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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444985/membrane-traffic-control-by-hypoxia
#1
EDITORIAL
Joachim Fandrey
Cells and tissues have to adapt to adverse changes in their environment to survive and continue to function. The lack of oxygen, hypoxia, is one of the fundamental challenges to which cells need to respond in a coordinate manner. In this issue of Acta Physiologica Wottawa et al.(1) studied hypoxia induced membrane trafficking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442598/ethylene-regulates-differential-growth-via-big-arf-gef-dependent-post-golgi-secretory-trafficking-in-arabidopsis
#2
Kristoffer Jonsson, Yohann Boutté, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Delphine Gendre, Rishikesh Bhalerao
During early seedling development, the shoot apical meristem is protected from damage as the seedling emerges from soil by the formation of apical hook. Hook formation requires differential growth across the epidermis below the meristem in the hypocotyl. The plant hormones ethylene and auxin play key roles during apical hook development by controlling differential growth. We provide genetic and cell biological evidence for the role of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1)-GTPase and its effector ARF-guanine-exchange factors (GEF)s of the BFA-inhibited GEF (BIG) family and GNOM in ethylene- and auxin-mediated control of hook development...
April 24, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442548/keratin-8-18-regulation-of-insulin-receptor-signaling-and-trafficking-in-hepatocytes-through-a-concerted-phosphoinositide-dependent-akt-and-rab5-modulation
#3
Alexandra Roux, Anne Loranger, Josée N Lavoie, Normand Marceau
Keratins (Ks) are epithelial cell intermediate filament (IF) proteins that are expressed as pairs in a differentiation-regulated manner. Hepatocyte IFs are made only of K8/K18 pairs, which means that a K8 loss in K8-null mice leads to degradation of K18. Functionally, there is accumulating evidence that IFs contribute to signaling platforms. Here, we investigate the role of K8/K18 IFs in the regulation of insulin receptor (IR) signaling and trafficking in hepatocytes. We find that the IR substrate 1 (IRS1)/PI3K/Akt signaling cascade-downstream of IR-display prolonged activation in K8-null compared with wild-type hepatocytes...
April 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442431/reducing-isoform-complexity-of-human-tetraspanins-by-optimized-expression-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-enables-high-throughput-functional-read-out
#4
Tineke Scheltz, Julia von Bülow, Eric Beitz
The human tetraspanin family of scaffold proteins comprises 33 isoforms. Being integral membrane proteins, they organize a so-called tetraspanin web via homomeric and heteromeric protein-protein interactions with integrins, immunoglobulins, growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases, proteases, signaling proteins, and viral capsid proteins. Tetraspanins promote cellular effects, such as adhesion, migration, invasion, signaling, membrane fusion, protein trafficking, cancer progression, and infections. The ubiquitous expression of multiple tetraspanin isoforms and partner proteins hampers specific interaction studies...
April 22, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442379/peripheral-membrane-associations-of-matrix-metalloproteinases
#5
REVIEW
Steven R Van Doren, Tara C Marcink, Rama K Koppisetti, Alexander Jurkevich, Yan G Fulcher
Water soluble matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been regarded as diffusing freely in the extracellular matrix. Yet multiple MMPs are also observed at cell surfaces. Their membrane-proximal activities include sheddase activities, collagenolysis, bacterial killing, and intracellular trafficking reaching as far as the nucleus. The catalytic domains of MMP-7 and MMP-12 bind bilayers peripherally, each in two different orientations, by presenting positive charges and a few hydrophobic groups to the surface. Related peripheral membrane associations are predicted for other soluble MMPs...
April 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441569/the-cytoskeleton-autophagy-connection
#6
REVIEW
David J Kast, Roberto Dominguez
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by which cellular waste is isolated inside specialized vesicles called autophagosomes for recycling and degradation. Branched actin polymerization is necessary for the biogenesis of autophagosomes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441135/proteomic-mapping-of-cytosol-facing-outer-mitochondrial-and-er-membranes-in-living-human-cells-by-proximity-biotinylation
#7
Victoria Hung, Stephanie S Lam, Namrata D Udeshi, Tanya Svinkina, Gaelen Guzman, Vamsi K Mootha, Steven A Carr, Alice Y Ting
The cytosol-facing membranes of cellular organelles contain proteins that enable signal transduction, regulation of morphology and trafficking, protein import and export, and other specialized processes. Discovery of these proteins by traditional biochemical fractionation can be plagued with contaminants and loss of key components. Using peroxidase-mediated proximity biotinylation, we captured and identified endogenous proteins on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and endoplasmic reticulum membrane (ERM) of living human fibroblasts...
April 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439239/development-of-automated-patch-clamp-technique-to-investigate-cftr-chloride-channel-function
#8
Arnaud Billet, Lionel Froux, John W Hanrahan, Frederic Becq
The chloride (Cl(-)) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), and mutation of its encoding gene leads to various defects such as retention of the misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, reduced stability at the plasma membrane, abnormal channel gating with low open probability, and thermal instability, which leads to inactivation of the channel at physiological temperature. Pharmacotherapy is one major therapeutic approach in the CF field and needs sensible and fast tools to identify promising compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436498/integrative-meta-modeling-identifies-endocytic-vesicles-late-endosome-and-the-nucleus-as-the-cellular-compartments-primarily-directing-rtk-signaling
#9
Jared C Weddell, Princess I Imoukhuede
Recently, intracellular receptor signaling has been identified as a key component mediating cell responses for various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). However, the extent each endocytic compartment (endocytic vesicle, early endosome, recycling endosome, late endosome, lysosome and nucleus) contributes to receptor signaling has not been quantified. Furthermore, our understanding of endocytosis and receptor signaling is complicated by cell- or receptor-specific endocytosis mechanisms. Therefore, towards understanding the differential endocytic compartment signaling roles, and identifying how to achieve signal transduction control for RTKs, we delineate how endocytosis regulates RTK signaling...
April 24, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434950/an-arabidopsis-lipid-flippase-is-required-for-timely-recruitment-of-defenses-to-the-host-pathogen-interface-at-the-plant-cell-surface
#10
William Underwood, Andrew Ryan, Shauna C Somerville
Deposition of cell wall-reinforcing papillae is an integral component of the plant immune response. The Arabidopsis PENETRATION 3 (PEN3) ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter plays a role in defense against numerous pathogens and is recruited to sites of pathogen detection where it accumulates within papillae. However, the trafficking pathways and regulatory mechanisms contributing to recruitment of PEN3 and other defenses to the host-pathogen interface are poorly understood. Here, we report a confocal microscopy-based screen to identify mutants with altered localization of PEN3-GFP after inoculation with powdery mildew fungi...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433686/mitochatting-if-only-we-could-be-a-fly-on-the-cell-wall
#11
REVIEW
Michal Eisenberg-Bord, Maya Schuldiner
Mitochondria, cellular metabolic hubs, perform many essential processes and are required for the production of metabolites such as ATP, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, amino acids and nucleotides. To fulfill their multiple roles, mitochondria must communicate with all other organelles to exchange small molecules, ions and lipids. Since mitochondria are largely excluded from vesicular trafficking routes, they heavily rely on membrane contact sites. Contact sites are areas of close proximity between organelles that allow efficient transfer of molecules, saving the need for slow and untargeted diffusion through the cytosol...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433559/the-kcnh2-ivs9-28a-g-mutation-causes-aberrant-isoform-expression-and-herg-trafficking-defect-in-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-patients-affected-by-long-qt-syndrome-type-2
#12
Manuela Mura, Ashish Mehta, Chrishan J Ramachandra, Rita Zappatore, Federica Pisano, Maria Chiara Ciuffreda, Vincenzo Barbaccia, Lia Crotti, Peter J Schwartz, Winston Shim, Massimiliano Gnecchi
BACKGROUND: Long QT Syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is caused by mutations in the KCNH2 gene that encodes for the α-subunit (hERG) of the ion channel conducting the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). We have previously identified a disease causing mutation (IVS9-28A/G) in the branch point of the splicing of KCNH2 intron 9. However, the mechanism through which this mutation causes the disease is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from fibroblasts of two IVS9-28A/G mutation carriers...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432921/gates-for-soluble-and-membrane-proteins-and-two-trafficking-systems-ift-and-lift-establish-a-dynamic-ciliary-signaling-compartment
#13
REVIEW
Victor L Jensen, Michel R Leroux
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles found on most mammalian cell surfaces. They possess a soluble matrix and membrane contiguous with the cell body cytosol and plasma membrane, and yet, have distinct compositions that can be modulated to enable dynamic signal transduction. Here, we discuss how specialized ciliary compartments are established using a coordinated network of gating, trafficking and targeting activities. Cilium homeostasis is maintained by a size-selective molecular mesh that limits soluble protein entry, and by a membrane diffusion barrier localized at the transition zone...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432021/the-er-phagosome-connection-in-the-era-of-membrane-contact-sites
#14
REVIEW
Paula Nunes-Hasler, Nicolas Demaurex
Phagocytosis is an essential mechanism through which innate immune cells ingest foreign material that is either destroyed or used to generate and present antigens and initiate adaptive immune responses. While a role for the ER during phagosome biogenesis has been recognized, whether fusion with ER cisternae or vesicular derivatives occurs has been the source of much contention. Membrane contact sites (MCS) are tight appositions between ER membranes and various organelles that coordinate multiple functions including localized signalling, lipid transfer and trafficking...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430987/rab32-subfamily-small-gtpases-pleiotropic-rabs-in-endosomal-trafficking
#15
Norihiko Ohbayashi, Mitsunori Fukuda, Yasunori Kanaho
Rab small GTPases, well-known regulators of membrane trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, comprise approximately 60 different members in mammals. During the past decade, our understanding of the functions of mammalian Rab32 subfamily members (Rab32 and Rab38) have deepened, especially on the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, such as melanosomes, and the protection mechanisms against several pathogenic microbial infections. Endosome-mediated membrane trafficking by Rab32 subfamily members plays pivotal roles in these events...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428548/antiviral-activities-of-schizonepeta-tenuifolia-briq-against-enterovirus-71-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Sin-Guang Chen, Mei-Ling Cheng, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jim-Tong Horng, Ching-Chuan Liu, Shih-Min Wang, Hiroaki Sakurai, Yann-Lii Leu, Shulhn-Der Wang, Hung-Yao Ho
No effective drug is currently available for treatment of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. (ST) has been used as a herbal constituent of traditional Chinese medicine. We studied whether the aqueous extract of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq (STE) has antiviral activity. STE inhibited replication of EV71, as evident by its ability to diminish plaque formation and cytopathic effect induced by EV71, and to inhibit the synthesis of viral RNA and protein. Moreover, daily single-dose STE treatment significantly improved the survival of EV71-infected mice, and ameliorated the symptoms...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426288/post-translational-modifications-of-rab-gtpases
#17
Swapnil Rohidas Shinde, Subbareddy Maddika
Rab GTPases, the highly conserved members of Ras GTPase superfamily are central players in the vesicular trafficking. They are critically involved in intracellular trafficking pathway, beginning from formation of vesicles on donor membranes, defining trafficking specificity to facilitating vesicle docking on target membranes. Given the dynamic roles of Rabs during different stages of vesicular trafficking, mechanisms for their spatial and temporal regulation are crucial for normal cellular function. Regulation of Rab GTPase activity, localization and function has always been focused in and around the association of GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI), Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEFs) and GTPase accelerating protein (GAP) to Rabs...
February 28, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424571/metabolic-vulnerability-in-the-neurodegenerative-disease-glaucoma
#18
REVIEW
Denise M Inman, Mohammad Harun-Or-Rashid
Axons can be several orders of magnitude longer than neural somas, presenting logistical difficulties in cargo trafficking and structural maintenance. Keeping the axon compartment well supplied with energy also presents a considerable challenge; even seemingly subtle modifications of metabolism can result in functional deficits and degeneration. Axons require a great deal of energy, up to 70% of all energy used by a neuron, just to maintain the resting membrane potential. Axonal energy, in the form of ATP, is generated primarily through oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424321/the-drosophila-zo-1-protein-polychaetoid-suppresses-deltex-regulated-notch-activity-to-modulate-germline-stem-cell-niche-formation
#19
Hideyuki Shimizu, Marian B Wilkin, Simon A Woodcock, Alessandro Bonfini, Yvonne Hung, Sabine Mazaleyrat, Martin Baron
The developmental signalling protein Notch can be proteolytically activated following ligand-interaction at the cell surface, or can be activated independently of its ligands, following Deltex (Dx)-induced Notch endocytosis and trafficking to the lysosomal membrane. The means by which different pools of Notch are directed towards these alternative outcomes remains poorly understood. We found that the Drosophila ZO-1 protein Polychaetoid (Pyd) suppresses specifically the Dx-induced form of Notch activation both in vivo and in cell culture assays...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422978/the-escrt-regulator-did2-maintains-the-balance-between-long-distance-endosomal-transport-and-endocytic-trafficking
#20
Carl Haag, Thomas Pohlmann, Michael Feldbrügge
In highly polarised cells, like fungal hyphae, early endosomes function in both endocytosis as well as long-distance transport of various cargo including mRNA and protein complexes. However, knowledge on the crosstalk between these seemingly different trafficking processes is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates endosomal transport in fungal hyphae of Ustilago maydis. Loss of Did2 results in defective vacuolar targeting, less processive long-distance transport and abnormal shuttling of early endosomes...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
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