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Enterobacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432591/prior-beliefs-influence-symmetrical-or-asymmetrical-generalizations-in-human-causal-learning
#1
Ryoji Nishiyama, Takatoshi Nagaishi, Takahisa Masaki
The generalization decrement between element A and compound AX has shown both symmetrical (Thorwart & Lachnit, 2009) and asymmetrical (Glautier, 2004) patterns in human contingency learning. In a series of experiments we examined the hypothesis that prior beliefs about the relationship between a distinctive element X and an outcome are important for determining the different generalization patterns. Participants learned which given enterobacteria caused a negative or a positive effect on gastrointestinal conditions...
April 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423881/effects-of-calcium-propionate-on-the-fermentation-quality-and-aerobic-stability-of-alfalfa-silage
#2
Zhi Hao Dong, Xian Jun Yuan, Ai You Wen, Seare T Desta, Tao Shao
Objective: To assess the potency of calcium propionate used as silage additive, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of calcium propionate on the nitrogen transformation, fermentation quality and aerobic stability of alfalfa silages. Methods: Alfalfa was ensiled with four levels of calcium propionate (CAP; 5, 10, 15 and 20 g kg-1 of fresh weigh) in laboratory silos for 30 days. After opening, the silages were analyzed for the chemical and microbiological characteristics, and subjected to an aerobic stability test...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419869/allodemic-distribution-of-plasmids-co-harbouring-blactx-m-15-aac-6-ib-cr-qnrb-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-is-the-main-source-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-uruguay-s-paediatric-hospital
#3
V Garcia-Fulgueiras, L Araujo, I Bado, N F Cordeiro, M I Mota, G Laguna, G Algorta, R Vignoli
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the characteristics of clinical isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria (EPE) in Uruguay's paediatric hospital. METHODS: ESBLs, qnr alleles and aac(6')-Ib-cr were sought and characterised in EPE isolated between March 2010 and March 2012. Transfer of resistance determinants was assessed by conjugation. Incompatibility (Inc) groups, plasmid toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) and plasmid size were determined in transconjugants...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414794/intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-toxoplasma-gondii-induced-acute-ileitis-in-mice-harboring-a-human-gut-microbiota
#4
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400020/bacterial-communities-of-fresh-goat-meat-packaged-in-modified-atmosphere
#5
Elia Carrizosa, María José Benito, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano, Alejandro Hernández, Maria Del Carmen Villalobos, Alberto Martín, María de Guía Córdoba
The objective of this work was to study the growth and development of fortuitous flora and food pathogens in fresh goat meat packaged under modified atmospheres containing two different concentrations of CO2. Meat samples were stored at 10 °C under two different modified-atmosphere packing (MAP) conditions: treatment A had 45% CO2 + 20% O2 + 35% N2 and treatment B had 20% CO2 + 55% O2 + 25% N2. During 14 days of storage, counts of each bacterial group and dominant species identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to determine the microbial diversity present...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386472/comprehensive-survey-of-intestinal-microbiota-changes-in-offspring-of-human-microbiota-associated-mice
#6
Eliane von Klitzing, Fulya Öz, Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Escher, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment provide a valuable tool for association studies with microbiota derived from different vertebrate hosts. We here generated human microbiota-associated (hma) mice by human fecal microbiota transplantation of secondary abiotic mice and performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota dynamics in offspring of hma mice over 18 weeks following weaning as compared to their mothers applying both cultural and molecular methods. Mice were maintained under standard hygienic conditions with open cages, handled under aseptic conditions, and fed autoclaved chow and water...
March 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385839/draft-genome-sequences-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-actinidiae-icmp-19971-and-icmp-19972-two-strains-isolated-from-actinidia-chinensis-with-symptoms-of-summer-canker-in-south-korea
#7
Sandra B Visnovsky, Preetinanda Panda, Robert Taylor, Andrew R Pitman
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. actinidiae is the causal agent of summer canker in kiwifruit plants in South Korea. We report here the draft genome sequences of two P. carotovorum subsp. actinidiae strains, ICMP 19971 and ICMP 19972, which were originally isolated from Actinidia chinensis with symptoms of summer canker. These genome sequences will aid in the identification of genetic traits associated with their unusual capacity to cause canker and help understanding of the threat these exotic enterobacteria pose to the New Zealand kiwifruit industry...
April 6, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385464/microbiology-of-surgical-site-infections-in-patients-with-cancer-a-7-year-review
#8
Juan Carlos Hernaiz-Leonardo, Maria Fernanda Golzarri, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow, Consuelo Velázquez, Mauricio Ostrosky-Frid, Diana Vilar-Compte
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have arisen as major sources of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most frequent HAIs in many countries, with high antimicrobial-resistant prevalence. METHODS: A 7-year retrospective review (2008-2014) of microbiologic data within a prospective surveillance program on patients with SSI at a cancer hospital in Mexico. RESULTS: There were 23,421 surgeries performed during the study period...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384626/complete-genome-sequence-of-proteus-mirabilis-phage-ppm_01-isolated-from-raw-sewage
#9
Ira Aryani Wirjon, Nyok-Sean Lau, Yahya Mat Arip
OBJECTIVES: Phage pPM_01 was previously isolated from a raw sewage treatment facility located in Batu Maung, Penang, Malaysia, and it was highly lytic against Proteus mirabilis, which causes urinary tract infections in humans. In this paper, we characterize the biology and complete genome sequence of the phage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy revealed phage pPM_01 to be a siphovirus (the first reported virus to infect P. mirabilis), with its complete genome sequence successfully determined...
April 7, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374966/apoptosis-dysbiosis-and-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-are-sequential-events-in-the-development-of-5-fluorouracil-induced-intestinal-mucositis-in-mice
#10
Nahla Hamouda, Tatsushi Sano, Yosuke Oikawa, Toru Ozaki, Masaki Shimakawa, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kikuko Amagase, Kazuhide Higuchi, Shinichi Kato
The chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) causes intestinal mucositis with severe diarrhoea but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the pathogenic effects of 5-FU in mice, focusing on apoptosis, enterobacteria and inflammatory cytokines. Repeated administration of 5-FU caused severe intestinal mucositis on day 6, accompanied by diarrhoea and body weight loss. TNF-α expression increased one day after exposure to the drug, and spiked a second time on day 4, at which point myeloperoxidase activity and IL-1β expression also increased...
April 4, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373273/appropriate-regulation-of-the-%C3%AF-e-dependent-envelope-stress-response-is-necessary-to-maintain-cell-envelope-integrity-and-stationary-phase-survival-in-escherichia-coli
#11
Hervé Nicoloff, Saumya Gopalkrishnan, Sarah E Ades
The alternative sigma factor σ(E) is a key component of the Escherichia coli response to cell envelope stress and is required for viability even in the absence of stress. σ(E) activity increases during entry into stationary phase suggesting an important role for σ(E) when nutrients are limiting. Elevated σ(E) activity has been proposed to activate a pathway leading to lysis of non-culturable cells that accumulate during early stationary phase. To better understand σ(E)-directed cell lysis and the role of σ(E) in stationary phase, we investigated the effects of elevated σ(E) activity in cultures grown for ten days...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371809/interventions-to-reduce-the-bacterial-load-in-recycled-broiler-litter
#12
C S L Vaz, D Voss-Rech, V S de Avila, A Coldebella, V S Silva
Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the bacterial load in recycled litter between broiler flocks following addition of quicklime (T1), windrowing (T2), shallow fermentation (T3), and control (no intervention, T4). The first experiment was developed in field conditions in which the broiler houses were accompanied by 6 consecutive flocks and the effect of the treatments was assessed on enterobacteria and aerobic mesophiles. The second experiment was conducted in an experimental broiler house with recycled litter for assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4)...
March 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351914/the-n-acetylmuramic-acid-6-phosphate-phosphatase-mupp-completes-the-pseudomonas-peptidoglycan-recycling-pathway-leading-to-intrinsic-fosfomycin-resistance
#13
Marina Borisova, Jonathan Gisin, Christoph Mayer
Bacterial cells are encased in and stabilized by a netlike peptidoglycan (PGN) cell wall that undergoes turnover during bacterial growth. PGN turnover fragments are frequently salvaged by the cells via a pathway referred to as PGN recycling. Two different routes for the recycling of the cell wall sugar N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) have been recognized in bacteria. In Escherichia coli and related enterobacteria, as well as in most Gram-positive bacteria, MurNAc is recovered via a catabolic route requiring a MurNAc 6-phosphate etherase (MurQ in E...
March 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339522/influence-of-postbiotic-rg14-and-inulin-combination-on-cecal-microbiota-organic-acid-concentration-and-cytokine-expression-in-broiler-chickens
#14
K Y Kareem, T C Loh, H L Foo, S A Asmara, H Akit
This study examined the effects of different combinations of inulin and postbiotics RG14 on growth performance, cecal microbiota, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ileal cytokine expression in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-and sixteen, one-day-old chicks were allocated into 6 treatment groups, namely, a basal diet (negative control, NC), basal diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control, PC), T1 = basal diet + 0.15% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T2 = basal diet + 0.3% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T3 = basal diet + 0...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317807/tetrahydro-2-furanyl-2-4-1h-3h-pyrimidinedione-derivatives-as-novel-antibacterial-compounds-against-mycobacterium
#15
Yuji Koseki, Hironori Kanetaka, Joji Tsunosaki, Héléne Munier-Lehmann, Shunsuke Aoki
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidine monophosphate kinase (mtTMPK) is a potential enzymatic target for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we performed pharmacophore-based in silico screening, targeting mtTMPK with a compound library of 461,383 chemicals. We evaluated the candidate compounds for inhibitory effects on the growth of the model mycobacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis. RESULTS: The compound KTP3 completely inhibited the growth of M...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314783/umbilical-infections-in-foals-microbiological-investigation-and-management
#16
E Rampacci, F Passamonti, M Bottinelli, V Stefanetti, M Cercone, S Nannarone, R Gialletti, F Beccati, M Coletti, M Pepe
This study aims to investigate the bacteria involved in equine omphalitis and their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs, and consequently to provide guidelines concerning the most suitable treatment protocol in accordance with the clinical, ultrasound and laboratory findings. Forty foals aged between one and 30 days were evaluated in the course of this investigation. An ultrasound examination of all umbilical remnants was carried out carefully in all foals; umbilical swabs were collected for bacteriological examination, and blood samples were collected for blood culture from 19 foals with fever and abnormal blood values...
March 17, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282893/the-novel-property-of-heptapeptide-of-microcin-c7-in-affecting-the-cell-growth-of-escherichia-coli
#17
Rensen Ran, Huan Zeng, Dong Zhao, Ruiyuan Liu, Xia Xu
Microcin C7 (McC), widely distributed in enterobacteria, is a promising antibiotic against antibiotic resistance [...].
March 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278106/interactive-effect-of-trivalent-iron-on-activated-sludge-digestion-and-biofilm-structure-in-attached-growth-reactor-of-waste-tyre-rubber
#18
Iqra Sharafat, Dania Khalid Saeed, Sumera Yasmin, Asma Imran, Zargona Zafar, Abdul Hameed, Naeem Ali
Waste tyre rubber (WTR) has been introduced as an alternative, novel media for biofilm development in several experimental systems including attached growth bioreactors. In this context, four laboratory scale static batch bioreactors containing WTR as a support material for biofilm development were run under anoxic condition for 90 days using waste activated sludge as an inoculum under the influence of different concentrations (2.5, 6.5, 8.5 mg/l) of trivalent ferric iron (Fe(3+)). The data revealed that activated sludge W with a Fe(3+) concentration of 8...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252809/activation-of-leuo-by-lrha-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Hannes Breddermann, Karin Schnetz
LeuO is a conserved LysR-type transcription factor of pleiotropic function in Enterobacteria. Regulation of the leuO gene has been best studied in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Its expression is silenced by the nucleoid-associated proteins H-NS and StpA, autoregulated by LeuO, and in E. coli activated by the transcription regulator BglJ-RcsB. However, signals which induce leuO expression remain unknown. Here we show that LrhA, a conserved LysR-type transcription regulator, activates leuO in E. coli...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249816/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-effects-of-polyphenols-extracted-from-antirhea-borbonica-medicinal-plant-on-adipocytes-exposed-to-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-escherichia-coli-lipopolysaccharides
#20
Fanny Le Sage, Olivier Meilhac, Marie-Paule Gonthier
In obesity, gut microbiota LPS may translocate into the blood stream and then contribute to adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress, leading to insulin resistance. A causal link between periodontal infection, obesity and type 2 diabetes has also been suggested. We evaluated the ability of polyphenols from Antirhea borbonica medicinal plant to improve the inflammatory and redox status of 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to LPS of Porphyromonas gingivalis periodontopathogen or Escherichia coli enterobacteria...
May 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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