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Motor intentional disorders

Giovanni Berlucchi, Giuseppe Vallar
The development and change of knowledge on the function of the parietal lobe from the second half of the 19th century to the early 1970s are reviewed. Motor and somatosensory functions were initially localized in a broad frontoparietal region. At the beginning of the 20th century the motor cortex was restricted to the posterior frontal lobe. The separate attribution of somatosensory functions to the parietal lobe was initially based on anatomic considerations, but mostly on localized bodily sensations elicited by electric stimulation in awake patients...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
O Giotakos
A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Rayyan Azam Khan, Noman Naseer, Nauman Khalid Qureshi, Farzan Majeed Noori, Hammad Nazeer, Muhammad Umer Khan
BACKGROUND: In this paper, a novel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) framework for control of prosthetic legs and rehabilitation of patients suffering from locomotive disorders is presented. METHODS: fNIRS signals are used to initiate and stop the gait cycle, while a nonlinear proportional derivative computed torque controller (PD-CTC) with gravity compensation is used to control the torques of hip and knee joints for minimization of position error...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Jing Shi, Jinzhou Tian, Ting Li, Bin Qin, Dongsheng Fan, Jingnian Ni, Mingqing Wei, Xuekai Zhang, Na Liu, Jianping Liu, Yumeng Li, Weiwei Liu, Yongyan Wang
BACKGROUND: As a multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder, Parkinson disease (PD) has a broad spectrum of symptoms including motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS). As shown in studies, NMS can also impact patient's quality of life, and many of them often go untreated. Chinese herbal medicines with multiconstituent may alleviate NMS in PD patients. This research is carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal formula for NMS, with its Chinese name acronym of SQJZ. METHODS/DESIGN: It will be a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vijaykumar Rajasekaran, Eduardo López-Larraz, Fernando Trincado-Alonso, Joan Aranda, Luis Montesano, Antonio J Del-Ama, Jose L Pons
BACKGROUND: Gait training for individuals with neurological disorders is challenging in providing the suitable assistance and more adaptive behaviour towards user needs. The user specific adaptation can be defined based on the user interaction with the orthosis and by monitoring the user intentions. In this paper, an adaptive control model, commanded by the user intention, is evaluated using a lower limb exoskeleton with incomplete spinal cord injury individuals (SCI). METHODS: A user intention based adaptive control model has been developed and evaluated with 4 incomplete SCI individuals across 3 sessions of training per individual...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Douglas J Lanska
In the late 19th century, jumping (French Canadians in Maine, USA), miryachit (Siberia), and latah (Southeast Asia) were among a group of similar disorders described around the world, each of which manifests as an exaggerated startle response with additional late-response features that were felt by some to overlap with hysteria or tics. The later features following the exaggerated startle reaction variably include mimesis (e.g., echopraxia, echolalia) and automatic obedience. These reaction patterns tended to persist indefinitely in affected individuals...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Norm O'Rourke, Marnin J Heisel, Sarah L Canham, Andrew Sixsmith
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) carries the greatest risk of death by suicide of all psychiatric conditions as 25%-50% of those with BD will make one or more suicide attempt, and about 15% will intentionally end their lives. Among young adults with BD, substance misuse, medication non-adherence, age at onset, and comorbid psychiatric conditions each predict self-harm. It is currently unclear if these same factors or others predict suicide ideation among older adults with BD. METHODS: We recruited a global sample of 220 older adults with BD over 19 days using socio-demographically targeted, social media advertising and online data collection (Mean = 58...
2017: PloS One
Oluwarotimi Williams Samuel, Yanjuan Geng, Xiangxin Li, Guanglin Li
To control multiple degrees of freedom (MDoF) upper limb prostheses, pattern recognition (PR) of electromyogram (EMG) signals has been successfully applied. This technique requires amputees to provide sufficient EMG signals to decode their limb movement intentions (LMIs). However, amputees with neuromuscular disorder/high level amputation often cannot provide sufficient EMG control signals, and thus the applicability of the EMG-PR technique is limited especially to this category of amputees. As an alternative approach, electroencephalograph (EEG) signals recorded non-invasively from the brain have been utilized to decode the LMIs of humans...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
A G Alekseev, A A Pichugin, V I Danilov
OBJECTIVE: to analyze 31 resections of chiasmatic-sellar region (CSR) and anterior cranial fossa (ACF) tumors using the supraorbital trans-eyebrow approach (STA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed medical histories of 31 patients who underwent tumor resection using STA in the period between October 2013 and April 2017. We analyzed the age and gender of patients, size and location of the tumor, presence of a neurological deficit, vision and olfactory functions before and after surgery, surgery duration, amount of intraoperative blood loss, rate of frontal sinus trephination and nasal liquorrhea, hemorrhagic and ischemic complications after surgery, Simpson grade of tumor resection, patient's condition before and after surgery (Glasgow Outcome Scale and Karnofsky Scale), and degree of patient satisfaction with the cosmetic result of surgery...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Oluwarotimi Williams Samuel, Xiangxin Li, Yanjuan Geng, Pang Feng, Shixiong Chen, Guanglin Li
Surface electromyography pattern recognition methods have been widely applied to decode limb movement intentions for prosthesis control. These methods generally require amputees to provide sufficient myoelectric signals from their residual limb muscles. Previous studies have shown that amputees with high level amputation or neuromuscular disorder usually do not have sufficient residual limb muscles to provide enough myoelectric signals for accurate identification of limb movements. Electroencephalography (EEG), another bioelectric signal associated with limb movements has also been proposed and used for decoding the limb motion intents of humans...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Viviane Kostrubiec, Raoul Huys, Brunhilde Jas, Jeanne Kruck
Abnormal perceptual-motor coordination is hypothesized here to be involved in social deficits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To test this hypothesis, high functioning children with ASD and typical controls, similar in age as well as verbal and perceptive performance, performed perceptual-motor coordination tasks and several social competence tests. Spontaneous coordination, and intentionally required in-phase and anti-phase were examined. The oscillation kinematics, as well as the accuracy and stability of spontaneous coordination were similar in both groups...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Andrew McGarry, Kevin M Biglan
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant, progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by multiple movement disorders, psychiatric disturbances, and cognitive decline. As an insidious, progressive disorder, clinical phenoconversion in HD can be quite subtle and difficult to pinpoint. In light of this ambiguity, substantial interest has developed in HD research for biomarker identification, with the intent of establishing specific changes or "stages" of disease progression. Presumably, earlier stages of dysfunction offer greater chance for intervention or modification of disease mechanisms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Eva Battaglini, Belinda J Liddell, Pritha Das, Gin S Malhi, Kim Felmingham, Richard A Bryant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the prevalence of intrusive memories across psychological disorders, little is known about the neural networks that underpin this form of memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural circuits associated with the retrieval of intrusive memories. METHODS: Participants with moderate levels of anxiety (N = 30) underwent a cold pressor task to induce a physiological stress response, after which they viewed 10 neutral and 10 negative film clips...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Eduardo Lopez-Larraz, Carlos Bibian, Niels Birbaumer, Ander Ramos-Murguialday
Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) can be used to control robotic and prosthetic devices for rehabilitation of motor disorders, such as stroke. The calibration of these BMI systems is of paramount importance in order to establish a precise contingent link between the brain activity related to movement intention and the peripheral feedback. However, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, commonly used to build non-invasive BMIs, can be easily contaminated by artifacts of electrical or physiological origin. The way these interferences can affect the performance of movement intention decoders has not been deeply studied, especially when dealing with severely paralyzed patients, which often generate more artifacts by compensatory movements...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Dilan Athauda, Kate Maclagan, Simon S Skene, Martha Bajwa-Joseph, Dawn Letchford, Kashfia Chowdhury, Steve Hibbert, Natalia Budnik, Luca Zampedri, John Dickson, Yazhou Li, Iciar Aviles-Olmos, Thomas T Warner, Patricia Limousin, Andrew J Lees, Nigel H Greig, Susan Tebbs, Thomas Foltynie
BACKGROUND: Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has neuroprotective effects in preclinical models of Parkinson's disease. We investigated whether these effects would be apparent in a clinical trial. METHODS: In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with moderate Parkinson's disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous injections of exenatide 2 mg or placebo once weekly for 48 weeks in addition to their regular medication, followed by a 12-week washout period...
October 7, 2017: Lancet
João Andrade, José Cecílio, Marco Simões, Francisco Sales, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the separability of the neural correlates of 2 types of motor imagery, self and third person (actions owned by the participant himself vs. another individual). If possible this would allow for the development of BCI interfaces to train disorders of action and intention understanding beyond simple imitation, such as autism. METHODS: We used EEG recordings from 20 healthy participants, as well as electrocorticography (ECoG) in one, based on a virtual reality setup...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
Hee Jin Kim, Dongyeop Kim, Da-Heen Won, Juhee Chin, Kwang Ho Lee, Sang Won Seo, Kenneth M Heilman, Duk L Na
Motor impersistence, an inability to sustain a certain position or movement, is a motor-intentional disorder, caused more often by right than left hemisphere lesions. Since the right hemisphere is dominant for mediating motor persistence, callosal lesions that disconnect the left hemisphere from the right may induce impersistence of the right upper and lower limbs. After an undiagnosed left callosal infarction, a 65-year-old right-handed man suddenly developed a transient loss of volitional movement of his left leg...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Jean Xavier, Julien Magnat, Alain Sherman, Soizic Gauthier, David Cohen, Laurence Chaby
Imitation plays a critical role in the development of intersubjectivity and serves as a prerequisite for understanding the emotions and intentions of others. In our review, we consider spontaneous motor imitation between children and their peers as a developmental process involving repetition and perspective-taking as well as flexibility and reciprocity. During childhood, this playful dynamic challenges developing visuospatial abilities and requires temporal coordination between partners. As such, we address synchrony as form of communication and social signal per se, that leads, from an experience of similarity, to the interconnection of minds...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Shahrzad Mazhari, Saeed Esmailian, Armita Shah-Esmaeili, Ali S Goughari, Azam Bazrafshan, Morteza Zare
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a chronic, disabling and severe mental disorder, characterised by disturbance in perception, thought, language, affect and motor behaviour. Chlorpromazine and clotiapine are among antipsychotic drugs used for the treatment of people with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects, safety and cost-effectiveness of chlorpromazine compared with clotiapine for adults with schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Schizophrenia's Trials Register (last update search 16/01/2016), which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, Embase, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and clinical trials registries...
April 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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