that include glutamine dipeptides improves the outcomes of critically ill patients demonstrated convincingly that this regimen associates with reduced mortality, infections, and hospital stays. However, several new RCTs on the same question challenged this. To resolve this controversy, the present meta-analysis was performed. Stringent eligibility criteria were used to select only those RCTs that tested the outcomes of critically ill adult patients without hepatic and/or renal failure who were haemodynamically and metabolically stabilised and who were administered glutamine dipeptide strictly according to current clinical guidelines (via the parenteral route at 0...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Daphne Broadhurst, Nancy Moureau, Amanda J Ullman
Patients relying on central venous access devices (CVADs) for treatment are frequently complex. Many have multiple comorbid conditions, including renal impairment, nutritional deficiencies, hematologic disorders, or cancer. These conditions can impair the skin surrounding the CVAD insertion site, resulting in an increased likelihood of skin damage when standard CVAD management practices are employed. Supported by the World Congress of Vascular Access (WoCoVA), developed an evidence- and consensus-based algorithm to improve CVAD-associated skin impairment (CASI) identification and diagnosis, guide clinical decision-making, and improve clinician confidence in managing CASI...
May 2017: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Murali Krishna, G Mohan Kumar, S R Veena, G V Krishnaveni, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Samuel Christaprasad Karat, Patsy Coakley, Clive Osmond, John R M Copeland, Giriraj Chandak, Dattatray Bhat, Mathew Varghese, Martin Prince, Caroline Fall
INTRODUCTION: For late-life neurocognitive disorders, as for other late-life chronic diseases, much recent interest has focused on the possible relevance of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Programming by undernutrition in utero, followed by overnutrition in adult life may lead to an increased risk, possibly mediated through cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Open
E T Perrier, J H Bottin, M Vecchio, G Lemetais
Growing evidence suggests a distinction between water intake necessary for maintaining a euhydrated state, and water intake considered to be adequate from a perspective of long-term health. Previously, we have proposed that maintaining a 24-h urine osmolality (UOsm ) of ⩽500 mOsm/kg is a desirable target for urine concentration to ensure sufficient urinary output to reduce renal health risk and circulating vasopressin. In clinical practice and field monitoring, the measurement of UOsm is not practical. In this analysis, we calculate criterion values for urine-specific gravity (USG ) and urine color (UCol ), two measures which have broad applicability in clinical and field settings...
April 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Adrian Wong, Michael Erdman, Drayton A Hammond, Tara Holt, Jenna M Holzhausen, Michelle Horng, Lori Lynn Huang, Jennifer Jarvis, Bridgette Kram, Shawn Kram, Christine Lesch, Jessica Mercer, Megan A Rech, Ryan Rivosecchi, Brian Stump, Colleen Teevan, Sarah Day
PURPOSE: Recently published practice guidelines and research reports on pharmacotherapy in critical care patient populations are summarized. SUMMARY: The Critical Care Pharmacotherapy Literature Update (CCPLU) Group is composed of over 50 experienced critical care pharmacists who evaluate 31 peer-reviewed journals monthly to identify literature pertaining to pharmacotherapy in critical care populations. Articles are chosen for summarization in a monthly CCPLU Group publication on the basis of applicability and relevance to clinical practice and strength of study design...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
S-J Tan, S Satake, E R Smith, N D Toussaint, T D Hewitson, S G Holt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Iron and phosphate are both vital to many biological cellular processes with central roles in energy metabolism, cellular proliferation and nucleic acid synthesis. Regulatory pathways in some of these metabolic pathways may intersect at fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a major phosphate regulatory hormone. Iron is reported to induce hypophosphataemia in rare cases, and recent reports suggest that iron deficiency may upregulate FGF23 synthesis by mechanisms involving hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)...
February 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
M Lin, Q Su, H Huang, Y Zheng, J Wen, J Yao, J Liang, L Li, W Lin, L Lin, J Lu, Y Bi, W Wang, G Ning, G Chen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Glomerular hyperfiltration has been considered an early marker of kidney injury in prediabetes and prehypertension. Heavy alcohol consumption remains highly prevalent and is considered a major public health problem worldwide. The degree of glomerular hyperfiltration associated with alcohol consumption remains unclear. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study was conducted in three communities in China. A total of 15 390 participants (5396 males and 9994 females) aged 40-65 years were included in the study...
April 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
G H B Greenhall, A Davenport
Background/objectivesKidney dialysis patients with sarcopenia have increased mortality. Screening for low muscle mass may allow interventions at an earlier stage to help improve outcomes. We wished to determine the prevalence of low muscle mass in a cohort of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.Subjects/methodsWe measured lean body mass index (LBMI) in 490 PD patients by bioimpedance, grading patients using two different classifications of sarcopenia. RESULTS: LBMI was 9.7±1.9 kg/m2 , mean age was 55...
January 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Y-W Tsai, M-C Lu, Y-H Lin, Y-C Lee, W-C Li, J-Y Chen, S-S Chang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity, a chronic inflammatory state, increases risk of cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance, which are the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We evaluated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level and impaired kidney function to determine the predictive value of both markers for estimating chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk in a healthy adult population in Taiwan. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study of 4100 subjects ⩾18 years, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship among BMI, high hsCRP levels and CKD...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
The average US dietary intake of K(+) is well below the current recommended nutritional requirements. This deficiency is even more striking when comparing our current intake with that of our ancestors, who consumed large amounts of dietary K(+). K(+) deficiency has been implicated in many diseases including cardiovascular disease, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. Importantly, dietary supplementation of K(+) has favorable effects on reducing blood pressure, decreasing the risk of stroke, improving bone health, and reducing the risk of nephrolithiasis...
April 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
I A Eide, D O Dahle, M Svensson, A Hartmann, A Åsberg, K S Bjerve, J H Christensen, E B Schmidt, M E Lauritsen, K Lund, T Jenssen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death after renal transplantation. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert potential cardio-protective metabolic effects and might reduce CV morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 1990 Norwegian RTRs, transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between plasma phospholipid marine n-3 PUFA levels and various CV risk markers at 10 weeks after transplant were evaluated...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
M R Hoffmann, P A Senior, S T Jackson, K Jindal, D R Mager
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To determine the interrelationships between body composition, glycemic control and vitamin D status in an ambulatory population with diabetes (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Adult (18-80 years) patients (n=60) with DM and stage 1-4 CKD were recruited from the Northern Alberta Renal Program. Outcome variables included body composition (absolute/regional fat (FM)/lean soft tissue/total mass, percent fat/lean/fat-free (FFM) mass), glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)), vitamin D intake (dietary/supplemental) and vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D)) measured by validated methodologies...
June 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Almudena Vicente, Beatriz Lecumberri, María Ángeles Gálvez
UNLABELLED: Classic pituitary apoplexy (PA) is an acute, life-threatening clinical syndrome caused by acute hemorrhage and/or infarction of the pituitary gland. PA is considered a neuroendocrinological emergency. However, there is no consensus about the best options for PA diagnosis and management. OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical practice guideline with a number of recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of patients with PA based on the medical evidence available, in order to help clinicians involved in their care...
December 2013: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Manisha Sahay, Rakesh Sahay
Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism...
March 2012: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karin J R Ipema, Cees P van der Schans, Noortje Vonk, Jorien M de Vries, Ralf Westerhuis, Ellen Duym, Casper F M Franssen
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is an important cause of the excessive morbidity and mortality rate of dialysis patients. Frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) has many benefits compared with conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis (CHD), due to the virtual absence of dietary restrictions and a much higher overall dialysis efficiency. In this observational study, we investigated whether these benefits of NHHD translate into an improved nutritional intake, with a special emphasis on protein intake...
May 2012: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Maria Chan, Aditi Patwardhan, Catherine Ryan, Paul Trevillian, Steven Chadban, Fidye Westgarth, Karen Fry
OBJECTIVE: The present article summarizes the key recommendations of the evidence-based guidelines developed for the nutritional management of adult kidney transplant recipients. BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Nutrition interventions play an important role in preventing and managing common health problems associated with renal transplantation such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Two sets of guidelines were developed by a working group of renal dietitians and nephrologists...
January 2011: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Rita S Suri, Gihad E Nesrallah, Rahul Mainra, Amit X Garg, Robert M Lindsay, Tom Greene, John T Daugirdas
Several studies have reported improved outcomes with daily hemodialysis (DHD), but the strength of this evidence has not been evaluated. The published evidence on DHD was synthesized and its quality rated to inform need and sample size calculations for a randomized trial. Citations were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE using validated search strategies. Dialysis journals that were not indexed and bibliographies of relevant articles were hand-searched. Two authors reviewed all citations. Articles that reported original data on five or more adults who were receiving DHD (1...
January 2006: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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