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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160392/prevalence-and-sensitivity-of-bacilli-and-pseudomonas-in-the-newborn-s-oral-cavity
#1
Priscila Vitor Alves Ferreira, Isabela Amêndola, Luciane Dias de Oliveira, Célia Regina Gonçalves E Silva, Mariella Vieira Pereira Leão, Silvana Soléo Ferreira Dos Santos
The aim of this study was to isolate Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas from the oral cavity of hospitalized newborns (NB) and determine their prevalence and the sensitivity profile to most commonly used antibiotics for this age group. Samples from the oral cavity of NB from 24 to 48 h age were collected using swabs. The samples were inoculated on MacConkey agar, incubated and the colonies counted and identified. For each strain, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using agar dilution test...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159897/identification-and-characterization-of-two-variants-of-the-hfq-srna-chaperone-in-the-fish-pathogen-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#2
S H Marshall, P Flores-Herrera, F A Henríquez, F A Gómez
Small RNA and chaperone proteins form synergistic duos that play pivotal roles in controlling gene expression in bacteria. This is the case for Hfq, a highly pleiotropic pretranslational modulator of general protein expression, which responds to harsh environmental conditions and influences fitness and virulence in a wide range of pathogenic Enterobacteria. Given this relevancy, we evaluated the presence and potential role of Hfq in the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis, a Gram-negative bacterium that threatens the sustainability of Chilean salmon production...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159177/effectiveness-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-combined-with-antibiotics-for-extensively-drug-resistant-enterobacteria-and-nonfermentative-bacteria-infection-real-life-experience-in-a-retrospective-cohort
#3
Yangping Cai, Qing Zhang, Yuefeng Fu, Li Li, Ning Zhao, Aiping Lu, Qingquan Liu, Miao Jiang
Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have been successfully used in the treatment of infectious diseases, yet the effectiveness of CHMs for extensively drug-resistant enterobacteria (XDRE) infection remains unclear. Herein we developed a retrospective multicenter study including 766 patients with XDRE and nonfermentative bacteria (NFB) infection to investigate the effectiveness of CHMs combined with antibiotics in the treatment of XDRE infections in clinical daily practice in a cohort of patients and compared the regular antibiotics monotherapy...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157781/infections-by-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-department-of-urology-a-new-challenge
#4
J Justo-Quintas, J Medina-Polo, J Gil-Moradillo, F Jaén-Herreros, A Lara-Isla, Á Tejido-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To analyse infections by carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and describe the characteristics and potential risk factors associated with patients of a department of urology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational and retrospective study. The inclusion criterion was hospitalisation in our department of Urology between August 2013 and December 2016. We analysed those patients who were positive for CPE in at least 1 culture. We reviewed their baseline characteristics, risk factors and variables such as the presence of previous urinary tract infections, subsequent readmissions, the microorganism, type of CPE, treatment, origin (hospital or community) and mortality...
November 17, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155429/monobactam-formation-in-sulfazecin-by-a-nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-thioesterase
#5
Ryan A Oliver, Rongfeng Li, Craig A Townsend
The N-sulfonated monocyclic β-lactam ring characteristic of the monobactams confers resistance to zinc metallo-β-lactamases and affords the most effective class to combat carbapenem-resistant enterobacteria (CRE). Here we report unprecedented nonribosomal peptide synthetase activities, wherein an assembled tripeptide is N-sulfonated in trans before direct synthesis of the β-lactam ring in a noncanonical, cysteine-containing thioesterase domain. This means of azetidinone synthesis is distinct from the three others known in nature...
November 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151895/toll-like-receptor-4-differentially-mediates-intestinal-and-extra-intestinal-immune-responses-upon-multi-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-association-of-il10-mice-with-chronic-colitis
#6
Anne Grunau, Ulrike Escher, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
Background: Infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) have become a serious threat particularly in hospitalized patients with immunopathological co-morbidities. The well-balanced interplay between immune cells, pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 sensing lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria including PA, and evolving pathways is crucial to prevent the host from invading (opportunistic) pathogens...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150889/novel-aqueous-oil-in-water-emulsions-containing-extracts-of-natural-coniferous-resins-are-strongly-antimicrobial-against-enterobacteria-staphylococci-and-yeasts-as-well-as-on-bacterial-biofilms
#7
Elias Haapakorva, Thomas Holmbom, Atte von Wright
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial properties of novel aqueous natural rapeseed oil/saline emulsions containing different soluble components of spruce resin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The composition of aqueous resin emulsions was analyzed by GC-MS and their antimicrobial properties were studied with challenge tests and with turbidometric assays. The emulsions were strongly antimicrobial against common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (including MRSA) as well as common yeasts...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138665/-epidemiological-profile-of-uropathogenic-enterobacteria-producing-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases
#8
Mohammed Sbiti, Khalid Lahmadi, Lhoussaine Louzi
Urinary tract infections due to enterobacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL-E) constitute a infectious risk, a major therapeutic challenge and can even lead, in some cases, to a deadlock beacuse of their multi-resistance to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological profile of uropathogenic ESBL-E and to describe their current level of resistance to antibiotics for a better patient management according to local data. We conducted a retrospective study of all ESBL-E strains isolated from all cytobacteriogical testing of urine (CBEU) treated in the Microbiology Laboratory at the Military Hospital of Moulay Ismail, Meknes over a period of three years (from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116290/drug-resistance-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-fish-and-shrimp
#9
Marília Viana Albuquerque de Almeida, Ítalo Mendes Cangussú, Antonia Leonadia Siqueira de Carvalho, Izabelly Linhares Ponte Brito, Renata Albuquerque Costa
The present study aims to detect the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) by enterobacteria isolated from samples of fresh shrimp and fish obtained from the retail trade of the city of Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil. All bacterial isolates were submitted to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing using aminopenicillin, beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenem, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, and monobactam. Three types of beta-lactamases - ESBL, AmpC and KPC - were investigated...
November 6, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112974/impact-of-extensive-antibiotic-treatment-on-faecal-carriage-of-antibiotic-resistant-enterobacteria-in-children-in-a-low-resistance-prevalence-setting
#10
Per Kristian Knudsen, Petter Brandtzaeg, E Arne Høiby, Jon Bohlin, Ørjan Samuelsen, Martin Steinbakk, Tore G Abrahamsen, Fredrik Müller, Karianne Wiger Gammelsrud
We prospectively studied the consequences of extensive antibiotic treatment on faecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria in a cohort of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and a cohort of children with cancer compared to healthy children with no or low antibiotic exposure. The study was conducted in Norway in a low resistance prevalence setting. Sixty longitudinally collected faecal samples from children with CF (n = 32), 88 samples from children with cancer (n = 45) and 127 samples from healthy children (n = 70) were examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111434/empiric-treatment-of-lower-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-face-of-spreading-multi-drug-resistance-in-vitro-study-of-nitroxoline-effectiveness
#11
A Sobke, O Makarewicz, M Baier, C Bär, W Pfister, S G Gatermann, M W Pletz, C Forstner
The spread of antimicrobial resistance challenges the empiric treatment in urinary tract infections (UTI). Among others, nitrofurantoin is recommended for first line treatment, but acceptance among clinicians is limited due to chronic nitrofurantoin-induced lung toxicity and insufficient coverage of Enterobacteriaceae other than Escherichia coli. Nitroxoline seems to be an alternative to nitrofurantoin due to its favourable safety profile but data on its current in vitro susceptibility are sparse. In this study susceptibility to nitroxoline was tested against 3,012 urinary clinical isolates (including multidrug-resistant bacteria and Candida spp...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070552/effects-of-iron-fortification-and-supplementation-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-diarrhea-in-infants-and-children-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Daniela Paganini, Michael B Zimmermann
In infants and young children in Sub-Saharan Africa, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is common, and many complementary foods are low in bioavailable iron. In-home fortification of complementary foods using iron-containing micronutrient powders (MNPs) and oral iron supplementation are both effective strategies to increase iron intakes and reduce IDA at this age. However, these interventions produce large increases in colonic iron because the absorption of their high iron dose (≥12.5 mg) is typically <20%. We reviewed studies in infants and young children on the effects of iron supplements and iron fortification with MNPs on the gut microbiome and diarrhea...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064838/study-of-the-effectiveness-of-multipurpose-solutions-on-the-bacterial-disinfection-of-silicone-hydrogel-contact-lenses-in-vitro
#13
Priscila C Correa, Aline C F Lui, Cely B Silva, Carolina P B Gracitelli, Lycia M Mimica, Suzethe M Sasagawa, Adamo L Netto
OBJECTIVES: To assess the antimicrobial effectiveness of multipurpose solutions in regard to the disinfection of silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CL) using a study of clinical bacterial isolates from ocular material. METHODS: Three multipurpose solutions (solution A: polyhexamethylene biguanide 0.00025 g/100 mL; solution B: polyquaternary-1 0.001% and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine 0.0006%; and solution C: polyaminopropyl biguanide 0.00013% and polyquaternary 0...
October 12, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048199/polyamine-based-thiols-in-trypanosomatids-evolution-protein-structural-adaptations-and-biological-functions
#14
Bruno Manta, Mariana Bonilla, Lucía Fiestas, Mattia Sturlese, Gustavo Salinas, Massimo Bellanda, Marcelo A Comini
<b>Significance.</b> Major pathogenic enterobacteria and protozoan parasites from the phylum Euglenozoa, such as Trypanosomatids, are endowed with glutathione-spermidine derivatives that play important roles in signaling, metal and thiol-redox homeostasis. For some Euglenozoa lineages, the glutathione-spermidine conjugates represent the main redox co-substrates around which entire new redox systems have evolved. Several proteins underwent molecular adaptations to synthesize and utilize the new polyamine-based thiols...
October 19, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034108/intestinal-microbiota-changes-in-mice-lacking-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-bifidobacteria-make-the-difference
#15
Markus M Heimesaat, Gernot Reifenberger, Viktoria Vicena, Anita Illes, Gabriella Horvath, Andrea Tamas, Balazs D Fulop, Stefan Bereswill, Dora Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypetide (PACAP) constitutes a neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the host exerting essential cytoprotective properties, whereas PACAP(-/-) mice display increased susceptibility to distinct immunopathological conditions. The orchestrated interplay between the gut microbiota and the host is pivotal in immune homeostasis and resistance to disease. Potential pertubations of the intestinal microbiota in PACAP(-/-) mice, however, have not been addressed so far. For the first time, we performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota composition in PACAP(-/-) and wildtype (WT) mice starting 2 weeks postpartum until 18 months of age applying quantitative culture-independent techniques...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032652/molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-genomic-island-1-in-proteus-mirabilis-isolates-from-chungcheong-provinces-korea
#16
Ji Youn Sung, Semi Kim, GyeCheol Kwon, Sun Hoe Koo
Emergence and dissemination of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is strongly associated with occurrence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteria in humans and animals. Diverse SGI1s have been reported among Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis in several countries. We aimed to characterize SGI1 in P. mirabilis isolates from humans and chickens at ChungCheong provinces, Korea. A total of 44 P. mirabilis isolates were recovered from humans (n=20) and chickens (n=24). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024617/stm2360-encodes-a-d-ornithine-d-lysine-decarboxylase-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#17
Robert S Phillips, Pafe Poteh, Katherine A Miller, Timothy R Hoover
STM2360 is a gene located in a small operon of undetermined function in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. The amino acid sequence of STM2360 shows significant similarity (∼30% identity) to diaminopimelate decarboxylase (DapDC), a Fold III pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme involved in l-lysine biosynthesis. We have found that the protein coded by STM2360 has a previously undocumented catalytic activity, d-ornithine/d-lysine decarboxylase (DOKDC). The reaction products, cadaverine and putrescine, respectively, were identified by NMR and mass spectrometry...
October 9, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981745/structure-function-and-regulation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-porins
#18
Sylvie Chevalier, Emeline Bouffartigues, Josselin Bodilis, Olivier Maillot, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Marc G J Feuilloley, Nicole Orange, Alain Dufour, Pierre Cornelis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the γ-proteobacteria. Like other members of the Pseudomonas genus, it is known for its metabolic versatility and its ability to colonize a wide range of ecological niches, such as rhizosphere, water environments and animal hosts, including humans where it can cause severe infections. Another particularity of P. aeruginosa is its high intrinsic resistance to antiseptics and antibiotics, which is partly due to its low outer membrane permeability...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969446/protective-effects-of-indigenous-escherichia-coli-against-a-pathogenic-e-coli-challenge-strain-in-pigs
#19
W Vahjen, T Cuisiniere, J Zentek
To investigate the inhibitory effect of indigenous enterobacteria on pathogenic Escherichia coli, a challenge trial with postweaning pigs was conducted. A pathogenic E. coli strain was administered to all animals and their health was closely monitored thereafter. Faecal samples were taken from three healthy and three diarrhoeic animals. Samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar and isolates were subcultured. A soft agar overlay assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of the isolates. A total of 1,173 enterobacterial isolates were screened for their ability to inhibit the E...
October 3, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961745/recurrent-reverse-evolution-maintains-polymorphism-after-strong-bottlenecks-in-commensal-gut-bacteria
#20
Ana Sousa, Ricardo S Ramiro, João Barroso-Batista, Daniela Güleresi, Marta Lourenço, Isabel Gordo
The evolution of new strains within the gut ecosystem is poorly understood. We used a natural but controlled system to follow the emergence of intraspecies diversity of commensal Escherichia coli, during three rounds of adaptation to the mouse gut (∼1,300 generations). We previously showed that, in the first round, a strongly beneficial phenotype (loss-of-function for galactitol consumption; gat-negative) spread to >90% frequency in all colonized mice. Here, we show that this loss-of-function is repeatedly reversed when a gat-negative clone colonizes new mice...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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