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Bartosz Roszniowski, Agnieszka Latka, Barbara Maciejewska, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Tomasz Olszak, Yves Briers, Giles S Holt, Miguel A Valvano, Rob Lavigne, Darren L Smith, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Burkholderia phage AP3 (vB_BceM_AP3) is a temperate virus of the Myoviridae and the Peduovirinae subfamily (P2likevirus genus). This phage specifically infects multidrug-resistant clinical Burkholderia cenocepacia lineage IIIA strains commonly isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. AP3 exhibits high pairwise nucleotide identity (61.7 %) to Burkholderia phage KS5, specific to the same B. cenocepacia host, and has 46.7-49.5 % identity to phages infecting other species of Burkholderia. The lysis cassette of these related phages has a similar organization (putative antiholin, putative holin, endolysin, and spanins) and shows 29-98 % homology between specific lysis genes, in contrast to Enterobacteria phage P2, the hallmark phage of this genus...
October 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ezequiel Albornoz, Celeste Lucero, Genara Romero, María Paula Quiroga, Melina Rapoport, Leonor Guerriero, Patricia Andres, Cecilia Rodriguez, Marcelo Galas, Daniela Centrón, Alejandra Corso, Alejandro Petroni
This first nationwide study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in phenotypically unselected (consecutive) clinical enterobacteria. We studied 1,058 isolates that had been consecutively collected in 66 hospitals of the WHONET-Argentina Resistance Surveillance Network. Overall, 26% of isolates were nonsusceptible to at least one of the three quinolones tested (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin). The overall prevalence of PMQR genes was 8...
October 11, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Anamariela Tijerino Ayala, Hilda María Bolaños Acuña, María Teresa Acuña Calvo, José Luis Vargas Morales, Elena Campos Chacón
Plasmid-mediated AmpC are enzymes belonging to the group of β-lactamases and encoded by bla AmpC genes. Of these enzymes, those known as type CMY-2 are the most frequently reported worldwide. Detection of enterobacteria that produce CMY-2-type plasmid-mediated AmpC is clinically important since the use of β-lactam antibiotics can result in treatment failure. It is also important from a public health standpoint owing to the capacity for conjugative plasmid transfer to other enterobacteria, both within the community and in nosocomial environments...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Despoina A I Mavridou, Diego Gonzalez, Abigail Clements, Kevin R Foster
Fluorescent labeling has been an invaluable tool for the study of living organisms and bacterial species are no exception to this. Here we present and characterize the pUltra plasmids which express constitutively a fluorescent protein gene (GFP, RFP, YFP or CFP) from a strong synthetic promoter and are suitable for the fluorescent labeling of a broad range of Enterobacteria. The amount of expressed fluorophore from these genetic constructs is such, that the contours of the cells can be delineated on the basis of the fluorescent signal only...
September 29, 2016: Plasmid
Kenn Gerdes
Bacteria form persisters, cells that are tolerant to multiple antibiotics and other types of environmental stress. Persister formation can be induced either stochastically in single cells of a growing bacterial ensemble, or by environmental stresses, such as nutrient starvation, in a subpopulation of cells. In many cases, the molecular mechanisms underlying persistence are still unknown. However, there is growing evidence that, in enterobacteria, both stochastically and environmentally induced persistence are controlled by the second messenger (p)ppGpp...
November 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Chiara Cattaneo, P Zappasodi, V Mancini, C Annaloro, F Pavesi, C Skert, A Ferrario, E Todisco, V Saccà, L Verga, A Passi, M Da Vià, S Ferrari, G Mometto, M Petullà, A Nosari, G Rossi
Multiresistant bacterial infections are a potentially life-threatening condition in acute leukaemia (AL) patients. We aimed to better define the very recent epidemiology and outcome of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a real-life setting. We prospectively collected all consecutive febrile/infectious episodes occurring in AL patients admitted to 9 haematology units. In 293 AL patients, 433 BSIs were diagnosed. Gram-positive (GP) bacteria were isolated in 44.8 % BSI and Gram-negative (GN) in 38.3 %, while polymicrobial aetiology- or fungi-related events were identified in 15...
September 21, 2016: Annals of Hematology
Jingcheng Xiao, Huimin Chen, Dian Kang, Yuhao Shao, Boyu Shen, Xinuo Li, Xiaoxi Yin, Zhangpei Zhu, Haofeng Li, Tai Rao, Lin Xie, Guangji Wang, Yan Liang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Intestinal microflora plays crucial roles in modulating pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacological actions of active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, the exact impact of altered intestinal microflora affecting the biotransformation of TCMs remains poorly understood. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to reveal the specific enterobacteria which dominate the metabolism of panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) via exploring the relationship between bacterial community structures and the metabolic profiles of PNSs...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Michèle Valens, Axel Thiel, Frédéric Boccard
The Ori region of bacterial genomes is segregated early in the replication cycle of bacterial chromosomes. Consequently, Ori region positioning plays a pivotal role in chromosome dynamics. The Ori region of the E. coli chromosome is organized as a macrodomain with specific properties concerning DNA mobility, segregation of loci and long distance DNA interactions. Here, by using strains with chromosome rearrangements and DNA mobility as a read-out, we have identified the MaoP/maoS system responsible for constraining DNA mobility in the Ori region and limiting long distance DNA interactions with other regions of the chromosome...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Sophie Tronnet, Christophe Garcie, Nadine Rehm, Ulrich Dobrindt, Eric Oswald, Patricia Martin
The genotoxin colibactin is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of pathogenic enterobacteria. Its biosynthesis requires the enzymatic activity of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) ClbA. We previously showed that ClbA can also contribute to the production of siderophores. Because the biosynthesis of siderophores is regulated by iron availability, we hypothesized that iron could also modulate the production of colibactin through the transcriptional regulation of clbA. This study revealed an increased transcription of clbA in iron limiting conditions, and a decrease of clbA expression in iron rich media...
September 12, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Folarin A Oguntoyinbo, Gyu-Sung Cho, Bernhard Trierweiler, Jan Kabisch, Niels Rösch, Horst Neve, Wilhelm Bockelmann, Lara Frommherz, Dennis S Nielsen, Lukasz Krych, Charles M A P Franz
Vegetables produced in Africa are sources of much needed micronutrients and fermentation is one way to enhance the shelf life of these perishable products. To prevent post-harvest losses and preserve African leafy vegetables, Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 and Lactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains were investigated for their application in fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) leaves. They were inoculated at 1×10(7)cfu/ml and grew to a maximum level of 10(8)cfu/ml during 24h submerged fermentation...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Yufang Hao, Lixia Geng
Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in rats with sepsis. Methods Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into blank group, sham group, model group and treatment group. Sepsis model was made using cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). BMSCs were extracted and cultured to the third generation. The rats in the treatment group received BMSCs through a tail vein and the rats in the model group received an equivalent dose of PBS. The survival rate was recorded in each group 72 hours after operation...
September 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Kristoffer Winther, Jai J Tree, David Tollervey, Kenn Gerdes
The major human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis can survive in the host organism for decades without causing symptoms. A large cohort of Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) modules contribute to this persistence. Of these, 48 TA modules belong to the vapBC (virulence associated protein) gene family. VapC toxins are PIN domain endonucleases that, in enterobacteria, inhibit translation by site-specific cleavage of initiator tRNA. In contrast, VapC20 of M. tuberculosis inhibits translation by site-specific cleavage of the universally conserved Sarcin-Ricin loop (SRL) in 23S rRNA...
September 5, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Marwa Mostafa Mostafa, Mohammad Nassef, Amr Badr
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Salmonella and Escherichia coli are different types of bacteria that cause food poisoning in humans. In the elderly, infants and people with chronic conditions, it is very dangerous if Salmonella or E. coli gets into the bloodstream and then they must be treated by phage therapy. Treating Salmonella and E. coli by phage therapy affects the gut flora. This research paper presents a system for detecting the effects of virulent E. coli and Salmonella bacteriophages on human gut...
October 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Hüseyin Ilgü, Jean-Marc Jeckelmann, Vytautas Gapsys, Zöhre Ucurum, Bert L de Groot, Dimitrios Fotiadis
Pathogenic enterobacteria need to survive the extreme acidity of the stomach to successfully colonize the human gut. Enteric bacteria circumvent the gastric acid barrier by activating extreme acid-resistance responses, such as the arginine-dependent acid resistance system. In this response, l-arginine is decarboxylated to agmatine, thereby consuming one proton from the cytoplasm. In Escherichia coli, the l-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC facilitates the export of agmatine in exchange of l-arginine, thus providing substrates for further removal of protons from the cytoplasm and balancing the intracellular pH...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ursel Heudorf, Sabine Albert-Braun, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld, Franz-Ulrich Birne, Jörg Schulze, Klaus Strobel, Knut Petscheleit, Volkhard A J Kempf, Christian Brandt
INTRODUCTION: The refugee crisis is a great challenge to the social and healthcare system in European countries, especially in Germany. An abundance of data has been published on the refugees' health problems (infections as well as physical diseases and psychiatric problems) and their prevention (i.e., sanitary and vaccination programs). However, data on prevalences of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in refugees are scarce, although it is known that most refugees are from or travelled through countries with high prevalences of MDRO...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Guillermo E Marcial, Carla L Gerez, Martha Nuñez de Kairuz, Victoria Coll Araoz, Carola Schuff, Graciela Font de Valdez
The aim of this work is to study the oregano essential oil (OEO) composition from Northwestern Argentinean regions and to evaluate its effect on the lactic starter cultures. The oregano used, Origanum vulgare var hirtum, was obtained from Andalgalá, Catamarca. The essential oil presented high amounts of α-terpinene (10%), γ-terpinene (15.1%), terpinen-4-ol (15.5%) and thymol (13.0%) as the main components. No negative effect on growth or metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 728 and CRL 813, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp...
July 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Caroline Pandin, Martine Caroff, Guy Condemine
: Modification of teichoic acid through the incorporation of d-alanine confers resistance in Gram-positive bacteria to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This process involves the products of the dltXABCD genes. These genes are widespread in Gram-positive bacteria, and they are also found in a few Gram-negative bacteria. Notably, these genes are present in all soft-rot enterobacteria (Pectobacterium and Dickeya) whose dltDXBAC operons have been sequenced. We studied the function and regulation of these genes in Dickeya dadantii dltB expression was induced in the presence of the AMP polymyxin...
November 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Appiah-Korang Labi, Naa Okaikor Addison, Juliana Ewuramma Mbiriba Labi, Georgina Awuah-Mensah
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are life-threatening emergencies. Identification of the common pathogens and their susceptibility patterns is necessary for timely empirical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a 4-year retrospective analysis of blood cultures from all patients excluding neonates at the Korle-Bu Teaching hospital, Ghana, from January 2010 through December 2013. Laboratory report data were used to determine BSI, blood culture contamination, pathogen profile, and antimicrobial resistance patterns...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Mohamed Ben Moussa, Mehdi Khalfallah, Ilhem Boutiba Ben Boubaker, Ramzi Nouira, Amine Slim, Hichem Jerraya, Chadli Dziri
BACKGROUND: Identifying the infecting bacterial flora is one of the main rules to be followed to ensure the success of antibiotherapy in the treatment of the infected diabetic foot. The aim of the work was to define the bacteriological profile of the bacteria causing the infection of the diabetic foot at the surgery unit B of Charles Nicolle's hospital in Tunis and determine the prognostic factors of this condition. METHODS: It was an open prospective study. It concerned 100 diabetic patients operated on for diabetic foot infection...
February 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Daniela Paganini, Mary A Uyoga, Michael B Zimmermann
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common among infants and children in Sub-Saharan Africa and is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, as well as a hindrance to national development. In-home iron fortification of complementary foods using micronutrient powders (MNPs) effectively reduces the risk for IDA by ensuring that the iron needs of infants and young children are met without changing their traditional diet. However, the iron dose delivered by MNPs is high, and comparable on a mg iron per kg body weight to the supplemental doses (2 mg/kg) typically given to older children, which increases diarrhea risk...
2016: Nutrients
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