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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454157/nanofibrous-plga-electrospun-scaffolds-modified-with-type-i-collagen-influence-hepatocyte-function-and-support-viability-in-vitro
#1
Jessica H Brown, Prativa Das, Michael D DiVito, David Ivancic, Lay Poh Tan, Jason A Wertheim
A major challenge of maintaining primary hepatocytes in vitro is progressive loss of hepatocyte-specific functions, such as protein synthesis and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) catalytic activity. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffold made from poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using a newlyoptimizedwet electrospinning techniquethat resulted in a highly porous structure that accommodated inclusion of primary human hepatocytes. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (type I collagen or fibronectin) at varying concentrations were chemically linked to electrospun PLGA using amine coupling to develop an in vitro culture system containing the minimal essential ECM components of the liver micro-environment that preserve hepatocyte function in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454141/a-cluster-randomized-pilot-trial-of-a-tailored-worksite-smoking-cessation-intervention-targeting-hispanic-latino-construction-workers-intervention-development-and-research-design
#2
Taghrid Asfar, Alberto J Caban-Martinez, Laura A McClure, Estefania C Ruano-Herreria, Danielle Sierra, G Gilford Clark, Daniel Samano, Noella A Dietz, Kenneth D Ward, Kristopher L Arheart, David J Lee
Construction workers have the highest smoking rate among all occupations (39%). Hispanic/Latino workers constitute a large and increasing group in the US construction industry (over 2.6 million; 23% of all workers). These minority workers have lower cessation rates compared to other groups due to their limited access to cessation services, and lack of smoking cessation interventions adapted to their culture and work/life circumstances. Formative research was conducted to create an intervention targeting Hispanic/Latino construction workers...
February 14, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453964/conidiogenesis-related-dna-photolyase-gene-in-beauveria-bassiana
#3
Se Jin Lee, Mi Rong Lee, Sihyeon Kim, Jong Cheol Kim, So Eun Park, Tae Young Shin, Jae Su Kim
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungi used in environmentally mindful pest management. Its main active ingredient, conidia, is commercially available as a fungal biopesticide. Many studies of conidia production have focused on how to optimize culture conditions for maximum productivity and stability against unfavorable abiotic factors. However, understanding of how conidiogenesis-related genes provide improved conidial production remains unclear. In this study, we focus on identifying conidiogenesis-related genes in B...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453733/egfp-transgene-a-useful-tool-to-track-transplanted-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-contribution-to-peripheral-remyelination
#4
Gonzalo Piñero, Vanina Usach, Paula A Soto, Paula V Monje, Patricia Setton-Avruj
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) constitute a heterogeneous population with potential to promote tissue regeneration. For this reason, this cell fraction has recently become a therapeutic alternative to mesenchymal stem cells, as culture is not required and phenotypic transformations can be hence avoided. In this work, and in order to attain long-lasting cell labeling and study longer survival times, we used BMMC isolated from adult transgenic rats expressing GFP to reproduce our wild type model and evaluate their remyelination ability in a reversible model of Wallerian degeneration...
February 16, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453688/rapid-optimization-of-spore-production-from-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-in-submerged-cultures-based-on-dipicolinic-acid-fluorimetry-assay
#5
Hang Ren, Ya-Ting Su, Xiao-Hua Guo
Some optimization techniques have been widely applied for spore fermentation based on the plate counting. This study optimized the culture medium for the spore production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS-20 and investigated the feasibility of using a dipicolonic acid (DPA) fluorimetry assay as a simpler alternative to plate counting for evaluating spore yields. Through the single-factor experiment, the metal ions and agro-industrial raw materials that significantly enhanced spore production were determined...
February 16, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453614/screening-of-isochrysis-strains-and-utilization-of-a-two-stage-outdoor-cultivation-strategy-for-algal-biomass-and-lipid-production
#6
Zheng Sun, Hehong Wei, Zhi-Gang Zhou, Muthupandian Ashokkumar, Jin Liu
Isochrysis is a genus of marine algae without cell wall and capable of accumulating lipids. In this study, the lipid production potential of Isochrysis was assessed by comparing 15 Isochrysis strains with respect to their growth rate, lipid production, and fatty acid profiles. Three best strains were selected (lipid productivity, 103.0~121.7 mg L -1 day -1 ) and their lipid-producing capacities were further examined under different controlled parameters, e.g., growth phase, medium nutrient, and light intensity in laboratory cultures...
February 17, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453273/evolution-of-a-holistic-systems-approach-to-planning-and-managing-road-safety-the-victorian-case-study-1970-2015
#7
Carlyn Muir, Ian R Johnston, Eric Howard
BACKGROUND: The Victorian Safe System approach to road safety slowly evolved from a combination of the Swedish Vision Zero philosophy and the Sustainable Safety model developed by the Dutch. The Safe System approach reframes the way in which road safety is viewed and managed. METHODS: This paper presents a case study of the institutional change required to underpin the transformation to a holistic approach to planning and managing road safety in Victoria, Australia...
February 16, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453260/a-new-cell-extraction-method-reveals-hemolymph-microbiome-of-three-aquatic-invertebrates
#8
Xinxu Zhang, Zaiqiao Sun, Xusheng Zhang, Ming Zhang, Shengkang Li
Symbiotic microorganisms have been found in the hemolymph (blood) of many aquatic invertebrates, such as crabs, shrimps and oysters. Hemolymph is a critical site in host immune response. Currently, studies on hemolymph microorganisms are mostly performed with culture-dependent strategies using selective media (e.g., TCBS, 2216E, and LB) for enumerating and isolating microbial cells. However, doubts remain about the "true" representation of the microbial abundance and diversity of symbiotic microorganisms in hemolymph, particularly for uncultivable microorganisms which are believed to be more abundant than the cultured...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453156/approaching-the-experience-of-people-through-the-process-of-a-colostomy
#9
Raquel Palomero-Rubio, Azucena Pedraz-Marcos, Ana María Palmar-Santos
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to explore the experience of people who go through the process of a colostomy. METHOD: Methodological approach of qualitative type and with a phenomenological framework, through in-depth interviews. Six women and 12 men, between 38 and 86 years of age, were interviewed before and after surgery, between 3 and 6 months after the intervention. The discourses were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed following the 3 stages of Taylor and Bogdan: finding in progress, data coding and refinement of the understanding of the subject of study, and relativisation of the findings...
February 13, 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452364/4-phenylbutyrate-suppresses-the-unfolded-protein-response-without-restoring-protein-folding-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Chi Thanh Mai, Quynh Giang Le, Yuki Ishiwata-Kimata, Hiroshi Takagi, Kenji Kohno, Yukio Kimata
Accumulation of unfolded secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), namely ER stress, is hazardous to eukaryotic cells and promotes the unfolded protein response (UPR). Ire1 is an ER-located transmembrane protein that senses ER stress and triggers the UPR. According to previous in vitro experiments, 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) works as a chemical molecular chaperone. Since 4-PBA attenuates the UPR in mammalian tissue cultures, this chemical may have clinical potential for restoring ER-stressing conditions...
February 14, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452233/role-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-differentiated-into-insulin-producing-cells-in-the-treatment-of-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Mona G Amer, Azza S Embaby, Rehab A Karam, Marwa G Amer
Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas...
February 13, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452119/mirs-103-107-regulate-autophagy-in-the-epidermis
#12
Sijia Wang, Aya Kobeissi, Ying Dong, Nihal Kaplan, Wending Yang, Congcong He, Kang Zeng, Han Peng
We have shown that microRNAs-103 and -107(miRs-103/107) positively regulate end-stage autophagy via ensuring dynamin activity in cultured keratinocytes. Most work in end-stage autophagy has been conducted using in vitro model systems. In vivo regulation of end-stage autophagy in epidermis remains unknown. Here, we used antagomirs to subcutaneously knock-down miR-107 in the skin; conversely, we delivered miR-107 mimic subcutaneously via in vivo transfection to increase this miRNA. We found that antagomir-107 treatment in epidermis: (i) depleted endogenous miR-107; (ii) increased GFP-LC3 puncta in epidermal basal layers of GFP-LC3 transgenic mice, indicative of an accumulation of autophagosomes; (iii) inhibited LC3 turnover and increased p62, suggesting an inhibition of autophagy flux; and (iv) increased phosphorylated dynamin (p-dynamin, an inactive form), a key enzyme in end-stage autophagy...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451335/mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-against-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-damage-by-enhancing-autophagy-through-bdnf-mtor-signaling-pathway
#13
Zhen Zheng, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Guoguang Xiao, Shiping Li, Shan Bao, Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious disease for neonates. However, present therapeutic strategies are not effective enough for treating HIE. Previous study showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exert neuroprotective effects for brain damage, but its mechanism remains elusive. Using in-vitro co-culture of rat cortical primary neurons and MSCs in HI conditions, we demonstrated that MSCs help increase BDNF and autophagy markers (LC3II and Beclin1) in the cultures and decrease cells death (LDH levels)...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450951/studies-on-lead-and-cadmium-toxicity-in-dianthus-carthusianorum-calamine-ecotype-cultivated-in-vitro
#14
Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Krystyna Ciarkowska
The approach based on metallophytes during reclamation of grounds contaminated with heavy metals is still sparse. Thus, we investigated the response of D. carthusianorum calamine ecotype to Pb and Cd stress. We focused on in vitro selection of tolerant plant material appropriated to direct use on chemically degraded areas. Shoot cultures were treated with various concentration of Pb or Cd ions. Plantlets status was estimated on the basis of micropropagation efficiency, growth tolerance index (GTI) and physiological analysis...
February 16, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450795/ethics-and-confidentiality-for-psychologists-in-academic-health-centers
#15
Kathleen Ashton, Amy Sullivan
Psychologists in academic health centers (AHC) face important ethical issues including confidentiality when working with a multidisciplinary team, sharing of information through the electronic health record, obtaining informed consent in a fast-paced healthcare environment, cultural competency in the medical setting, and issues related to supervision and training. The goal of this paper is to describe ethical issues for psychologists in AHCs in the context of case examples, and to consider ethical decision-making tools to enhance clinical care...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450196/recruitment-and-lessons-learned-from-a-community-based-intervention-program-the-learning-families-project-in-hong-kong
#16
Joanna T W Chu, Alice Wan, Sunita M Stewart, Kwok Tung Ng, Tai Hing Lam, Sophia S Chan
Background: Recruitment is central to any research project, and recruitment itself should be well documented and researched. We describe our recruitment efforts for a community-based research project-entitled the Learning Families Project-conducted in Hong Kong. Methods: In collaboration with community stakeholders, residents from a public housing estate were recruited to participate in family programs aimed at enhancing family well-being. Various recruitment strategies were employed including the distribution of 19,200 leaflets, 688 posters, a banner, a kick-off ceremony, 10 promotion activities, 1,000 direct calls, word of mouth, 51 mobile counters, and 10 door-to-door visits...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449939/innovative-approaches-to-genome-editing-in-avian-species
#17
REVIEW
Caitlin A Cooper, Timothy J Doran, Arjun Challagulla, Mark L V Tizard, Kristie A Jenkins
The tools available for genome engineering have significantly improved over the last 5 years, allowing scientist to make precise edits to the genome. Along with the development of these new genome editing tools has come advancements in technologies used to deliver them. In mammals genome engineering tools are typically delivered into in vitro fertilized single cell embryos which are subsequently cultured and then implanted into a recipient animal. In avian species this is not possible, so other methods have been developed for genome engineering in birds...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449785/a-systematic-review-of-burnout-among-doctors-in-china-a-cultural-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Dana Lo, Florence Wu, Mark Chan, Rodney Chu, Donald Li
Background: Numerous studies around the world has already suggested that burnout among doctors is a global phenomenon. However, studies for burnout in doctors are relatively limited in Chinese communities when compared to the West. As risk factors, barriers to intervention and strategies combatting burnout in different parts of the world can vary a lot due to different social culture and healthcare system, study with a focus at doctors in China from a cultural perspective is a worthful endeavor...
2018: Asia Pacific Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449326/fatty-acid-synthase-mediates-egfr-palmitoylation-in-egfr-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Azhar Ali, Elena Levantini, Jun Ting Teo, Julian Goggi, John G Clohessy, Chan Shuo Wu, Leilei Chen, Henry Yang, Indira Krishnan, Olivier Kocher, Junyan Zhang, Ross A Soo, Kishore Bhakoo, Tan Min Chin, Daniel G Tenen
Metabolic reprogramming is widely known as a hallmark of cancer cells to allow adaptation of cells to sustain survival signals. In this report, we describe a novel oncogenic signaling pathway exclusively acting in mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. Mutated EGFR mediates TKI resistance through regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FASN), which produces 16-C saturated fatty acid palmitate. Our work shows that the persistent signaling by mutated EGFR in TKI-resistant tumor cells relies on EGFR palmitoylation and can be targeted by Orlistat, an FDA-approved anti-obesity drug...
February 15, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448958/antigenic-and-functional-profiles-of-a-lawsonia-intracellularis-protein-that-shows-a-flagellin-like-trait-and-its-immuno-stimulatory-assessment
#20
Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
The obligate intracellular Lawsonia intracellularis (LI), the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), is an economically important disease in the swine industry. Due to extreme difficulty of in vitro culture of the pathogen, molecular characterization of protein components of LI that are targets of the immune system, is difficult; thus, the scientific evidence to drive the development of preventive measures is lacking. In this work, we investigated the antigenic and functional characteristics of a putative flagellar-associated protein, LI0570, using in silico computational approaches for epitope prediction and an in vitro protein-based molecular assay...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
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